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Third Harmonic Generation: A Method For Visualizing Myelin In The Murine Cerebral Cortex, Michael Redlich 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Third Harmonic Generation: A Method For Visualizing Myelin In The Murine Cerebral Cortex, Michael Redlich

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Here we present the use of Third Harmonic Generation (THG) for the label-free imaging of myelinated axons in the murine cerebral cortex. Myelin plays an important role in the processes of learning and disease. However, much of the myelin biology research thus far has focused on white matter tracts where myelin is more visible. Much is still unknown, particularly with regard to myelin in gray matter. First, we engage in THG microscopy using an optical parametric oscillator pumped by a titanium-sapphire laser to demonstrate the utility of the technique for imaging myelin in vivo. Second, we investigate the use of ...


Glial Cell Dysfunction In C9orf72-Related Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis And Frontotemporal Dementia, Mehdi Ghasemi, Kiandokht Keyhanian, Catherine Douthwright 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Glial Cell Dysfunction In C9orf72-Related Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis And Frontotemporal Dementia, Mehdi Ghasemi, Kiandokht Keyhanian, Catherine Douthwright

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Since the discovery of the chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9orf72) repeat expansion mutation in 2011 as the most common genetic abnormality in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, also known as Lou Gehrig's disease) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), progress in understanding the signaling pathways related to this mutation can only be described as intriguing. Two major theories have been suggested-(i) loss of function or haploinsufficiency and (ii) toxic gain of function from either C9orf72 repeat RNA or dipeptide repeat proteins (DPRs) generated from repeat-associated non-ATG (RAN) translation. Each theory has provided various signaling pathways that potentially participate in ...


Behavioral Arrest And A Characteristic Slow Waveform Are Hallmark Responses To Selective 5-Ht2a Receptor Activation, April Contreras, Matthew Khumnark, Rochelle M. Hines, Dustin J. Hines 2021 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Behavioral Arrest And A Characteristic Slow Waveform Are Hallmark Responses To Selective 5-Ht2a Receptor Activation, April Contreras, Matthew Khumnark, Rochelle M. Hines, Dustin J. Hines

Psychology Faculty Publications

© 2021, The Author(s). Perception, emotion, and mood are powerfully modulated by serotonin receptor (5-HTR) agonists including hallucinogens. The 5-HT2AR subtype has been shown to be central to hallucinogen action, yet the precise mechanisms mediating the response to 5-HT2AR activation remain unclear. Hallucinogens induce the head twitch response (HTR) in rodents, which is the most commonly used behavioral readout of hallucinogen pharmacology. While the HTR provides a key behavioral signature, less is known about the meso level changes that are induced by 5-HT2AR activation. In response to administration of the potent and highly selective 5-HT2AR agonist 25I-NBOH in mice, we ...


Deletions In Cwh43 Cause Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus, Hong Wei Yang, Dejun Yang, Huijun Dai, Yan Zhang, Sijun Zhao, Shuo Zhang, Yan Ma, George Wang, Shaokuan Zheng, Rona S. Carroll, Mark D. Johnson 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Deletions In Cwh43 Cause Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus, Hong Wei Yang, Dejun Yang, Huijun Dai, Yan Zhang, Sijun Zhao, Shuo Zhang, Yan Ma, George Wang, Shaokuan Zheng, Rona S. Carroll, Mark D. Johnson

Radiology Publications

Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a neurological disorder that occurs in about 1% of individuals over age 60 and is characterized by enlarged cerebral ventricles, gait difficulty, incontinence, and cognitive decline. The cause and pathophysiology of iNPH are largely unknown. We performed whole exome sequencing of DNA obtained from 53 unrelated iNPH patients. Two recurrent heterozygous loss of function deletions in CWH43 were observed in 15% of iNPH patients and were significantly enriched 6.6-fold and 2.7-fold, respectively, when compared to the general population. Cwh43 modifies the lipid anchor of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins. Mice heterozygous for CWH43 deletion appeared ...


Genetic Analysis Of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Identifies Contributing Pathways And Cell Types, Sara Saez-Atienzar, John E. Landers 2021 National Institutes of Health

Genetic Analysis Of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Identifies Contributing Pathways And Cell Types, Sara Saez-Atienzar, John E. Landers

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Despite the considerable progress in unraveling the genetic causes of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we do not fully understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the disease. We analyzed genome-wide data involving 78,500 individuals using a polygenic risk score approach to identify the biological pathways and cell types involved in ALS. This data-driven approach identified multiple aspects of the biology underlying the disease that resolved into broader themes, namely, neuron projection morphogenesis, membrane trafficking, and signal transduction mediated by ribonucleotides. We also found that genomic risk in ALS maps consistently to GABAergic interneurons and oligodendrocytes, as confirmed in human single-nucleus RNA-seq ...


The Effects Of Rolipram, A Selective Phosphodiesterase Inhibitor, On Immortalized Schwann Cell Proliferation, Akap95 And Cyclin D3 Expression, Kyle P. Kenney, Mary Pistack, Angela Asirvatham 2021 Misericordia University

The Effects Of Rolipram, A Selective Phosphodiesterase Inhibitor, On Immortalized Schwann Cell Proliferation, Akap95 And Cyclin D3 Expression, Kyle P. Kenney, Mary Pistack, Angela Asirvatham

Student Research Poster Presentations 2021

Schwann cells are a vital component of the Peripheral Nervous System and aid in the repair of axons following injury. The regulation of Schwann cell growth in vitro is facilitated by heregulin, a neuron-secreted growth factor, and an unknown mitogen that activates the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) pathway. The abundance of intracellular cAMP is regulated by a family of enzymes called phosphodiesterases (PDEs). PDE inhibitors such as rolipram have therapeutic potential in various disorders and function by increasing the levels of intracellular cAMP. A-Kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs), a family of scaffolding proteins that belong to the cAMP/Protein Kinase A ...


Opioid Use Disorder: The Timeline For Medication Assisted Therapy, Alexander Cristofori 2021 Arcadia University

Opioid Use Disorder: The Timeline For Medication Assisted Therapy, Alexander Cristofori

Capstone Showcase

Opioid Use Disorder is patterns of opioid use leading to withdrawal, giving up important life events in order to use opioids, and excessive time spent using opioids, to name a few diagnostic criteria. The clinical progression of the disorder involves periods of acute exacerbation and remission that are cyclic in nature. Treatment is most effective when it includes both pharmacological and psychosocial modalities, referred to as medication assisted therapy (MAT). Three drugs used commonly in MAT-based treatment for OUD from oldest to newest include Methadone, Buprenorphine-naloxone, and Naltrexone. Treatment program models that prioritize total abstinence from the addictive substance attached ...


Neuroglobin And Its Role In The Recovery Of Neuronal Cells In Hypoxic Conditions Using Hypoxia Inducible Factor– 1, Riya Shah 2021 University of Central Florida

Neuroglobin And Its Role In The Recovery Of Neuronal Cells In Hypoxic Conditions Using Hypoxia Inducible Factor– 1, Riya Shah

Honors Undergraduate Theses

Stroke is the world's leading cause of adult disability, caused by lack of oxygen and nutrients to the brain due to a blood clot in a major artery. This leads to ischemic damage of neuronal cells that leads to paralysis, motor, and speech deficits. While most stroke therapies aim at removing or reducing the blood clots in the brain, few treatments target cell damage. Neuroglobin (NGB) is a protein in the brain that is able to aid in neuroprotection following oxidative stress. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that serves as a marker for cell recovery after hypoxia ...


Mitochondrial Aspects Of Neuronal Pathology In Triple-Transgenic Alzheimer’S Disease Mice, John Zachary Cavendish 2021 West Virginia University

Mitochondrial Aspects Of Neuronal Pathology In Triple-Transgenic Alzheimer’S Disease Mice, John Zachary Cavendish

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a fatal, progressive neurodegenerative disease afflicting millions of people in the United States alone and is the only one of the top leading causes of morbidity and mortality with no effective disease-modifying therapies. It is the most common form of dementia, affecting one in three people over the age of 85. While the hallmarks of the disease include accumulation of beta-amyloid-based extracellular plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau-based intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, treatment strategies centered on removing or mitigating these components of AD have all failed in humans. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been increasingly recognized as an early and ...


Genus Applications For Alzheimer's Disease Pathology, Whitney L Carter 2021 University of Louisville

Genus Applications For Alzheimer's Disease Pathology, Whitney L Carter

Undergraduate Arts and Research Showcase

Estimates vary, but it is thought that 5.5 million Americans age 60 and up may be living with Alzheimer’s diseases (AD). AD is the most common type of dementia and is characterized by a decline in episodic memories, long-term memory, language, attention, and personality changes. The first symptoms can vary, but for most people memory is the first capacity to become impaired. However, symptoms can also be a decline in non-memory aspects of cognition like work-finding, vision/spatial issues, and impaired reasoning or judgement. AD is identified mainly by two histopathological features: extracellular plague of amyloid-beta protein and ...


Exercise Training Rescues Increased Brain Isf Aβ Caused By Chronic Isolation Stress In App/Ps1 Transgenic Mice, Lydia M. Holtmann 2021 Missouri State University

Exercise Training Rescues Increased Brain Isf Aβ Caused By Chronic Isolation Stress In App/Ps1 Transgenic Mice, Lydia M. Holtmann

MSU Graduate Theses

Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is a progressive brain disorder that destroys memory and cognition thought to be initiated through the build-up of the amyloid-beta (A) peptide. The A peptide aggregates, slowly forming into insoluble plaque substances that destroy the brain and worsen patient’s symptoms over time. Studies have shown that chronic isolation stress (CIS) increases the A peptide soluble and insoluble levels in the brain and that exercise training decreases these levels in transgenic mouse models of AD. We sought to determine if an exercise training regimen would rescue the increase in Aβ levels caused by CIS in the ...


Preventing Neurodegeneration By Controlling Oxidative Stress: The Role Of Oxr1, Michael R. Volkert, David J. Crowley 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Preventing Neurodegeneration By Controlling Oxidative Stress: The Role Of Oxr1, Michael R. Volkert, David J. Crowley

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Parkinson's disease, diabetic retinopathy, hyperoxia induced retinopathy, and neuronal damage resulting from ischemia are among the notable neurodegenerative diseases in which oxidative stress occurs shortly before the onset of neurodegeneration. A shared feature of these diseases is the depletion of OXR1 (oxidation resistance 1) gene products shortly before the onset of neurodegeneration. In animal models of these diseases, restoration of OXR1 has been shown to reduce or eliminate the deleterious effects of oxidative stress induced cell death, delay the onset of symptoms, and reduce overall severity. Moreover, increasing OXR1 expression in cells further increases oxidative stress resistance and delays ...


Sexually Dimorphic Oxytocin Receptor-Expressing Neurons In The Anteroventral Periventricular Nucleus Regulates Maternal Behavior, Kaustubh Sharma 2020 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Sexually Dimorphic Oxytocin Receptor-Expressing Neurons In The Anteroventral Periventricular Nucleus Regulates Maternal Behavior, Kaustubh Sharma

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

The neurohypophysial hormone oxytocin is involved in the regulation of social behaviors, including social recognition, pair bonding, and sex-specific parental behaviors in a variety of species. Oxytocin triggers these social behaviors by binding to oxytocin receptors (OXTR) in various parts of the brain. Oxytocin-induced sex-typical behavior, therefore, suggests a sexual dimorphic distribution of OXTR in the brain. In recent years, the oxytocin system in the brain received tremendous attention as a potential pharmacological target for treatment of many psychiatric disorders, such as anxiety, autism spectrum disorders, and even sex-specific psychiatric disorder like postpartum depression (PPD). An important problem and a ...


Elucidating The Consequence And Cause Of Microrna Dysregulation In Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (Als), Zachary C. E. Hawley 2020 The University of Western Ontario

Elucidating The Consequence And Cause Of Microrna Dysregulation In Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (Als), Zachary C. E. Hawley

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive motor neurodegenerative disorder with an average life expectancy of 2-5 years post-diagnosis. Common pathological features associated with ALS are the formation of cytoplasmic inclusions of intermediate filaments and RNA-binding proteins within motor neurons. The formation of intermediate filament cytoplasmic inclusions is believed to be driven by a loss of stochiometric expression between five neuronal intermediate filament proteins—NFL, NFM, NFH, INA and PRPH—where there is a selective suppression of the steady-state levels of NEFL, INA and PRPH mRNA. Further, three RNA-binding proteins—TDP-43, FUS and RGNEF—have been shown to co-aggregate with ...


Pfn1 Phosphorylation Marks Protein Aggregation And White Matter Pathology In Als, Sepideh Parsi, Tao Qiao, Lyle Wilfred Ostrow, Marco B. Rust, Zuoshang Xu 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Pfn1 Phosphorylation Marks Protein Aggregation And White Matter Pathology In Als, Sepideh Parsi, Tao Qiao, Lyle Wilfred Ostrow, Marco B. Rust, Zuoshang Xu

University of Massachusetts Medical School Publications

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease is the most common form of motor neuron disease. In familial ALS, Multiple mutations of, PFN1 gene a well-known actin-binding protein have been linked to ALS disease recently. Phosphorylation in many degenerative conditions plays an important role in disease mechanism but its potential role in ALS remains not fully understood. We sought to look further into not previously studied phosphorylation of PFN1 as a potential contributor to aggregation and toxicity in ALS. Using different histochemistry and cytochemistry and molecular biology approaches, we observed that phosphorylation on Profilin shows a ...


Pad2 Dysregulation And Abnormal Protein Citrullination In Als Disease Models, Issa Yusuf, Tao Qiao, Ronak Tilvawala, Paul R. Thompson, Zuoshang Xu 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Pad2 Dysregulation And Abnormal Protein Citrullination In Als Disease Models, Issa Yusuf, Tao Qiao, Ronak Tilvawala, Paul R. Thompson, Zuoshang Xu

University of Massachusetts Medical School Publications

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a deadly neurodegenerative disease characterized by loss of motor neurons, paralysis and eventual death. The mechanism of ALS is still incompletely understood, and the disease is to date without an effective remedy. Protein arginine deiminase 2 (PAD2) converts peptidyl-Arginine into peptidyl-Citrulline, a post-translational modification referred to as citrullination. Aberrant expression of PAD2 and protein citrullination are increased in several neurodegenerative conditions. Whether this increase is involved in ALS is unknown. In this study, we investigated PAD2 and protein citrullination in two genetic mouse models of ALS expressing human mutant SOD1G93A and PFN1C71G, respectively ...


Aci-35 And Aadvac1 Active Immunotherapy As Preventative Treatment Options For Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy, Emily C. Boehlein 2020 Southeastern University - Lakeland

Aci-35 And Aadvac1 Active Immunotherapy As Preventative Treatment Options For Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy, Emily C. Boehlein

Selected Honors Theses

One of the most common, as well as one of the most dangerous injuries amongst athletes today is mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), commonly known as concussion. Aside from physical symptoms such as nausea, dizziness, and headaches; concussions have can have longterm effects on brain physiology. A common neurological disease that can result from multiple concussions is Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE), characterized by symptoms such as severe depression, anxiety, confusion, and aggression; amongst others.1 On the cellular level, CTE is classified by a unique pathway that leads to the hyperphosphorylation of tau protein and subsequent clumping of tau-containing neurofibrillary ...


Degradation Of Transcriptional Repressor Atf4 During Late-Phase Long-Term Potentiation, Spencer Smith 2020 Georgia College

Degradation Of Transcriptional Repressor Atf4 During Late-Phase Long-Term Potentiation, Spencer Smith

Biology Theses

Maintenance of long-term synaptic plasticity requires gene expression mediated by cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB). Gene expression driven by CREB can commence only if the inhibition by a transcriptional repressor ATF4 (activating transcription factor 4; aka CREB2) is relieved. Previous research showed that the removal of ATF4 occurs through ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated proteolysis. Using chemically induced hippocampal long-term potentiation (cLTP) as a model system, we investigated the mechanisms that control ATF4 degradation. We observed that ATF4 phosphorylated at Serine-219 increases upon induction of cLTP and decreases by about 30 min thereafter. Proteasome inhibitor β-lactone prevents the decrease in ATF4. We found that ...


Rehabilitative Movement Approaches And Dance Interventions In Parkinson’S Disease, Cecilia Fontanesi 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Rehabilitative Movement Approaches And Dance Interventions In Parkinson’S Disease, Cecilia Fontanesi

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The scope of this work is to address the functional deficits and symptoms experienced by those living with Parkinson’s Disease through movement interventions.

Chapter 1 offers a brief overview of current pharmacotherapy and rehabilitation approaches in Parkinson’s, focusing on dance in particular as a movement intervention that may be particularly suited to this population.

Chapter 2 focuses on brain plasticity and motor learning in PD, reporting the effects of rTMS applied after the acquisition of a motor skill. In this study, adaptation tested in patients with PD was comparable in the sham and TMS sessions, while retention indices ...


Ubc-9 Acts In Gaba Neurons To Control Neuromuscular Signaling In C. Elegans, Victoria A. Kreyden, Elly B. Mawi, Jennifer Kowalski 2020 Butler University

Ubc-9 Acts In Gaba Neurons To Control Neuromuscular Signaling In C. Elegans, Victoria A. Kreyden, Elly B. Mawi, Jennifer Kowalski

Scholarship and Professional Work - LAS

Regulation of excitatory to inhibitory signaling balance is essential to nervous system health and is maintained by numerous enzyme systems that modulate the activity, localization, and abundance of synaptic proteins. SUMOylation is a key post-translational regulator of protein function in diverse cells, including neurons. There, its role in regulating synaptic transmission through pre- and postsynaptic effects has been shown primarily at glutamatergic central nervous system synapses, where the sole SUMO-conjugating enzyme Ubc9 is a critical player. However, whether Ubc9 functions globally at other synapses, including inhibitory synapses, has not been explored. Here, we investigated the role of UBC-9 and the ...


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