Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Discipline
Institution
Keyword
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 893

Full-Text Articles in Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience

Rare And Low Frequency Genomic Variants Impacting Neuronal Functions Modify The Dup7q11.23 Phenotype, Farah Qaiser, Yue Yin, Carolyn B. Mervis, Colleen A. Morris, Bonita P. Klein-Tasman, Elaine Tam, Lucy R. Osborne, Ryan K.C. Yuen Dec 2021

Rare And Low Frequency Genomic Variants Impacting Neuronal Functions Modify The Dup7q11.23 Phenotype, Farah Qaiser, Yue Yin, Carolyn B. Mervis, Colleen A. Morris, Bonita P. Klein-Tasman, Elaine Tam, Lucy R. Osborne, Ryan K.C. Yuen

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

© 2021, The Author(s). Background: 7q11.23 duplication (Dup7) is one of the most frequent recurrent copy number variants (CNVs) in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but based on gold-standard assessments, only 19% of Dup7 carriers have ASD, suggesting that additional genetic factors are necessary to manifest the ASD phenotype. To assess the contribution of additional genetic variants to the Dup7 phenotype, we conducted whole-genome sequencing analysis of 20 Dup7 carriers: nine with ASD (Dup7-ASD) and 11 without ASD (Dup7-non-ASD). Results: We identified three rare variants of potential clinical relevance for ASD: a 1q21.1 microdeletion (Dup7-non-ASD) and two ...


Elucidating The Modulatory Role Of Dopamine In The C. Elegans Chemosensory Ash Neuron, Cory Kunkel Aug 2021

Elucidating The Modulatory Role Of Dopamine In The C. Elegans Chemosensory Ash Neuron, Cory Kunkel

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

The neurotransmitter dopamine regulates chemosensory avoidance behavior in the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. Avoidance behaviors are mediated by the polymodal ASH nociceptive sensory neurons, and behavioral avoidance of stimuli detected by ASH is less robust when dopamine signaling is impaired. We are investigating the neural response of the ASH neurons to various stimuli; our investigation includes the behavioral and physiological responses from the ASH neurons as dopamine signaling is manipulated to better understand the effects of dopamine on these sensory neurons. We hypothesize that dopamine plays a regulatory role on the ASH neurons, lessening the response of the ASH neuron ...


Sites Of Circadian Clock Neuron Plasticity Mediate Sensory Integration And Entrainment, Maria P. Fernand, Hannah L. Pettibone, Joseph T. Bogart, Casey J. Roell, Charles E. Davey, Ausra Pranevicius, Khang V. Huynh, Sara M. Lennox, Boyan Kostadinov, Orie T. Shafer Jun 2021

Sites Of Circadian Clock Neuron Plasticity Mediate Sensory Integration And Entrainment, Maria P. Fernand, Hannah L. Pettibone, Joseph T. Bogart, Casey J. Roell, Charles E. Davey, Ausra Pranevicius, Khang V. Huynh, Sara M. Lennox, Boyan Kostadinov, Orie T. Shafer

Publications and Research

Networks of circadian timekeeping in the brain display marked daily changes in neuronal morphology. In Drosophila melanogaster, the striking daily structural remodeling of the dorsal medial termini of the small ventral lateral neurons has long been hypothesized to mediate endogenous circadian timekeeping. To test this model, we have specifically abrogated these sites of daily neuronal remodeling through the reprogramming of neural development and assessed the effects on circadian timekeeping and clock outputs. Remarkably, the loss of these sites has no measurable effects on endogenous circadian timekeeping or on any of the major output functions of the small ventral lateral neurons ...


Targeting Ampa Receptor Modulation During Early Life Adversity: A Mediator For Threat Associated Memories, Roseanna M. Zanca Jun 2021

Targeting Ampa Receptor Modulation During Early Life Adversity: A Mediator For Threat Associated Memories, Roseanna M. Zanca

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Early life adversity (ELA) is the exposure to a single or to multiple traumatic events before the age of 18 that go beyond the child’s coping. These adverse events are often exacerbated during adolescence particularly when cognitive performance is compromised. Adolescents who experienced ELA may show symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), while not vividly recalling the early life trauma. These individuals show atypical connectivity between prefrontal-amygdala and hippocampus, all of which is associated with an increased risk of experiencing a traumatic event again later in life. While clinical research has increasingly stressed the importance in addressing the long-lasting ...


Expression And Subcellular Localization Of Circrnas Dysregulated Als That Are Encoded In Cytoskeletal Protein Genes, Asieh Alikhah May 2021

Expression And Subcellular Localization Of Circrnas Dysregulated Als That Are Encoded In Cytoskeletal Protein Genes, Asieh Alikhah

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal and progressive neurodegenerative disorder that causes the death of motor neurons. While alterations in the metabolism of RNA, including RNA-binding proteins have been linked to the pathogenesis of ALS, our understanding of the role of non-coding RNAs including circRNAs is less well developed. In this study, using a combination of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunofluorescence (IF) with markers of RNP granules, I investigated the effect of osmotic stress on the localization and expression of a selection of circRNAs whose expression is dysregulated in ALS. Alteration in the number of granules for ...


Modulation Of Gabaa Receptor By Neurosteroids And Protein Kinases In Health And Disease, Jaymin Jeong May 2021

Modulation Of Gabaa Receptor By Neurosteroids And Protein Kinases In Health And Disease, Jaymin Jeong

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAA receptors) underlie the majority of inhibitory synaptic transmission in the brain. Modulation of GABAergic activity occurs in development and normal physiological functioning of the brain, and changes to GABAergic function has been implicated in numerous neurological disorders including epilepsy. Neurosteroids, metabolites of steroid hormones, and kinases are known to modulate GABAA receptor mediated currents in health and disease. This thesis aims to investigate the effects of kinases and neurosteroids on modulating GABAA receptor-mediated currents in cortical pyramidal cells and their effects on the piriform cortex (PCtx) circuit in naïve rats and ...


Identifying The Cell Composition And Clonal Diversity Of Supratentorial Ependymoma Using Single Cell Rna-Sequencing, James He May 2021

Identifying The Cell Composition And Clonal Diversity Of Supratentorial Ependymoma Using Single Cell Rna-Sequencing, James He

Honors Scholar Theses

Ependymoma is a primary solid tumor of the central nervous system. Supratentorial ependymoma (ST-EPN), a subtype of ependymomas, is driven by an oncogenic fusion between the ZFTA and RELA genes in 70% of cases. We introduced this fusion into neural progenitor cells of mice embryos via in utero electroporation of a non-viral binary piggyBac transposon system containing ZFTA-RELA. From preliminary data in the LoTurco lab, inducing the expression of ZFTA-RELA into different neural progenitor cells produces tumors of varying lethality and cellular composition. To define the cellular composition and subclonal diversity of ST-EPN tumors, we used single cell RNA-sequencing to ...


Identifying The Cell Composition And Clonal Diversity Of Supratentorial Ependymoma Using Single Cell Rna-Sequencing, James He May 2021

Identifying The Cell Composition And Clonal Diversity Of Supratentorial Ependymoma Using Single Cell Rna-Sequencing, James He

University Scholar Projects

Ependymoma is a primary solid tumor of the central nervous system. Supratentorial ependymoma (ST-EPN), a subtype of ependymomas, is driven by an oncogenic fusion between the ZFTA and RELA genes in 70% of cases. We introduced this fusion into neural progenitor cells of mice embryos via in utero electroporation of a non-viral binary piggyBac transposon system containing ZFTA-RELA. From preliminary data in the LoTurco lab, inducing the expression of ZFTA-RELA into different neural progenitor cells produces tumors of varying lethality and cellular composition. To define the cellular composition and subclonal diversity of ST-EPN tumors, we used single cell RNA-sequencing to ...


The Effects Of Mapk Signaling On The Development Of Cerebellar Granule Cells, Kerry Morgan May 2021

The Effects Of Mapk Signaling On The Development Of Cerebellar Granule Cells, Kerry Morgan

Honors Scholar Theses

The granule cells are the most abundant neuronal type in the human brain. Rapid proliferation of granule cell progenitors results in dramatic expansion and folding of the cerebellar cortex during postnatal development. Mis-regulation of this proliferation process causes medulloblastoma, the most prevalent childhood brain tumor. In the developing cerebellum, granule cells are derived from Atoh1-expressing cells, which arise from the upper rhombic lip (the interface between the roof plate and neuroepithelium). In addition to granule cells, the Atoh1 lineage also gives rise to different types of neurons including cerebellar nuclei neurons. In the current study, I have investigated the ...


Mitochondrial Distribution Of Glycine Receptors In Motor Neuron Cell Lines, Katsiaryna Milashevich May 2021

Mitochondrial Distribution Of Glycine Receptors In Motor Neuron Cell Lines, Katsiaryna Milashevich

Student Theses

Although non-essential, glycine plays an important role in major metabolic reactions and is most known for its anti-inflammatory effects. An accumulation of contemporary research has shown that glycine is able to stabilize membrane potential using glycine receptors at the cellular level and to protect mitochondrial function directly, whether it is from inflammation, heavy metal poisoning, or ischemia-induced neuroinflammation. In this research, the existence of a hypothetical mitochondrial glycine receptor is examined. Immunofluorescence imaging was used to examine the presence of the glycine receptor subunits alpha 1 and alpha 2 in both non- differentiated and differentiated neuroblastoma cell lines. The preliminary ...


Vitamin B12 Deficiency Does Not Stimulate Amyloid-Beta Toxicity In A Ceanorhabditis Elegans Model Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Opeyemi F. Showemimo May 2021

Vitamin B12 Deficiency Does Not Stimulate Amyloid-Beta Toxicity In A Ceanorhabditis Elegans Model Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Opeyemi F. Showemimo

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is symptomized by amyloid-beta plaques in the brain and accounts for more than 65 percent of dementia cases. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency can result in similar cognitive impairment and roughly 15% of the elderly are vitamin B12 deficient. Vitamin B12 deficiency results in the accumulation of toxic methylmalonic acid and homocysteine. Hyperhomocysteinemia is a strong risk factor for AD. To test if vitamin B12 deficiency stimulates amyloid-beta toxicity, Caenorhabditis elegans expressing amyloid-beta in muscle were fed either vitamin B12-deficient OP50-1 or vitamin B12-rich HT115(DE3) E. coli bacteria. Increased amyloid-beta toxicity was found in worms fed ...


Psychedelics Can Save: The Scientific And Social Case For Rescheduling Psychedelic Compounds, Galen M. Fader May 2021

Psychedelics Can Save: The Scientific And Social Case For Rescheduling Psychedelic Compounds, Galen M. Fader

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Translational Fidelity And Its Role In Neuronal Homeostasis, Markus Terrey May 2021

Translational Fidelity And Its Role In Neuronal Homeostasis, Markus Terrey

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The process of translation, which refers to decoding genetic information from mRNA to protein, is vital for all cellular function. Translational fidelity starts at the level of aminoacylation of transfer RNAs (tRNA). This reaction is catalyzed by aminoacyl tRNA synthetases where each amino acid is transferred to its corresponding cognate tRNA. Because tRNAs harbor the anticodon sequence to decodes a particular mRNA codon, the specific aminoacylation of the tRNA with a cognate amino acid establishes the rules of decoding genetic code into proteins. Aminoacylated tRNAs are then delivered to ribosomes, where ribosomes in a highly organized manner need to accurately ...


Investigating Mechanisms In Nociceptors Driving Ongoing Activity And Ongoing Pain, Elia Lopez May 2021

Investigating Mechanisms In Nociceptors Driving Ongoing Activity And Ongoing Pain, Elia Lopez

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Ongoing (apparently spontaneous) pain at rest is a major complaint of patients suffering from many forms of acute and chronic pain, including acute and persistent postsurgical pain. Accumulating evidence suggests ongoing activity in nociceptors is a major driver of ongoing pain. Ongoing activity can be generated in sensory neurons in the absence of sensory generator potentials if one or more of three neurophysiological alterations occur – prolonged depolarization of resting membrane potential (RMP), hyperpolarization of action potential (AP) threshold, and/or increased amplitude of depolarizing spontaneous fluctuations of membrane potential (DSFs) to bridge the gap between RMP and AP threshold. Cellular ...


Npy Expression Of Low-Birth Weight Offspring In Nutrient-Restricted Utero, Janine Levandowski, Holly Young Apr 2021

Npy Expression Of Low-Birth Weight Offspring In Nutrient-Restricted Utero, Janine Levandowski, Holly Young

Senior Scholars Day

No abstract provided.


Validation Of Induced Microglia-Like Cells (Img Cells) For Future Studies Of Brain Diseases, Atoshi Banerjee, Yimei Lu, Kenny Do, Travis Mize, Xiaogang Wu, Xiangning Chen, Jingchun Chen Apr 2021

Validation Of Induced Microglia-Like Cells (Img Cells) For Future Studies Of Brain Diseases, Atoshi Banerjee, Yimei Lu, Kenny Do, Travis Mize, Xiaogang Wu, Xiangning Chen, Jingchun Chen

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

Microglia are the primary resident immune cells of the central nervous system that maintain physiological homeostasis in the brain and contribute to the pathogenesis of many psychiatric disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Due to the lack of appropriate human cellular models, it is difficult to study the basic pathophysiological processes linking microglia to brain diseases. In this study, we adopted a microglia-like cellular model derived from peripheral blood monocytes with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-34 (IL-34). We characterized and validated this in vitro cellular model by morphology, immunocytochemistry, gene expression profiles, and functional study. Our results indicated that the iMG ...


Anhedonia And Its Intervention In Depressive Adults: New Developments Based On Research Domain Criteria (Rdoc) In Mental Illnesses, J. Mao, J. Yuan Mar 2021

Anhedonia And Its Intervention In Depressive Adults: New Developments Based On Research Domain Criteria (Rdoc) In Mental Illnesses, J. Mao, J. Yuan

Stress and Brain

Anhedonia, as one of the core symptoms of depression, is of great significance for the diagnosis and treatment of depression. Traditionally, anhedonia has been referred to as "loss of pleasure" , while the recent research emphasizes that anhedonia is a complex and multidimensional construct based on reward processing impairment. Exploring different manifestations of anhedonia and developing the corresponding interventions have become indispensable in the current research of depression. Based on the positive valence system of the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC), this paper firstly demonstrates that the anhedonia of depressive adults are mainly characterized by the impairments in anticipatory pleasure, incentive motivation ...


Exposure To Single Prolonged Stress Fails To Induce Anxiety-Like Behavior In Mice, W-J. You, Y. He, W-Z. Liu, Yu-Ge Zhu, Ping Hu, Bing-Xing Pan, Wen-Hua Zhang Mar 2021

Exposure To Single Prolonged Stress Fails To Induce Anxiety-Like Behavior In Mice, W-J. You, Y. He, W-Z. Liu, Yu-Ge Zhu, Ping Hu, Bing-Xing Pan, Wen-Hua Zhang

Stress and Brain

Single prolonged stress (SPS) is a well-established and most frequently used rat model to induce post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-like symptoms, which helps to understand the neurobiological mechanisms as well as developing novel therapeutic strategies for PTSD. However, whether such stress model works efficiently in mice remains unknown. In the present study, we established a mouse SPS (mSPS) model by exposing C57BL/6J mice to a series of multimodal stressors on a single day, then the anxiety-like behavior was measured by open-field test, elevated plus maze test, dark-light box, and novelty-suppressed feeding test. Our results showed that mSPS had no ...


A Meta-Analysis Of Brain Dna Methylation Across Sex, Age, And Alzheimer's Disease Points For Accelerated Epigenetic Aging In Neurodegeneration, Camilla Pellegrini, Danielle Fernandes Durso, Maria Giulia Bacalini Mar 2021

A Meta-Analysis Of Brain Dna Methylation Across Sex, Age, And Alzheimer's Disease Points For Accelerated Epigenetic Aging In Neurodegeneration, Camilla Pellegrini, Danielle Fernandes Durso, Maria Giulia Bacalini

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by specific alterations of brain DNA methylation (DNAm) patterns. Age and sex, two major risk factors for AD, are also known to largely affect the epigenetic profiles in brain, but their contribution to AD-associated DNAm changes has been poorly investigated. In this study we considered publicly available DNAm datasets of four brain regions (temporal, frontal, entorhinal cortex, and cerebellum) from healthy adult subjects and AD patients, and performed a meta-analysis to identify sex-, age-, and AD-associated epigenetic profiles. In one of these datasets it was also possible to distinguish 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC ...


Quantifying And Mitigating Motor Phenotypes Induced By Antisense Oligonucleotides In The Central Nervous System [Preprint], Michael P. Moazami, Julia M. Rembetsy-Brown, Feng Wang, Pranathi Meda Krishnamurthy, Alexandra Weiss, Miklos G. Marosfoi, Robert M. King, Mona Motwani, Heather L. Gray-Edwards, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Robert H. Brown Jr., Jonathan K. Watts Feb 2021

Quantifying And Mitigating Motor Phenotypes Induced By Antisense Oligonucleotides In The Central Nervous System [Preprint], Michael P. Moazami, Julia M. Rembetsy-Brown, Feng Wang, Pranathi Meda Krishnamurthy, Alexandra Weiss, Miklos G. Marosfoi, Robert M. King, Mona Motwani, Heather L. Gray-Edwards, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Robert H. Brown Jr., Jonathan K. Watts

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) are emerging as a promising class of therapeutics for neurological diseases. When injected directly into the cerebrospinal fluid, ASOs distribute broadly across brain regions and exert long-lasting therapeutic effects. However, many phosphorothioate (PS)-modified gapmer ASOs show transient motor phenotypes when injected into the cerebrospinal fluid, ranging from reduced motor activity to ataxia or acute seizure-like phenotypes. The effect of sugar and phosphate modifications on these phenotypes has not previously been systematically studied. Using a behavioral scoring assay customized to reflect the timing and nature of these effects, we show that both sugar and phosphate modifications influence ...


Third Harmonic Generation: A Method For Visualizing Myelin In The Murine Cerebral Cortex, Michael Redlich Feb 2021

Third Harmonic Generation: A Method For Visualizing Myelin In The Murine Cerebral Cortex, Michael Redlich

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Here we present the use of Third Harmonic Generation (THG) for the label-free imaging of myelinated axons in the murine cerebral cortex. Myelin plays an important role in the processes of learning and disease. However, much of the myelin biology research thus far has focused on white matter tracts where myelin is more visible. Much is still unknown, particularly with regard to myelin in gray matter. First, we engage in THG microscopy using an optical parametric oscillator pumped by a titanium-sapphire laser to demonstrate the utility of the technique for imaging myelin in vivo. Second, we investigate the use of ...


Glial Cell Dysfunction In C9orf72-Related Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis And Frontotemporal Dementia, Mehdi Ghasemi, Kiandokht Keyhanian, Catherine Douthwright Jan 2021

Glial Cell Dysfunction In C9orf72-Related Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis And Frontotemporal Dementia, Mehdi Ghasemi, Kiandokht Keyhanian, Catherine Douthwright

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Since the discovery of the chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9orf72) repeat expansion mutation in 2011 as the most common genetic abnormality in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, also known as Lou Gehrig's disease) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), progress in understanding the signaling pathways related to this mutation can only be described as intriguing. Two major theories have been suggested-(i) loss of function or haploinsufficiency and (ii) toxic gain of function from either C9orf72 repeat RNA or dipeptide repeat proteins (DPRs) generated from repeat-associated non-ATG (RAN) translation. Each theory has provided various signaling pathways that potentially participate in ...


Behavioral Arrest And A Characteristic Slow Waveform Are Hallmark Responses To Selective 5-Ht2a Receptor Activation, April Contreras, Matthew Khumnark, Rochelle M. Hines, Dustin J. Hines Jan 2021

Behavioral Arrest And A Characteristic Slow Waveform Are Hallmark Responses To Selective 5-Ht2a Receptor Activation, April Contreras, Matthew Khumnark, Rochelle M. Hines, Dustin J. Hines

Psychology Faculty Publications

© 2021, The Author(s). Perception, emotion, and mood are powerfully modulated by serotonin receptor (5-HTR) agonists including hallucinogens. The 5-HT2AR subtype has been shown to be central to hallucinogen action, yet the precise mechanisms mediating the response to 5-HT2AR activation remain unclear. Hallucinogens induce the head twitch response (HTR) in rodents, which is the most commonly used behavioral readout of hallucinogen pharmacology. While the HTR provides a key behavioral signature, less is known about the meso level changes that are induced by 5-HT2AR activation. In response to administration of the potent and highly selective 5-HT2AR agonist 25I-NBOH in mice, we ...


Deletions In Cwh43 Cause Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus, Hong Wei Yang, Dejun Yang, Huijun Dai, Yan Zhang, Sijun Zhao, Shuo Zhang, Yan Ma, George Wang, Shaokuan Zheng, Rona S. Carroll, Mark D. Johnson Jan 2021

Deletions In Cwh43 Cause Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus, Hong Wei Yang, Dejun Yang, Huijun Dai, Yan Zhang, Sijun Zhao, Shuo Zhang, Yan Ma, George Wang, Shaokuan Zheng, Rona S. Carroll, Mark D. Johnson

Radiology Publications

Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a neurological disorder that occurs in about 1% of individuals over age 60 and is characterized by enlarged cerebral ventricles, gait difficulty, incontinence, and cognitive decline. The cause and pathophysiology of iNPH are largely unknown. We performed whole exome sequencing of DNA obtained from 53 unrelated iNPH patients. Two recurrent heterozygous loss of function deletions in CWH43 were observed in 15% of iNPH patients and were significantly enriched 6.6-fold and 2.7-fold, respectively, when compared to the general population. Cwh43 modifies the lipid anchor of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins. Mice heterozygous for CWH43 deletion appeared ...


Genetic Analysis Of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Identifies Contributing Pathways And Cell Types, Sara Saez-Atienzar, John E. Landers Jan 2021

Genetic Analysis Of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Identifies Contributing Pathways And Cell Types, Sara Saez-Atienzar, John E. Landers

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Despite the considerable progress in unraveling the genetic causes of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we do not fully understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the disease. We analyzed genome-wide data involving 78,500 individuals using a polygenic risk score approach to identify the biological pathways and cell types involved in ALS. This data-driven approach identified multiple aspects of the biology underlying the disease that resolved into broader themes, namely, neuron projection morphogenesis, membrane trafficking, and signal transduction mediated by ribonucleotides. We also found that genomic risk in ALS maps consistently to GABAergic interneurons and oligodendrocytes, as confirmed in human single-nucleus RNA-seq ...


The Effects Of Rolipram, A Selective Phosphodiesterase Inhibitor, On Immortalized Schwann Cell Proliferation, Akap95 And Cyclin D3 Expression, Kyle P. Kenney, Mary Pistack, Angela Asirvatham Jan 2021

The Effects Of Rolipram, A Selective Phosphodiesterase Inhibitor, On Immortalized Schwann Cell Proliferation, Akap95 And Cyclin D3 Expression, Kyle P. Kenney, Mary Pistack, Angela Asirvatham

Student Research Poster Presentations 2021

Schwann cells are a vital component of the Peripheral Nervous System and aid in the repair of axons following injury. The regulation of Schwann cell growth in vitro is facilitated by heregulin, a neuron-secreted growth factor, and an unknown mitogen that activates the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) pathway. The abundance of intracellular cAMP is regulated by a family of enzymes called phosphodiesterases (PDEs). PDE inhibitors such as rolipram have therapeutic potential in various disorders and function by increasing the levels of intracellular cAMP. A-Kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs), a family of scaffolding proteins that belong to the cAMP/Protein Kinase A ...


Opioid Use Disorder: The Timeline For Medication Assisted Therapy, Alexander Cristofori Jan 2021

Opioid Use Disorder: The Timeline For Medication Assisted Therapy, Alexander Cristofori

Capstone Showcase

Opioid Use Disorder is patterns of opioid use leading to withdrawal, giving up important life events in order to use opioids, and excessive time spent using opioids, to name a few diagnostic criteria. The clinical progression of the disorder involves periods of acute exacerbation and remission that are cyclic in nature. Treatment is most effective when it includes both pharmacological and psychosocial modalities, referred to as medication assisted therapy (MAT). Three drugs used commonly in MAT-based treatment for OUD from oldest to newest include Methadone, Buprenorphine-naloxone, and Naltrexone. Treatment program models that prioritize total abstinence from the addictive substance attached ...


Neuroglobin And Its Role In The Recovery Of Neuronal Cells In Hypoxic Conditions Using Hypoxia Inducible Factor– 1, Riya Shah Jan 2021

Neuroglobin And Its Role In The Recovery Of Neuronal Cells In Hypoxic Conditions Using Hypoxia Inducible Factor– 1, Riya Shah

Honors Undergraduate Theses

Stroke is the world's leading cause of adult disability, caused by lack of oxygen and nutrients to the brain due to a blood clot in a major artery. This leads to ischemic damage of neuronal cells that leads to paralysis, motor, and speech deficits. While most stroke therapies aim at removing or reducing the blood clots in the brain, few treatments target cell damage. Neuroglobin (NGB) is a protein in the brain that is able to aid in neuroprotection following oxidative stress. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that serves as a marker for cell recovery after hypoxia ...


Mitochondrial Aspects Of Neuronal Pathology In Triple-Transgenic Alzheimer’S Disease Mice, John Zachary Cavendish Jan 2021

Mitochondrial Aspects Of Neuronal Pathology In Triple-Transgenic Alzheimer’S Disease Mice, John Zachary Cavendish

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a fatal, progressive neurodegenerative disease afflicting millions of people in the United States alone and is the only one of the top leading causes of morbidity and mortality with no effective disease-modifying therapies. It is the most common form of dementia, affecting one in three people over the age of 85. While the hallmarks of the disease include accumulation of beta-amyloid-based extracellular plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau-based intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, treatment strategies centered on removing or mitigating these components of AD have all failed in humans. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been increasingly recognized as an early and ...


Genus Applications For Alzheimer's Disease Pathology, Whitney L Carter Jan 2021

Genus Applications For Alzheimer's Disease Pathology, Whitney L Carter

Undergraduate Arts and Research Showcase

Estimates vary, but it is thought that 5.5 million Americans age 60 and up may be living with Alzheimer’s diseases (AD). AD is the most common type of dementia and is characterized by a decline in episodic memories, long-term memory, language, attention, and personality changes. The first symptoms can vary, but for most people memory is the first capacity to become impaired. However, symptoms can also be a decline in non-memory aspects of cognition like work-finding, vision/spatial issues, and impaired reasoning or judgement. AD is identified mainly by two histopathological features: extracellular plague of amyloid-beta protein and ...