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The Effects Of A High-Fat Diet On The Brain; A Meta-Analysis Of Microglia In The Hypothalamus, Emily Karabeika 2020 Regis University

The Effects Of A High-Fat Diet On The Brain; A Meta-Analysis Of Microglia In The Hypothalamus, Emily Karabeika

Regis University Student Publications

The typical ‘Western Diet’ includes a diet high in fats and sugars. This thesis explores the problems that this type of diet could have on the brain. A meta-analysis was conducted to show activated microglia count in the hypothalamus of mice after a high-fat diet. The results showed a large effect size with the included studies, showing that a high fat diet significantly increases microglia count across studies. Increased activated microglia leads to chronic inflammation in the hypothalamus, which is linked to metabolic problems like insulin resistance, leptin resistance and glucose intolerance.


Characterizing The Requirements For The Matricellular Protein, Dccn, In Nervous System Function, Elizabeth L. Catudio Garrett 2020 University of Montana

Characterizing The Requirements For The Matricellular Protein, Dccn, In Nervous System Function, Elizabeth L. Catudio Garrett

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

The brain is organized as a complex network of specialized neurons that communicate via a combination of electrical and chemical signals. Our brains function to generate movement, control organ function, or direct complex behaviors; all of which requires the ability to regulate the flow of communication between circuits and networks. Work in this thesis addresses two areas of neuron communication: first, how does the release of more than one neurotransmitter from a single neuron impact behavior, and second, are matricellular proteins (MCPs) key contributors to synaptic transmission and neuron function? The conserved CCN family of MCPs have a unique mosaic ...


Effects Of Weak Electric Fields On Long-Term Synaptic Plasticity, Gregory Kronberg 2020 CUNY City College

Effects Of Weak Electric Fields On Long-Term Synaptic Plasticity, Gregory Kronberg

Dissertations and Theses

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a technique where a weak direct electrical current is applied to the scalp with the goal of stimulating the brain. There is tremendous interest in the use of tDCS for treating brain disorders and improving brain function. However, the effects of tDCS have been highly variable across studies, leading to a debate over its efficacy. A major challenge is therefore to design tDCS protocols that yield predictable effects, which will require a better understanding of its basic mechanisms of action. One commonly discussed mechanism is that tDCS may alter synaptic plasticity, but the biophysics ...


Understanding How Sequence Differences Among Glutamate Transporters Might Contribute To Their Differential Function In Glutamate Clearance In C. Elegans, Irving Estevez 2020 CUNY City College

Understanding How Sequence Differences Among Glutamate Transporters Might Contribute To Their Differential Function In Glutamate Clearance In C. Elegans, Irving Estevez

Dissertations and Theses

In the nervous system, high circuit resolution requires efficient post-signaling clearance of the neurotransmitter. Glutamate-mediated neurotransmission involves the release of glutamate (Glu) into the synaptic cleft by the presynaptic cell and binding to glutamate receptors (GluR) on the postsynaptic cell, leading to activation of a signal transduction cascade. Neurotransmission is eventually terminated by Glu uptake via glutamate transporters (GluT). Inefficient Glu clearance is detrimental to precise rapid signaling, can lead to blurring of circuit resolution by inadvertent Glu spillover to nearby circuits, and may even be neurotoxic. While classical views depict synapses as insulated by glia, recent technological advances show ...


Intracellular Localization Of The Novel Polyq Protein Fam171b, Dulanjani Rajaguru 2020 Minnesota State University, Mankato

Intracellular Localization Of The Novel Polyq Protein Fam171b, Dulanjani Rajaguru

All Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Other Capstone Projects

FAM171B is a relatively uncharacterized protein that contains fourteen consecutive glutamine residues within its primary amino acid sequence; thus it is a polyglutamine (polyQ) protein. PolyQ proteins are interesting because mutations within the polyQ tract have been linked to a number of severe neurodegenerative diseases including Huntingtons Disease (HD). To date, there are minimal published data regarding FAM171B and its molecular function, such that both expression levels and intracellular localization have yet to be definitively determined. Using immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization analyses, our lab has recently found that FAM171B is expressed throughout the mouse brain. This current study attempts ...


Nanomedicine-Driven Neuropathic Pain Relief In Rat Model Is Associated With Macrophage Polarity And Mast Cell Activation, Muzamil Saleem 2019 Duquesne University

Nanomedicine-Driven Neuropathic Pain Relief In Rat Model Is Associated With Macrophage Polarity And Mast Cell Activation, Muzamil Saleem

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

We explored the immune neuropathology underlying multi-day relief from neuropathic pain in a rat model initiated at the sciatic nerve by using a nanoemulsion-based nanomedicine as a biological probe. The nanomedicine is theranostic: both therapeutic (containing celecoxib drug) and diagnostic (containing near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) dye) and is small enough to be phagocytosed by circulating monocytes. A model of neuropathic pain is initiated by tying four 1mm spaced knots around the sciatic nerve with chromic gut suture, which results in neuroinflammation, and a resultant pain-like behavior manifests. We show that pain-like behavior reaches a plateau of maximum hypersensitivity 8 days post-surgery ...


Towards A Unified Disease Mechanism For Trna Synthetase-Mediated Peripheral Neuropathy, Emily L. Spaulding 2019 The Jackson Laboratory

Towards A Unified Disease Mechanism For Trna Synthetase-Mediated Peripheral Neuropathy, Emily L. Spaulding

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is a debilitating inherited peripheral neuropathy resulting in progressive distal muscle atrophy and loss of sensation. CMT is genetically heterogeneous, with mutations in over 80 different genes leading to demyelinating or axonal forms. There are genetically similar subgroups, including the largest protein family implicated in the disease, the tRNA synthetases (ARSs). ARSs are responsible for aminoacylation of tRNAs during translation and are therefore ubiquitously expressed and essential proteins. Dominant mutations in at least five ARSs cause axonal forms of CMT. How mutations in ARSs cause CMT is unclear, however, the similar clinical presentation of patients suggests shared ...


Cholesterol Biosynthesis In The Nervous System With An Emphasis On Desmosterolosis, Luke Allen 2019 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Cholesterol Biosynthesis In The Nervous System With An Emphasis On Desmosterolosis, Luke Allen

Theses & Dissertations

Cholesterol biosynthesis is integral to proper neurodevelopment due to the reliance on de novo synthesis of cholesterol in the brain. Disruptions in this process have devastating outcomes for human life characterized by several phenotypic manifestations concomitant with developmental delay. The cholesterol biosynthesis disorder desmosterolosis is an extremely rare disorder with a severe clinical phenotype, however, the models used to study this disease are not well characterized. In addition to genetic disruptions in cholesterol biosynthesis, pharmacological perturbation is an understudied side effect of many commonly prescribed drugs. Here we present a characterization of the sterol profile of the mouse model of ...


Assessing The Morphology Of Vesicles In Inhibitory Symmetric Synapses In Safety And Fear Conditions In The Rat Lateral Amygdala, Valerie Kress 2019 University of Connecticut

Assessing The Morphology Of Vesicles In Inhibitory Symmetric Synapses In Safety And Fear Conditions In The Rat Lateral Amygdala, Valerie Kress

Honors Scholar Theses

There is a significant lack of research on vesicle morphology in inhibitory synapses in the rat lateral amygdala. Published research focuses heavily on excitatory synapses in different parts of the rat brain and even this research rarely focuses on the different vesicle types in axons. It is reported that in these axons, synaptic vesicles traditionally contain neurotransmitters while small dense core vesicles contain active zone proteins and large dense core vesicles contain neuropeptides. This study aims to find correlations between vesicle morphology, location, contents, and potential function of each of the different types of vesicle in inhibitory axons.

After reviewing ...


Alzheimer's And Amyloid Beta: Amyloidogenicity And Tauopathy Via Dyshomeostatic Interactions Of Amyloid Beta, Jordan Tillinghast 2019 Liberty University

Alzheimer's And Amyloid Beta: Amyloidogenicity And Tauopathy Via Dyshomeostatic Interactions Of Amyloid Beta, Jordan Tillinghast

Senior Honors Theses

This paper reviews functions of Amyloid-β (Aβ) in healthy individuals compared to the consequences of aberrant Aβ in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). As extraneuronal Aβ accumulation and plaque formation are characteristics of AD, it is reasonable to infer a pivotal role for Aβ in AD pathogenesis. Establishing progress of the disease as well as the mechanism of neurodegeneration from AD have proven difficult (Selkoe, 1994). This thesis provides evidence suggesting the pathogenesis of AD is due to dysfunctional neuronal processes involving Aβ’s synaptic malfunction, abnormal interaction with tau, and disruption of neuronal homeostasis. Significant evidence demonstrates that AD symptoms ...


A Novel Switch-Like Function Of Delta-Catenin In Dendrite Development, Ryan Baumert 2019 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

A Novel Switch-Like Function Of Delta-Catenin In Dendrite Development, Ryan Baumert

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The formation of neuronal networks in the brain is tightly regulated, and dependent on the morphology of dendrites, the branch-like signal-receiving structures extending from neurons. Disruptions in dendrite development, or dendritogenesis, can lead to the atypical neuronal connectivity associated with multiple neurodevelopmental diseases. My research addresses molecular processes that underlie dendritogenesis via analysis of a pair of novel interactions involving the protein delta-catenin.

In neurons, delta-catenin localizes to dendrites and synapses, where it functions in their development and maintenance. Structurally, delta-catenin possesses a central Armadillo domain and a C-terminal PDZ-binding motif. This motif associates with PDZ domain-containing proteins, and is ...


Investigating The Effects Of Excitotoxic Stimuli On The Suprachiasmatic Nucleus, Rachel A. Brandes 2019 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Investigating The Effects Of Excitotoxic Stimuli On The Suprachiasmatic Nucleus, Rachel A. Brandes

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Understanding Object Motion Encoding In The Mammalian Retina., Victor Julian DePiero 2019 University of Louisville

Understanding Object Motion Encoding In The Mammalian Retina., Victor Julian Depiero

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Phototransduction, transmission of visual information down the optic nerve incurs delays on the order of 50 – 100ms. This implies that the neuronal representation of a moving object should lag behind the object’s actual position. However, studies have demonstrated that the visual system compensates for neuronal delays using a predictive mechanism called phase advancing, which shifts the population response toward the leading edge of a moving object’s retinal image. To understand how this compensation is achieved in the retina, I investigated cellular and synaptic mechanisms that drive phase advancing. I used three approaches, each testing phase advancing at a ...


#7 - The Role Of Rnf216/Triad3 In Neuroinflammation Through Interactions With Toll-Like-Receptors, Dustin Grossman 2019 Georgia State University

#7 - The Role Of Rnf216/Triad3 In Neuroinflammation Through Interactions With Toll-Like-Receptors, Dustin Grossman

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Ubiquitin E3 ligases are enzymes that mark certain substrates with ubiquitin proteins which leads to different cellular fates. Ring finger protein 216 (RNF216) is a ubiquitin E3 ligase that is involved in synaptic plasticity, inhibiting cellular autophagy, and the immune response in the peripheral nervous system. Previous literature has demonstrated that RNF216 participates in various aspects of inflammation by regulating ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of receptor-interacting serine-threonine kinase 1 (RIPK1), toll-interleukin 1 receptor domain containing adaptor protein (TIRAP), and TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF), targeting TNF receptor associated factor 3 (TRAF3) for degradation. TLRs initiate signal transduction pathways which can lead ...


#44 - Effects Of Chemical Vagotomy On The Neonatal Mouse Paraventricular Nucleus Of The Hypothalamus, Aviva Gars, Alexandra Castillo-Ruiz, Benoit Chassaing, Nancy Forger 2019 Georgia State University

#44 - Effects Of Chemical Vagotomy On The Neonatal Mouse Paraventricular Nucleus Of The Hypothalamus, Aviva Gars, Alexandra Castillo-Ruiz, Benoit Chassaing, Nancy Forger

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Birth is marked by a dramatic transition from the sterile womb to a world full of microorganisms that colonize every body surface. We previously found that this colonization exerts rapid effects on brain development, as in mice born in the absence of microbes had increased cell death in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), an effect not seen 12 h prior to expected delivery. The gut microbiota influences the development of many body systems, and communicates bi-directionally with the brain. We hypothesize that the microbiota exerts effects on neuronal cell death via the vagus nerve, which connects the gut ...


#17 - Glia Characterization In Bloc-1 Deficient Mice, Jhodi Webster, Jennifer Larimore 2019 Agnes Scott College

#17 - Glia Characterization In Bloc-1 Deficient Mice, Jhodi Webster, Jennifer Larimore

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Schizophrenia (SZ) is a chronic mental disorder characterized by hallucinations, disorganized speech, memory deficits and an emotionless demeanor. It has been reported that dysbindin, a subunit of the octomeric BLOC-1 complex, is reduced in the hippocampus of patients with SZ. Dysbindin regulates endosomal trafficking and has also been localized to the astroglial endfeet and endothelial cells that line capillaries in the cerebellum. Microglial activation has been implicated in neurological disorders and may regulate SZ progression. Thus, further characterization of glia cell function in SZ is necessary. This study will examine glia cell markers in dysbindin deficient mice in an effort ...


Sex Specific Electrophysiology Of Aromatase Neurons In The Medial Amygdala, Marcelo Henrique Correia 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Sex Specific Electrophysiology Of Aromatase Neurons In The Medial Amygdala, Marcelo Henrique Correia

Masters Theses

The medial amygdala (MeA) is a central node in the interwoven circuits that regulate social behavior based on pheromones. Aromatase-expressing (arom+) neurons in the MeA are key for the establishment and maintenance of sex differences. Here, we characterized the intrinsic electrophysiological properties of arom+ neurons and non-aromatase (arom-) neurons in the MeA of male and female mice. Most electrophysiological properties were similar for arom+ neurons in the MeA between sexes, but the relative refractory period was twice as large in female mice. We also show that the firing pattern and firing frequency is markedly different between arom+ and arom- neurons ...


Micrornas Are Necessary For Bmp-7-Induced Dendritic Growth In Cultured Rat Sympathetic Neurons, Vidya Chandrasekaran 2019 Saint Mary's College of California

Micrornas Are Necessary For Bmp-7-Induced Dendritic Growth In Cultured Rat Sympathetic Neurons, Vidya Chandrasekaran

Vidya Chandrasekaran

Neuronal connectivity is dependent on size and shape of the dendritic arbor. However, mechanisms controlling dendritic arborization, especially in the peripheral nervous system, are not completely understood. Previous studies have shown that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are important initiators of dendritic growth in peripheral neurons. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that post-transcriptional regulation mediated by microRNAs (miRNAs) is necessary for BMP-7-induced dendritic growth in these neurons. To examine the role of miRNAs in BMP-7-induced dendritic growth, microarray analyses was used to profile miRNA expression in cultured sympathetic neurons from the superior cervical ganglia of embryonic day 21 rat ...


Hyaluronan At The Brain-Environment Interface, Donald M. Thevalingam 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Hyaluronan At The Brain-Environment Interface, Donald M. Thevalingam

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Hyaluronan (HA; Hyaluronic Acid), a primary scaffolding component of the brain extracellular matrix, serves as an integral structural component to the brain extracellular space (ECS). The fossorial African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber; NM-R), a mammal which lives in a low-oxygen environment and is capable of tolerating hypoxia and hypercapnia, has been shown to synthesize and sustain a unique high-molecular-mass variant of hyaluronan macromolecule (HMM-HA). This body of work highlights HA’s role in mediating the interplay between brain ECM composition, ECS structure, and cell viability.

Here we employ the NM-R as a unique animal model to observe the role of ...


Development And Sensory Experience Dependent Regulation Of Microglia In Barrel Cortex, Joshua C. Brumberg, John Kalambogias, Chia-Chien Chen, Safraz Khan, Titus Son, Carolyn Headlam, Cindy Lin 2019 CUNY Queens College

Development And Sensory Experience Dependent Regulation Of Microglia In Barrel Cortex, Joshua C. Brumberg, John Kalambogias, Chia-Chien Chen, Safraz Khan, Titus Son, Carolyn Headlam, Cindy Lin

Publications and Research

The barrel cortex is within the primary somatosensory cortex of the rodent, and processes signals from the vibrissae. Much focus has been devoted to the function of neurons, more recently, the role of glial cells in the processing of sensory input has gained increasing interest. Microglia are the principal immune cells of the nervous system that survey and regulate the cellular constituents of the dynamic nervous system. We investigated the normal and disrupted development of microglia in barrel cortex by chronically depriving sensory signals via whisker trimming for the animals’ first postnatal month. Using immunohistochemistry to label microglia, we performed ...


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