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Characterization Of Species C Human Adenovirus Serotype 6 (Ad6), Eric A. Weaver, Reeti Khare, Mathew L. Hillestad, Donna Palmer, Philip Ng, Michael A. Barry 2011 University of Nebraska-Lincoln & Mayo Clinic, Rochester

Characterization Of Species C Human Adenovirus Serotype 6 (Ad6), Eric A. Weaver, Reeti Khare, Mathew L. Hillestad, Donna Palmer, Philip Ng, Michael A. Barry

Nebraska Center for Virology: Faculty Publications

Adenovirus serotype (Ad5) is the most studied Ad. Ad1, 2, and 6 are also members of species C Ad and are presumed to have biologies similar to Ad5. In this work, we have compared the ability of Ad1, 2, 5, and 6 to infect liver and muscle after intravenous and intramuscular injection. We found that Ad6 was surprisingly the most potent at liver gene delivery and that Ad1 and Ad2 were markedly weaker than Ad5 and 6. To understand these differences, we sequenced the Ad6 genome. This revealed that the Ad6 fiber protein is surprisingly three shaft repeats shorter than …


Purification, Characterisation And Applications Of A Cloned Staphylococcal Bacteriophage Lysin For The Control Of Multi-Drug Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Including Mrsa, Mark Fenton 2011 Department of Biological Sciences, Cork Institute of Technology, Cork, Ireland.

Purification, Characterisation And Applications Of A Cloned Staphylococcal Bacteriophage Lysin For The Control Of Multi-Drug Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Including Mrsa, Mark Fenton

Theses

The work presented in this thesis focuses on the purification, characterisation and practical applications of an anti-staphylococcal lysin (LysK) and its single-domain truncated derivative (CHAPk) against pathogenic staphylococci including meticillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Both proteins were purified to greater than 90% homogeneity. Affinity chromatography was applied as the optimum method for LysK purification and ion-exchange chromatography was successfully applied to CHAPk. The lytic spectrum of LysK was investigated by zymogram analysis where the enzyme exhibited strong activity against a range of staphylococci regardless of their origin, sequence type (ST) or antibiotic resistant profile. This analysis …


Development Of An Elisa For Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus That Can Differentiate Infected From Vaccinated Horses, Andrea Bingham 2011 University of South Florida

Development Of An Elisa For Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus That Can Differentiate Infected From Vaccinated Horses, Andrea Bingham

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus (EEEV) causes a fatal mosquito-borne virus that is vaccine preventable for horses. The conventional serological tests measure antibodies to the structural proteins of EEEV which are also found in the vaccine. This makes it difficult to differentiate infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA). Detection of antibodies to non-structural proteins (NSPs) is a theoretical strategy that would allow you to survey natural infections among vaccinated populations. This test would also allow for more accurate representations of the natural infection rate, vaccination rate, and help identify vaccine failures. The potential uses of the NSPs of Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus …


Identification And Characterization Of The Human Herpesviruses 6a And 6b Genome Integration Into Telomeres Of Human Chromosomes During Latency, Jesse Herbert Arbuckle 2011 University of South Florida

Identification And Characterization Of The Human Herpesviruses 6a And 6b Genome Integration Into Telomeres Of Human Chromosomes During Latency, Jesse Herbert Arbuckle

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

While the latent genome of most Herpesviruses persists as a nuclear circular episome, previous research has suggested that Human Herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) may integrate into host cell chromosomes, and be vertically transmitted in the germ-line. Because the HHV-6 genome encodes a perfect TTAGGG telomere repeat array at the right end direct repeat (DRR) and an imperfect TTAGGG repeat at the end of the left end direct repeat (DRL), we established a hypothesis that during latency, the HHV-6A and HHV-6B genome integrates into the telomeres of human chromosomes through homologous recombination with the n(TTAGGG) viral repeats, and …


Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 : Interactions With The Cellular Proteasome And Microrna Pathways, Daniel Joseph Munson 2011 University at Albany, State University of New York

Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 : Interactions With The Cellular Proteasome And Microrna Pathways, Daniel Joseph Munson

Legacy Theses & Dissertations (2009 - 2024)

Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1) is a human pathogen that is estimated to have infected 60-80% of the population worldwide, causing oral lesions, encephalitis, and blindness. Infection results in life-long latency of the virus, with periods of reactivation and symptomatic disease. Early in infection, HSV-1 induces the formation of replication compartments and VICE (virus induced chaperone enriched) domains within the nucleus. Adjacent to VICE domains, we observed foci which contained Mss1, a cellular protein normally associated with the proteasome. Mss1 belongs to the AAA-ATPase family of proteins, which have been shown to function in DNA repair, transcription, translation, and …


Efficacy Of The Pentavalent Rotavirus Vaccine, Rotateq (Rv5), Between Doses Of A 3-Dose Series And With Less Than 3 Doses (Incomplete Regimen), Penelope D. Dennehy, Timo Vesikari, David O. Matson, Robbin F. Itzler, Michael J. Dallas, Michelle G. Goveia, Mark J. DiNubile, Penny M. Heaton, Max Ciarlet 2011 Old Dominion University

Efficacy Of The Pentavalent Rotavirus Vaccine, Rotateq (Rv5), Between Doses Of A 3-Dose Series And With Less Than 3 Doses (Incomplete Regimen), Penelope D. Dennehy, Timo Vesikari, David O. Matson, Robbin F. Itzler, Michael J. Dallas, Michelle G. Goveia, Mark J. Dinubile, Penny M. Heaton, Max Ciarlet

Community & Environmental Health Faculty Publications

Post-hoc analyses of the Rotavirus Efficacy and Safety Trial (RES T) were conducted to determine whether the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) confers early protection against rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) before completion of the 3-dose regimen. To evaluate the efficacy of RV5 between doses in reducing the rates of RVGE-related hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) visits in infants who ultimately received all 3 doses of RV5/placebo, events occurring from 2 weeks after the first and second doses to receipt of the subsequent dose (Analysis A) and events occurring from 2 weeks after the first and second doses to 2 weeks after the …


Human Endogenous Retrovirus Transcription Profiles Of The Kidney And Kidney-Derived Cell Lines, Sonja Haupt, Michele Tisdale, Michelle Vincendeau, Mary Anne Clements, David T. Gauthier, Raymond Lance, O. John Demmes, Adriana Tuqueti-Neves, Elfriede Noessner, Christine Leib-Mösch, Alex D. Greenwood 2011 Old Dominion University

Human Endogenous Retrovirus Transcription Profiles Of The Kidney And Kidney-Derived Cell Lines, Sonja Haupt, Michele Tisdale, Michelle Vincendeau, Mary Anne Clements, David T. Gauthier, Raymond Lance, O. John Demmes, Adriana Tuqueti-Neves, Elfriede Noessner, Christine Leib-Mösch, Alex D. Greenwood

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

The human genome comprises approximately 8-9% of human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) that are transcribed with tissue specificity. However, relatively few organs have been examined in detail for individual differences in HERV transcription pattern, nor have tissue-to-cell culture comparisons been frequently performed. Using an HERV-specific DNA microarray, a core HERV transcription profile was established for the human kidney comparing 10 tissue samples. This core represents HERV groups expressed uniformly or nearly so in non-tumour kidney tissue. The profiles obtained from non-tumour tissues were compared to 10 renal tumour tissues (renal cell carcinoma, RCC) derived from the same individuals and additionally, to …


Maporal Hantavirus Β-Integrin Utilization And Sensitivity To Favipiravir, Kristin K. Buys 2010 Utah State University

Maporal Hantavirus Β-Integrin Utilization And Sensitivity To Favipiravir, Kristin K. Buys

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Spring 1920 to Summer 2023

Hantaviruses are members of the Bunyaviridae family of viruses. Pathogenic hantaviruses are the etiologic agents of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), a disease principally endemic in the Old World, and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS), a disease primarily restricted to the Americas. Maporal virus (MPRLV), a recently isolated hantavirus, has been found to cause disease in hamsters that resembles HPS in humans. However, the virus has not been linked to human cases of HPS. Considerable evidence suggests that β-integrin usage mediating infection may serve to distinguish hantaviruses pathogenic to humans from nonpathogenic, but this receptor usage pattern information is not …


The Molecular Mechanism Of Viral Transactivator Rta-Mediated Kaposi’S Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (Kshv) Lytic Replication, Hui-Ju Wen 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The Molecular Mechanism Of Viral Transactivator Rta-Mediated Kaposi’S Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (Kshv) Lytic Replication, Hui-Ju Wen

School of Biological Sciences: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a member of the gamma-herpesvirinae subfamily and displays two distinct life phases, latency and lytic replication. Infection with KSHV mostly results in a latent state. A small population of infected cells can spontaneously undergo lytic phase, which is marked by abundant viral gene expression and production of infectious viral progeny. Lytic replication is important for transmission of KSHV in the population and development of diseases. RTA (replication and transcription activator) is a master regulator of KSHV lytic replication. Expression of RTA alone is sufficient to disrupt KSHV latency and initiate the lytic replication cascade. The …


Analysis Of Polymorphism In Human Cytomegalovirus (Hcmv) Chemokine, Vcxcl-1, And Its Role In Cellular Activation, Jinho Heo 2010 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Analysis Of Polymorphism In Human Cytomegalovirus (Hcmv) Chemokine, Vcxcl-1, And Its Role In Cellular Activation, Jinho Heo

Doctoral Dissertations

The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) viral chemokine gene, UL146, shows a high degree of variability in clinical isolates. The UL146-produced viral chemokine, vCXCL-1, has homology to CXC chemokines and is predicted to be an immune modulator that may contribute to the pathogenesis of HCMV infections. In the analysis of clinical isolates from congenitally infected infants, we found 11 distinct vCXCL-1 clades. Although the four cysteine residues that create two disulfide bonds providing the essential structure for CXC chemokines,are conserved, the N-loop region, which is important for receptor binding and activation, was hypervariable. One clade also contained a modified glutamic acid-leucine-arginine (ELR) …


Vertical Transmission Of West Nile Virus In Culex Spp. Mosquitoes Of Clark County, Nevada, Vivek K. Raman 2010 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Vertical Transmission Of West Nile Virus In Culex Spp. Mosquitoes Of Clark County, Nevada, Vivek K. Raman

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

West Nile Virus (WNV) is an RNA arbovirus that cycles between mosquitoes and birds, but also infects and causes disease in humans, horses and other vertebrate species. Although most infections are asymptomatic, WNV has emerged as the most common cause of epidemic meningoencephalitis in North America and the leading cause of arboviral encephalitis in the United States.

Mosquitoes of the genus Culex are the most active vectors of WNV in North America. Approximately 85% of human WNV infections in the United States occur in late summer with a peak number of cases in August and September. Vertical transmission is defined …


Detection Of Poliovirus By Icc/Qpcr In Concentrated Water Samples Has Greater Sensitivity And Is Less Costly Using Bgm Cells In Suspension As Compared To Monolayers, Helene B. Balkin, Aaron B. Margolin 2010 University of New Hampshire

Detection Of Poliovirus By Icc/Qpcr In Concentrated Water Samples Has Greater Sensitivity And Is Less Costly Using Bgm Cells In Suspension As Compared To Monolayers, Helene B. Balkin, Aaron B. Margolin

Molecular, Cellular & Biomedical Sciences

The integrated cell culture quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (ICC/qRT-PCR) method is used in our lab to detect enteroviruses in environmental waters. Typically we utilize monolayers of 3 cell lines; buffalo green monkey kidney (BGM), human colonic carcinoma (CACO-2) and African rhesus monkey kidney (MA104) with the intent of providing one or more permissive hosts to a wide range of enteroviruses. In this study the BGM cell line was used to compare poliovirus infectivity in conventional monolayer cultures to BGM cells in suspensions. Propagated virus was subsequently amplified by qRT-PCR. Our PCR data showed lower cycle threshold (Ct) values in the …


Interferon Regulatory Factor 3-Dependent Pathways Are Critical For Control Of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Central Nervous System Infection, Vineet D. Menachery, Tracy J. Pasieka, David A. Leib 2010 Washington University School of Medicine

Interferon Regulatory Factor 3-Dependent Pathways Are Critical For Control Of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Central Nervous System Infection, Vineet D. Menachery, Tracy J. Pasieka, David A. Leib

Dartmouth Scholarship

The initiation of the immune response at the cellular level relies on specific recognition molecules to rapidly signal viral infection via interferon (IFN) regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3)-dependent pathways. The absence of IRF-3 would be expected to render such pathways inoperative and thereby significantly affect viral infection. Unexpectedly, a previous study found no significant change in herpes simplex virus (HSV) pathogenesis in IRF-3−/− mice following intravenous HSV type 1 (HSV-1) challenge (K. Honda, H. Yanai, H. Negishi, M. Asagiri, M. Sato, T. Mizutani, N. Shimada, Y. Ohba, A. Takaoka, N. Yoshida, and T. Taniguchi, Nature 434:772-777, 2005). In contrast, the …


The Chlorella Variabilis Nc64a Genome Reveals Adaptation To Photosymbiosis, Coevolution With Viruses, And Cryptic Sex, Guillaume Blanc, Garry Duncan, Irina Agarkova, Mark Borodovsky, James Gurnon, Alan Kuo, Erika Lindquist, Susan Lucas, Jasmyn Pangilinan, Juergen Polle, Asaf Salamov, Astrid Terry, Takashi Yamada, David D. Dunigan, Igor V. Grigoriev, Jean-Michel Claverie, James L. Van Etten 2010 Aix-Marseille Université

The Chlorella Variabilis Nc64a Genome Reveals Adaptation To Photosymbiosis, Coevolution With Viruses, And Cryptic Sex, Guillaume Blanc, Garry Duncan, Irina Agarkova, Mark Borodovsky, James Gurnon, Alan Kuo, Erika Lindquist, Susan Lucas, Jasmyn Pangilinan, Juergen Polle, Asaf Salamov, Astrid Terry, Takashi Yamada, David D. Dunigan, Igor V. Grigoriev, Jean-Michel Claverie, James L. Van Etten

Department of Plant Pathology: Faculty Publications

Chlorella variabilis NC64A, a unicellular photosynthetic green alga (Trebouxiophyceae), is an intracellular photobiont of Paramecium bursaria and a model system for studying virus/algal interactions. We sequenced its 46-Mb nuclear genome, revealing an expansion of protein families that could have participated in adaptation to symbiosis. NC64A exhibits variations in GC content across its genome that correlate with global expression level, average intron size, and codon usage bias. Although Chlorella species have been assumed to be asexual and nonmotile, the NC64A genome encodes all the known meiosis-specific proteins and a subset of proteins found in flagella. We hypothesize that Chlorella might have …


Time Will Tell: Community Acceptability Of Hiv Vaccine Research Before And After The "Step Study" Vaccine Discontinuation, Paula M. Frew, Mark J. Mulligan, Su-I Hou, Kayshin Chan, Carlos del Rio 2010 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Time Will Tell: Community Acceptability Of Hiv Vaccine Research Before And After The "Step Study" Vaccine Discontinuation, Paula M. Frew, Mark J. Mulligan, Su-I Hou, Kayshin Chan, Carlos Del Rio

Environmental & Occupational Health Faculty Publications

Objective This study examines whether men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) and transgender (TG) persons’ attitudes, beliefs, and risk perceptions toward human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine research have been altered as a result of the negative findings from a phase 2B HIV vaccine study. Design We conducted a cross-sectional survey among MSM and TG persons (N = 176) recruited from community settings in Atlanta from 2007 to 2008. The first group was recruited during an active phase 2B HIV vaccine trial in which a candidate vaccine was being evaluated (the “Step Study”), and the second group was recruited after product futility was widely reported …


Distinct Macrophage Subpopulations Regulate Viral Encephalitis But Not Viral Clearance In The Cns, Christina D. Steel, Woong-Ki KIm, Larry Sanford, Laurie Wellman, Sandra Burnett, Nico Van Rooijen, Rochard P. Ciavarra 2010 Old Dominion University

Distinct Macrophage Subpopulations Regulate Viral Encephalitis But Not Viral Clearance In The Cns, Christina D. Steel, Woong-Ki Kim, Larry Sanford, Laurie Wellman, Sandra Burnett, Nico Van Rooijen, Rochard P. Ciavarra

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Intranasal application of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) induces acute encephalitis characterized by a pronounced myeloid and T cell infiltrate. The role of distinct phagocytic populations on VSV encephalitis was therefore examined in this study. Ablation of peripheral macrophages did not impair VSV encephalitis or viral clearance from the brain, whereas, depletion of splenic marginal dendritic cells impaired this response and enhanced morbidity/mortality. Selective depletion of brain perivascular macrophages also suppressed this response without altering viral clearance. Thus, two anatomically distinct phagocytic populations regulate VSV encephalitis in a non-redundant fashion although neither population is essential for viral clearance in the CNS. …


Virus Silicification Under Simulated Hot Spring Conditions, James R. Laidler, Kenneth M. Stedman 2010 Portland State University

Virus Silicification Under Simulated Hot Spring Conditions, James R. Laidler, Kenneth M. Stedman

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Silicification of organisms in silica-depositing environments can impact both their ecology and their presence in the fossil record. Although microbes have been silicified under laboratory and environmental conditions, viruses have not. Bacteriophage T4 was successfully silicified under laboratory conditions that closely simulated those found in silica-depositing hot springs. Virus morphology was maintained, and a clear elemental signature of phosphorus was detected by energy-dispersive X-ray spectrophotometry (EDS).


Primary Human Mammary Epithelial Cells Endocytose Hiv-1 And Facilitate Viral Infection Of Cd4+ T Lymphocytes, Stephanie M. Dorosko, Ruth I. Connor 2010 Dartmouth College

Primary Human Mammary Epithelial Cells Endocytose Hiv-1 And Facilitate Viral Infection Of Cd4+ T Lymphocytes, Stephanie M. Dorosko, Ruth I. Connor

Dartmouth Scholarship

The contribution of mammary epithelial cells (MEC) to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in breast milk remains largely unknown. While breast milk contains CD4(+) cells throughout the breast-feeding period, it is not known whether MEC directly support HIV-1 infection or facilitate infection of CD4(+) cells in the breast compartment. This study evaluated primary human MEC for direct infection with HIV-1 and for indirect transfer of infection to CD4(+) target cells. Primary human MEC were isolated and assessed for expression of HIV-1 receptors. MEC were exposed to CCR5-, CXCR4- and dual-tropic strains of HIV-1 and evaluated for viral reverse transcription …


Mononucleosis And Antigen-Driven T Cell Responses Have Different Requirements For Interleukin-2 Signaling In Murine Gammaherpesvirus Infection, Michael Molloy, Weijun Zhang, Edward Usherwood 2010 Dartmouth College

Mononucleosis And Antigen-Driven T Cell Responses Have Different Requirements For Interleukin-2 Signaling In Murine Gammaherpesvirus Infection, Michael Molloy, Weijun Zhang, Edward Usherwood

Dartmouth Scholarship

Interleukin-2 (IL-2) has been implicated as being necessary for the optimal formation of primary CD8+ T cell responses against various pathogens. Here we have examined the role that IL-2 signaling plays in several aspects of a CD8+ T cell response against murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68). Exposure to MHV-68 causes a persistent infection, along with infectious mononucleosis, providing a model for studying these processes in mice. Our study indicates that CD25 is necessary for optimal expansion of the antigen-specific CD8+ T cell response but not for the long-term memory response. Contrastingly, IL-2 signaling through CD25 is absolutely required …


5’-Proximal Cis-Acting Rna Signals For Coronavirus Genome Replication, Bo-Jhih Guan 2010 Microbiology

5’-Proximal Cis-Acting Rna Signals For Coronavirus Genome Replication, Bo-Jhih Guan

Doctoral Dissertations

RNA sequences and higher-order structures in the 5’ and 3’ untranslated regions (UTRs) of positive-strand RNA viruses are known to function as cis-acting elements for translation, replication, and transcription. In coronaviruses, these are best characterized in the group 2a bovine coronavirus (BCoV) and mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), yet their precise mechanistic features are largely undefined. Here, we use a reverse genetics system in MHV to exploit the ~30% nt sequence divergence between BCoV and MHV to establish structure/function relationships of 5’ UTR cis-replication elements. It had been previously shown that a precise replacement of the 391-nt MHV 3’ UTR with …


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