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Archaeoparasitology Of Chaco Canyon, Rachel Paseka 2011 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Archaeoparasitology Of Chaco Canyon, Rachel Paseka

Environmental Studies Undergraduate Student Theses

Ancient cultures of the Colorado Plateau have been a focus of archaeoparasitology since its inception, and a vast parasitological history is recorded in coprolites preserved in this arid region. The inhabitants of Chaco Canyon dominated Ancestral Puebloan culture between 1050 and 1120 AD and were responsible for the construction of great towns, road systems, and early agriculture. Analysis of the parasites preserved in fecal remains contributes to an increased knowledge of ancient Chacoan health and culture. Nineteen coprolites from four sites in Chaco Canyon were rehydrated and analyzed microscopically for parasite remains. Rhabditiform and filariform nematode larvae were found from ...


Evaluation Of Chromosomally-Integrated Luxcdabe And Plasmid-Borne Gfp Markers For The Study Of Localization And Shedding Of Stec O91:H21 In Calves, Yingying Hong 2011 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Evaluation Of Chromosomally-Integrated Luxcdabe And Plasmid-Borne Gfp Markers For The Study Of Localization And Shedding Of Stec O91:H21 In Calves, Yingying Hong

Masters Theses

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) has been recognized as an important foodborne pathogen. Of this group, O91 is one of the common serogroups frequently isolated from patients and food in some countries, with O91:H21 being previously implicated in hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Cattle are principle reservoirs for STEC, and studies examining STEC shedding in cattle often include experimental inoculation of strains of interest using antibiotic resistance markers for identifiable recovery. However, indigenous fecal microbes exhibiting similar resistance patterns can confound such studies. Such was the case in a study by our group when attempting to characterize shedding patterns of ...


Characterization Of The Microbial Associates Of Nematodes Pathogenic To Myrmica Rubra, Jonathan E. Dumont 2011 University of Maine

Characterization Of The Microbial Associates Of Nematodes Pathogenic To Myrmica Rubra, Jonathan E. Dumont

Honors College

Pristionchus entomophagus is a necromenic nematode commonly associated with dung beetles (Geotrupes spp.) in Europe. Recently, it has been found in Maine emerging from cadavers of M. rubra, an ant native to Europe that is currently established and pestiferous in Maine (Groden and Stack 2011). Laboratory assays inoculating M. rubra with these nematodes caused significant mortality. This study aimed to characterize the bacterial associates of P. entomophagus in order to further understand its pathogenic relationship with M. rubra. Bacterial samples were collected from the cuticle and gut of the nematodes, and the hemolymph of infected hosts. Single spore isolates were ...


Dur3 Is The Major Urea Transporter In Candida Albicans And Is Co-Regulated With The Urea Amidolyase Dur1,2, Dhammika H. M. L. P Navarathna, Aditi Das, Joachim Morschhauser, Kenneth W. Nickerson, David D. Roberts 2011 National Cancer Institute

Dur3 Is The Major Urea Transporter In Candida Albicans And Is Co-Regulated With The Urea Amidolyase Dur1,2, Dhammika H. M. L. P Navarathna, Aditi Das, Joachim Morschhauser, Kenneth W. Nickerson, David D. Roberts

Kenneth Nickerson Papers

Hemiascomycetes, including the pathogen Candida albicans, acquire nitrogen from urea using the urea amidolyase Dur1,2, whereas all other higher fungi use primarily the nickel-containing urease. Urea metabolism via Dur1,2 is important for resistance to innate host immunity in C. albicans infections. To further characterize urea metabolism in C. albicans we examined the function of seven putative urea transporters. Gene disruption established that Dur3, encoded by orf 19.781, is the predominant transporter. [14C]Urea uptake was energy-dependent and decreased approximately sevenfold in a dur3D mutant. DUR1,2 and DUR3 expression was strongly induced by urea, whereas the ...


A Multidisciplinary Approach To Food Safety Evaluation: Hummus Spoilage And Microbial Analysis Of Kitchen Surfaces In Residential Child Care Institutions (Rcci) In Massachusetts, U.S.A., Elsina E. Hagan 2011 University of Massachusetts Amherst

A Multidisciplinary Approach To Food Safety Evaluation: Hummus Spoilage And Microbial Analysis Of Kitchen Surfaces In Residential Child Care Institutions (Rcci) In Massachusetts, U.S.A., Elsina E. Hagan

Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014

Food borne illnesses continues to be a public health challenge in the United States (U.S.); an estimated 9.4 million incident cases occurred in 2011. In view of this challenge we conducted two food safety studies; 1) related to product formulation (hummus spoilage challenge study) and 2) evaluating the microbial safety of domestic kitchen surfaces in Residential Child Care Institutions (RCCI pilot study).

Hummus is of Mediterranean origin but is currently eaten globally. This challenge study evaluates a variety of industrial hummus formulations (four in total, differing in pH and/or addition of a preservative (natamycin). Two batches were ...


An Investigation Of The Subtype Diversity Of Clinical Isolates Of Irish Clostridium Difficile Ribotypes 027 And 078 By Repetitive-Extragenic Palindromic Pcr, Denise Drudy, K. Solomon, S. Murray, L. Scott, S. McDermott,, A. Martin, C. O’Donoghue, M. Skally, K. Burns, L. Fenelon, F. Fitzpatrick,, L. Kyne, S. Fanning 2011 Technological University Dublin

An Investigation Of The Subtype Diversity Of Clinical Isolates Of Irish Clostridium Difficile Ribotypes 027 And 078 By Repetitive-Extragenic Palindromic Pcr, Denise Drudy, K. Solomon, S. Murray, L. Scott, S. Mcdermott,, A. Martin, C. O’Donoghue, M. Skally, K. Burns, L. Fenelon, F. Fitzpatrick,, L. Kyne, S. Fanning

Articles

A repetitive-extragenic palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) subtyping method (DiversiLab) in conjunction with ribotyping, toxinotyping and antimicrobial-susceptibility testing was used to detect subtypes within Clostridium difficile ribotypes 027 and 078. Clinical isolates of ribotypes 027 (toxinotype III) (n530) and 078 (toxinotype V) (n523) were provided by health-care facilities across the Republic of Ireland over 2 months in 2006 and 1 month in 2009. Ribotype 027 isolates were significantly more related to each other (9 different subtype profiles) when compared to ribotype 078 isolates (14 different profiles) (P50.001; cut-off .90 % similarity). Almost half of ribotype 078 isolates (45.5 %) showed no relationship ...


Campylobacter Ureolyticus: An Emerging Gastrointestinal Pathogen?, Susan Bullman, Daniel Corcoran, James O'Leary, Brigid Lucey, Deirdre Byrne, Roy D. Sleator 2010 Department of Biological Sciences, Cork Institute of Technology

Campylobacter Ureolyticus: An Emerging Gastrointestinal Pathogen?, Susan Bullman, Daniel Corcoran, James O'Leary, Brigid Lucey, Deirdre Byrne, Roy D. Sleator

Department of Biological Sciences Publications

A total of 7194 faecal samples collected over a 1-year period from patients presenting with diarrhoea were screened for Campylobacter spp. using EntericBios, a multiplex-PCR system. Of 349 Campylobacter-positive samples, 23.8% were shown to be Campylobacter ureolyticus, using a combination of 16S rRNA gene analysis and highly specific primers targeting the HSP60 gene of this organism. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of C. ureolyticus in the faeces of patients presenting with gastroenteritis and may suggest a role for this organism as an emerging enteric pathogen.


Characterization Of The Agrobacterium Tumefaciens Virb2 Pilin Of The Virb/D4 Type Iv Secretion System, Jennifer Kerr 2010 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Characterization Of The Agrobacterium Tumefaciens Virb2 Pilin Of The Virb/D4 Type Iv Secretion System, Jennifer Kerr

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirB/D4 type IV secretion system (T4SS) delivers oncogenic T-DNA and effector proteins to susceptible plant cells. This leads to the formation of tumors termed Crown Galls. The VirB/D4 T4SS is comprised of 12 subunits (VirB1 to VirB11 and VirD4), which assemble to form two structures, a secretion channel spanning the cell envelope and a T-pilus extending from the cell surface. In A. tumefaciens, the VirB2 pilin subunit is required for assembly of the secretion channel and is the main subunit of the T-pilus. The focus of this thesis is to define key reactions associated with ...


Analysis Of The Clear Plaque Phenotype Of The Bacteriophage Hk75, Phani Chandrika Kunapuli 2010 Western Kentucky University

Analysis Of The Clear Plaque Phenotype Of The Bacteriophage Hk75, Phani Chandrika Kunapuli

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The growth of bacteriophage HK75 is inhibited by specific mutations in the zinc binding domain of the host RNA polymerase beta prime subunit. It shares this rare property with bacteriophage HK022 and other phages that use RNA mediated antitermination to promote early gene expression. Recent genomic analysis of HK75 and HK022 has confirmed the relatedness of these two phages and place HK75 in the lambdoid family of bacteriophages. Lambdoid phages are temperate and can adopt a lytic or lysogenic lifestyle upon infection of a suitable host. However, HK75 only forms clear plaques and thus appears to be defective in its ...


Study Of Population Diversity Of Toxoplasma Gondii, Debashree Majumdar 2010 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Study Of Population Diversity Of Toxoplasma Gondii, Debashree Majumdar

Masters Theses

Toxoplasma gondii, the causal agent of toxoplasmosis, is an important water and food borne protozoan parasite. T. gondii was previously shown to have a distinct clonal population structure composed of Type I, II and III lineages in North America and Europe. But more recent studies demonstrated high diversity in South America. In the present project we have conducted an intensive study of the population diversity of T. gondii and surveyed the extent of genetic variation among natural T. gondii isolates on a global scale in order to better understand the population dynamics and pathogenesis of this parasite. To this end ...


Midgut Barrier Imparts Selective Resistance To Filarial Worm Infection In Culex Pipiens Pipiens, Michelle L. Michalski, Sarah M. Erickson, Bruce M. Christensen, Lyric C. Bartholomay 2010 University of Wisconsin–Oshkosh

Midgut Barrier Imparts Selective Resistance To Filarial Worm Infection In Culex Pipiens Pipiens, Michelle L. Michalski, Sarah M. Erickson, Bruce M. Christensen, Lyric C. Bartholomay

Entomology Publications

Mosquitoes in the Culex pipiens complex thrive in temperate and tropical regions worldwide, and serve as efficient vectors of Bancroftian lymphatic filariasis (LF) caused by Wuchereria bancrofti in Asia, Africa, the West Indies, South America, and Micronesia. However, members of this mosquito complex do not act as natural vectors for Brugian LF caused by Brugia malayi, or for the cat parasite B. pahangi, despite their presence in South Asia where these parasites are endemic. Previous work with the Iowa strain of Culex pipiens pipiens demonstrates that it is equally susceptible to W. bancrofti as is the natural Cx. p. pipiens ...


Phylometrics: A Pipeline For Inferring Phylogenetic Trees From A Sequence Relationship Network Perspective, Samuel A. Smits, Cleber C. Ouverney 2010 San Jose State University

Phylometrics: A Pipeline For Inferring Phylogenetic Trees From A Sequence Relationship Network Perspective, Samuel A. Smits, Cleber C. Ouverney

Faculty Publications, Biological Sciences

Background
Comparative sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene is frequently used to characterize the microbial diversity of environmental samples. However, sequence similarities do not always imply functional or evolutionary relatedness due to many factors, including unequal rates of change and convergence. Thus, relying on top BLASTN hits for phylogenetic studies may misrepresent the diversity of these constituents. Furthermore, attempts to circumvent this issue by including a large number of BLASTN hits per sequence in one tree to explore their relatedness presents other problems. For instance, the multiple sequence alignment will be poor and computationally costly if not relying on ...


Jsphylosvg: A Javascript Library For Visualizing Interactive And Vector-Based Phylogenetic Trees On The Web, Samuel A. Smits, Cleber C. Ouverney 2010 San Jose State University

Jsphylosvg: A Javascript Library For Visualizing Interactive And Vector-Based Phylogenetic Trees On The Web, Samuel A. Smits, Cleber C. Ouverney

Faculty Publications, Biological Sciences

Background
Many software packages have been developed to address the need for generating phylogenetic trees intended for print. With an increased use of the web to disseminate scientific literature, there is a need for phylogenetic trees to be viewable across many types of devices and feature some of the interactive elements that are integral to the browsing experience. We propose a novel approach for publishing interactive phylogenetic trees.

Methods/Principal Findings
We present a javascript library, jsPhyloSVG, which facilitates constructing interactive phylogenetic trees from raw Newick or phyloXML formats directly within the browser in Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) format. It ...


A Metagenomic Study Of The Tick Midgut, Daniel T. Yuan 2010 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

A Metagenomic Study Of The Tick Midgut, Daniel T. Yuan

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

A Metagenomic Study of the Tick Midgut
Daniel Yuan, B.S.
Supervisory Professor : Steven J. Norris, Ph.D.
Southern tick–associated rash illness (STARI) or Master’s disease is a Lyme-like illness that occurs following bites by Amblyomma americanum, the lone-star tick. Clinical symptoms include a bull’s eye rash similar to the erythema migrans lesions of Lyme disease, as well as fever and joint pains. Lyme disease is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi and related spirochetes. However, B. burgdorferi has not been detected in STARI patients, or in ticks in the South Central U.S. The causative agent of STARI ...


Methicillin Resistance In Staphylococcus Pseudintermedius, Chad Christopher Black 2010 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Methicillin Resistance In Staphylococcus Pseudintermedius, Chad Christopher Black

Doctoral Dissertations

Staphylococcus pseudintermedius affecting dogs is analogous to S. aureus on humans, acting as both normal flora and opportunistic pathogen. Methicillin resistance in S. pseudintermedius is recent, with the first documented occurrence of an isolate bearing the methicillin resistance gene, mecA, in 1999. This gene encodes penicillin binding protein 2a, which renders all beta-lactam drugs ineffective and functions as a “gateway” antibiotic resistance determinant. In the presence of ineffective antibiotics, opportunities for mutational events and acquisition of mobile genetic elements increase as microbial densities increase, often leading to multi-drug resistance. Methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) infections have become increasingly common. For example ...


Campylobacter Pathogenesis And Subunit Vaccine Development, Ximin Zeng 2010 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Campylobacter Pathogenesis And Subunit Vaccine Development, Ximin Zeng

Doctoral Dissertations

Campylobacter jejuni is the leading bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis in the United States. Increasing resistance of Campylobacter to clinical antibiotics raises an urgent need for novel strategies to prevent and control infections in humans and animal reservoirs, which necessitates a better understanding of Campylobacter pathogenesis. We hypothesize that multidrug efflux pump CmeABC and ferric enterobactin (FeEnt) iron acquisition systems, which play a critical role in Campylobacter pathogenesis, are novel targets for developing effective measures against Campylobacter. To test this, the molecular, antigenic, functional, and protective characteristics of two outer membrane proteins, CmeC (an essential component of CmeABC drug efflux ...


Communities Of Cloacal Bacteria In Tree Swallow Families, Michael Lombardo, Patrick Thorpe, R. Cichewicz, M. Henshaw, C. Millard, C. Steen, T. Zeller 2010 Grand Valley State University

Communities Of Cloacal Bacteria In Tree Swallow Families, Michael Lombardo, Patrick Thorpe, R. Cichewicz, M. Henshaw, C. Millard, C. Steen, T. Zeller

Michael P Lombardo

Our aim in this study was to survey the communities of bacteria found in the cloacae of adult and nestling Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor), determine if there were familial patterns of prevalence, and determine if there were relationships between bacteria loads and nestling size when 12 days old and fledging success.


On The Evolution Of Sexually Transmitted Diseases In Birds, Michael Lombardo 2010 Grand Valley State University

On The Evolution Of Sexually Transmitted Diseases In Birds, Michael Lombardo

Michael P Lombardo

"The definitive version is available at www.blackwell-synergy.com".

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in animals are caused by pathogens that are transmitted during copulation. Birds have played an important role in the development of STD-centered theories of mating behavior. However, it is not known whether STDs exist in wild bird populations. While the avian cloaca with its dual functions of gamete transfer and excretion seemingly predisposes birds for the evolution of STDs, the life history patterns of most birds (i.e., seasonal breeders with relatively brief annual periods of sexual activity) suggest otherwise. The importance of STDs as selective forces ...


Molecular Basis Of Corynebacterium Diphtheriae Virulence And Infection In The Caenorhabditis Elegans Model Host, Melissa M. Broadway 2010 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Molecular Basis Of Corynebacterium Diphtheriae Virulence And Infection In The Caenorhabditis Elegans Model Host, Melissa M. Broadway

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Corynebacterium diphtheriae is the causative agent of cutaneous and pharyngeal diphtheria in humans. While lethality is certainly caused by diphtheria toxin, corynebacterial colonization may primarily require proteinaceous fibers called pili, which mediate adherence to specific tissues. The type strain of C. diphtheriae possesses three distinct pilus structures, namely the SpaA, SpaD, and SpaH-type pili, which are encoded by three distinct pilus gene clusters. The pilus is assembled onto the bacterial peptidoglycan by a specific transpeptidase enzyme called sortase. Although the SpaA pili are shown to be specific for pharyngeal cells in vitro, little is known about functions of the three ...


Farnesol Signaling In Candida Albicans, Melanie L. Langford 2010 University of Nebraska at Lincoln

Farnesol Signaling In Candida Albicans, Melanie L. Langford

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Candida albicans is a polymorphic fungus that causes a range of disease in humans, from mucosal infections to systemic disease. Its ability to cause disease is linked to conversion between yeast and filamentous forms of growth, and the first quorum-sensing molecule discovered in an eukaryote, farnesol, blocks this transition. In C. albicans, farnesol also kills mating-competent opaque cells, inhibits biofilm formation, protects the cells from oxidative stress, and can be a virulence factor or protective agent in disseminated and mucosal mouse models of infection, respectively. While much emphasis has been placed on determining its effect on C. albicans morphology, the ...


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