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Ethnic Disparity In 21-Hydroxylase Gene Mutations Identified In Pakistani Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Patients, Aysha Habib Khan, Muniba Aban, Jamal Raza, Naeem ul Haq, Abdul Jabbar, Tariq Moatter 2011 Aga Khan University

Ethnic Disparity In 21-Hydroxylase Gene Mutations Identified In Pakistani Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Patients, Aysha Habib Khan, Muniba Aban, Jamal Raza, Naeem Ul Haq, Abdul Jabbar, Tariq Moatter

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Background: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of autosomal recessive disorders caused by defects in the steroid 21 hydroxylase gene (CYP21A2). We studied the spectrum of mutations in CYP21A2 gene in a multi-ethnic population in Pakistan to explore the genetics of CAH.

Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted for the identification of mutations CYP21A2 and their phenotypic associations in CAH using ARMS-PCR assay.

Results: Overall, 29 Patients were analyzed for nine different mutations. The group consisted of two major forms of CAH including 17 salt wasters and 12 simple virilizers. There were 14 phenotypic males and 15 females ...


Cellulose- And Xylan-Degrading Thermophilic Anaerobic Bacteria From Biocompost, M. V. Sizova, J. A. Izquierdo, N. S. Panikov, L. R. Lynd 2011 Dartmouth College

Cellulose- And Xylan-Degrading Thermophilic Anaerobic Bacteria From Biocompost, M. V. Sizova, J. A. Izquierdo, N. S. Panikov, L. R. Lynd

Dartmouth Scholarship

Nine thermophilic cellulolytic clostridial isolates and four other noncellulolytic bacterial isolates were isolated from self-heated biocompost via preliminary enrichment culture on microcrystalline cellulose. All cellulolytic isolates grew vigorously on cellulose, with the formation of either ethanol and acetate or acetate and formate as principal fermentation products as well as lactate and glycerol as minor products. In addition, two out of nine cellulolytic strains were able to utilize xylan and pretreated wood with roughly the same efficiency as for cellulose. The major products of xylan fermentation were acetate and formate, with minor contributions of lactate and ethanol. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S ...


Impaired Memory Cd8 T-Cell Responses Against An Immunodominant Retroviral Cryptic Epitope, Melanie R. Rutkowski, Cynthia A. Stevens, William R. Green 2011 Dartmouth College

Impaired Memory Cd8 T-Cell Responses Against An Immunodominant Retroviral Cryptic Epitope, Melanie R. Rutkowski, Cynthia A. Stevens, William R. Green

Dartmouth Scholarship

The immunodominant cryptic epitope SYNTGRFPPL, encoded within open reading frame 2 of the LP-BM5 retroviral gag gene, is critical for protection against retroviral-induced pathogenesis. The goal of this study was to dissect the memory response against this unique immunodominant cryptic epitope. Unlike the protective acute effector population of SYNTGRFPPL-specific CD8 T cells, long-lived SYNTGRFPPL-specific CD8 T cells lacked the ability to protect susceptible mice infected with LP-BM5 retrovirus. Compared to memory CD8 T cells against a conventional epitope with similar MHC-I specificity, primed and restimulated using similar conditions, long-lived SYNTGRFPPL-specific CD8 T cells were impaired in their ability to recall ...


Growth Kinetics And Constraints Related To Metabolic Diversity And Abundances Of Hyperthermophiles In Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents, Helene Chavanne Ver Eecke 2011 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Growth Kinetics And Constraints Related To Metabolic Diversity And Abundances Of Hyperthermophiles In Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents, Helene Chavanne Ver Eecke

Open Access Dissertations

This dissertation research aims to show that there are deterministic microbial distribution patterns based on quantifiable environmental thresholds by determining and rationalizing the relative abundances of hyperthermophilic methanogens, autotrophic iron(III) oxide reducers, and heterotrophic sulfur reducers within deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Organisms of these metabolisms are predicted to be relatively more abundant in different regions depending on environmental conditions such as reduction potential, organic carbon, and hydrogen availability. The relative abundances of these metabolic groups within samples from the Endeavour Segment and Axial Volcano in the northeastern Pacific Ocean were determined. Iron(III) oxide reducers were detected in nearly all ...


Dependence Of The Cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus On Hydrogen Peroxide Scavenging Microbes For Growth At The Ocean's Surface, J Jeffrey Morris, Zackary I. Johnson, Martin J. Szul, Martin Keller, Erik R. Zinser 2011 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Dependence Of The Cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus On Hydrogen Peroxide Scavenging Microbes For Growth At The Ocean's Surface, J Jeffrey Morris, Zackary I. Johnson, Martin J. Szul, Martin Keller, Erik R. Zinser

Microbiology Publications and Other Works

The phytoplankton community in the oligotrophic open ocean is numerically dominated by the cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus, accounting for approximately half of all photosynthesis. In the illuminated euphotic zone where Prochlorococcus grows, reactive oxygen species are continuously generated via photochemical reactions with dissolved organic matter. However, Prochlorococcus genomes lack catalase and additional protective mechanisms common in other aerobes, and this genus is highly susceptible to oxidative damage from hydrogen peroxide (HOOH). In this study we showed that the extant microbial community plays a vital, previously unrecognized role in cross-protecting Prochlorococcus from oxidative damage in the surface mixed layer of the oligotrophic ocean ...


Biodepollution Of Wastewater Containing Phenolic Compounds From Leather Industry By Plant Peroxidases, Mamounata DIAO, Nafissetou OUEDRAOGO, Lamine Baba-Moussa, Paul W. SAVADOGO, Georges N'Guessan AMANI, Mamoudou H. DICKO Prof. 2011 University of Abomey-Calavi, Benin

Biodepollution Of Wastewater Containing Phenolic Compounds From Leather Industry By Plant Peroxidases, Mamounata Diao, Nafissetou Ouedraogo, Lamine Baba-Moussa, Paul W. Savadogo, Georges N'Guessan Amani, Mamoudou H. Dicko Prof.

Pr. Mamoudou H. DICKO, PhD

This study deals with the use of peroxidases (POXs) from Allium sativum, Ipomoea batatas, Raphanus sativus and Sorghum bicolor to catalyze the degradation of free phenolic compounds as well as phenolic compounds contained in wastewater from leather industry. Secretory plant POXs were able to catalyze the oxidation of gallic acid, ferulic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, pyrogallol and 1,4-tyrosol prepared in ethanol 2% (v:v). Efficiency of peroxidase catalysis depends strongly on the chemical nature of phenolic substrates and on the botanical source of the enzymes. It appeared that POX from Raphanus sativus had the highest efficiency. Results show that POXs ...


Prevalence Of Resistance Associated Polymorphisms In Plasmodium Falciparum Field Isolates From Southern Pakistan, Najia Karim Ghanchi, Johan Ursing, Mohammad A. Beg, Maria I. Veiga, Sana Jafri, andreas Martensson 2011 Aga Khan University

Prevalence Of Resistance Associated Polymorphisms In Plasmodium Falciparum Field Isolates From Southern Pakistan, Najia Karim Ghanchi, Johan Ursing, Mohammad A. Beg, Maria I. Veiga, Sana Jafri, Andreas Martensson

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Background:Scarce data are available on Plasmodium falciparum anti-malarial drug resistance in Pakistan. The aim of this study was, therefore, to determine the prevalence of P. falciparum resistance associated polymorphisms in field isolates from southern Pakistan.
Methods:
Blood samples from 244 Patients with blood-slide confirmed P. falciparum mono-infections were collected between 2005-2007. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt K76T), multi drug resistance (pfmdr1 N86Y), dihydrofolate reductase (pfdhfr A16V, N51I, C59R, S108N, I164L) and dihydropteroate synthetase (pfdhps A436S, G437A and E540K) genes and pfmdr1 gene copy numbers were determined using PCR based methods.
Results:The prevalence ...


Isolation And Partial Characterization Of A Novel Lectin From Aegle Marmelos Fruit And Its Effect On Adherence And Invasion Of Shigella To Ht29 Cells, Raja SB, Murali MR, Kumar NK, Devaraj SN 2011 University of Malaya

Isolation And Partial Characterization Of A Novel Lectin From Aegle Marmelos Fruit And Its Effect On Adherence And Invasion Of Shigella To Ht29 Cells, Raja Sb, Murali Mr, Kumar Nk, Devaraj Sn

Murali Malliga Raman

Lectins are a class of ubiquitous proteins/glycoproteins that are abundantly found in nature. Lectins have unique carbohydrate binding property and hence have been exploited as drugs against various infectious diseases. We have isolated one such novel lectin from the fruit pulp of Aegle marmelos. The isolated lectin was partially characterised and its effect against Shigella dysenteriae infection was evaluated. The isolated lectin was found to be a dimeric protein with N-acetylgalactosamine, mannose and sialic acid binding specificity. The effect of Aegle marmelos fruit lectin on the adherence of Shigella dysenteriae to human colonic epithelial cells (HT29 cells) was evaluated ...


Review Of Osteoimmunology And The Host Response In Endodontic And Periodontal Lesions, Dana T. Graves, Thomas Oates, Gustavo P. Garlet 2011 University of Pennsylvania

Review Of Osteoimmunology And The Host Response In Endodontic And Periodontal Lesions, Dana T. Graves, Thomas Oates, Gustavo P. Garlet

Departmental Papers (Dental)

Both lesions of endodontic origin and periodontal diseases involve the host response to bacteria and the formation of osteolytic lesions. Important for both is the upregulation of inflammatory cytokines that initiate and sustain the inflammatory response. Also important are chemokines that induce recruitment of leukocyte subsets and bone-resorptive factors that are largely produced by recruited inflammatory cells. However, there are differences also. Lesions of endodontic origin pose a particular challenge since that bacteria persist in a protected reservoir that is not readily accessible to the immune defenses. Thus, experiments in which the host response is inhibited in endodontic lesions tend ...


Superparamagnetic Nanoparticle Capture Of Prions For Amplification, Michael B. Miller, Surachai Supattapone 2011 Dartmouth College

Superparamagnetic Nanoparticle Capture Of Prions For Amplification, Michael B. Miller, Surachai Supattapone

Dartmouth Scholarship

Prion diseases are associated with the presence of PrP(Sc), a disease-associated misfolded conformer of the prion protein. We report that superparamagnetic nanoparticles bind PrP(Sc) molecules efficiently and specifically, permitting magnetic separation of prions from a sample mixture. Captured PrP(Sc) molecules retain the activity to seed protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) reactions, enabling the rapid concentration of dilute prions to improve detection. Furthermore, superparamagnetic nanoparticles clear contaminated solutions of PrP(Sc). Our findings suggest that coupling magnetic nanoparticle capture with PMCA could accelerate and improve prion detection. Magnetic nanoparticles may also be useful for developing a nontoxic prion ...


Fine-Scale Distribution Patterns Of Synechococcus Ecological Diversity In The Microbial Mat Of Mushroom Spring, Yellowstone National Park, Eric Becraft, Frederick Cohan, Michael Kuhl, Sheila Jensen, David Ward 2011 Wesleyan University

Fine-Scale Distribution Patterns Of Synechococcus Ecological Diversity In The Microbial Mat Of Mushroom Spring, Yellowstone National Park, Eric Becraft, Frederick Cohan, Michael Kuhl, Sheila Jensen, David Ward

Frederick M. Cohan

No abstract provided.


Phenotypic, Pathogenic, Molecular And Phylogenetic Comparisons Of Bacteria Causing Aloe Rot From Three Countries, Yogeshwar Kumar, Jatindra Nath Samanta, Kunal Mandal, Narendra A. Gajbhiye 2011 Directorate of Medicinal & Aromatic Plants

Phenotypic, Pathogenic, Molecular And Phylogenetic Comparisons Of Bacteria Causing Aloe Rot From Three Countries, Yogeshwar Kumar, Jatindra Nath Samanta, Kunal Mandal, Narendra A. Gajbhiye

Kunal Mandal

Bacterial soft rot disease of Aloe caused by heterogeneous genus Erwinia was reported from different parts of the world. In the recent past the genus underwent major taxonomic modifications. In the present study, four Aloe pathogenic bacterial strains isolated from India, The Netherlands and Yugoslavia have been compared. Different cultural, biochemical, physiological and pathological characters and protein/lipid profiles indicated that the strains belonged to two different genera, Pectobacterium and Dickeya. Species specific amplification of pel gene sequences also supported this. Phylogenetic analysis of rRNA gene (rDNA) sequence placed these Dickeya strains close to D. dieffenbachiae and D. zeae. On ...


Capsular Serotyping Of Pasteurella Multocida From Various Animal Hosts - A Comparison Of Phenotypic And Genotypic Methods, Thong Kwai Lin 2011 University of Malaya

Capsular Serotyping Of Pasteurella Multocida From Various Animal Hosts - A Comparison Of Phenotypic And Genotypic Methods, Thong Kwai Lin

Thong Kwai Lin

One hundred and fourteen strains of Pasteurella multocida were isolated from different domestic animals species (cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat, pig, rabbit, dog, cat), avian species (chicken, duck, turkey) and wild animals (deer, tiger, orang utan, marmoset). The serogroups of P multocida were determined by both conventional capsular serotyping and a multiplex PCR assay targeting specific capsular genes. Based on the conventional serotyping method, the 114 strains of P multocida were subtyped into 55 species-specific (untypeable strains) P. multocida, 15 serogroup A, 23 serogroup B and 21 serogroup D. Based on the multiplex PCR assay on the specific capsular genes associated ...


Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profiling And Genomic Diversity Of Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter Baumannii Isolates From A Teaching Hospital In Malaysia, Thong Kwai Lin 2011 University of Malaya

Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profiling And Genomic Diversity Of Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter Baumannii Isolates From A Teaching Hospital In Malaysia, Thong Kwai Lin

Thong Kwai Lin

The resistance phenotypes and genomic diversity of 185 Acinetobacter baumannii isolates obtained from the intensive care unit (ICU) of a local teaching hospital in Kuala Lumpur from 2006 to 2009 were determined using antimicrobial susceptibility testing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Antibiogram analyses showed that the isolates were fully resistant to beta-lactam antimicrobials and had high resistance rates to the other antimicrobial agents tested. However, the isolates were susceptible to polymyxin B. Resistance to cefoperazone/sulbactam was only detected in strains isolated from 2007 to 2009. Some environmental isolates and an isolate from the hands of a healthcare worker (HCW ...


A Quantitative Method For Fungal Ligninolytic Enzyme, Teck Nam Ang Dr., Gek Cheng Ngoh Dr, Adeline Seak May Chua Dr 2011 University of Malaya

A Quantitative Method For Fungal Ligninolytic Enzyme, Teck Nam Ang Dr., Gek Cheng Ngoh Dr, Adeline Seak May Chua Dr

Teck Nam Ang Dr.

Screening is conducted to select a fungus with desired characteristics intended for various applications, e.g. bioremediation and enzyme production. A qualitative method was used in this study for screening of fungal ligninolytic enzymes activities. The fungal ligninolytic activity was correlated with its growth from the screenings to identify a suitable fungus for solid substrate fermentation. Four strains of fungi, namely Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pycnoporus sanguineus, Phlebia radiata and Pleurotus sajor-caju, were screened for their ligninolytic enzymes activities using guaiacol and Remazol Brilliant Blue-R (RBB-R) as screening reagents. The screenings were conducted at both the optimal growth temperature of each fungus ...


Imperatorin A Furocoumarin Inhibits Periplasmic Cu-Zn Sod Of Shigella Dysenteriae Their By Modulates Its Resistance Towards Phagocytosis During Host Pathogen Interaction, Raja SB, Murali MR, Roopa K, Devaraj SN 2011 University of Madras

Imperatorin A Furocoumarin Inhibits Periplasmic Cu-Zn Sod Of Shigella Dysenteriae Their By Modulates Its Resistance Towards Phagocytosis During Host Pathogen Interaction, Raja Sb, Murali Mr, Roopa K, Devaraj Sn

Murali Malliga Raman

Shigella dysenteriae continues to be a major health problem, which leads to death, due to diarrhoea and dysentery, predominantly in children below the age of 5. Bacterial invasion of the colonic epithelium leads to severe inflammation together with bacterial dissemination generates abscesses and ulcerations. Periplasmic copper, zinc super oxide dismutase of Shigella protects it from exogenous superoxide produced by host, during its invasion. Hence, in present study an attempt was made to study the effect of aqueous extract of Aegle marmelos on host and pathogen defence. Histology analysis of rat ileal loop showed the loss of virulence in aqueous extract ...


Socioeconomic Characteristics And Perceptions Of Cattle Keepers And Constraints To Cattle Production In Western Kenya, Joshua O. Amimo, S Thumbi, B O. Inyangala, J O. Junga, R O. Mosi 2011 University of Nairobi

Socioeconomic Characteristics And Perceptions Of Cattle Keepers And Constraints To Cattle Production In Western Kenya, Joshua O. Amimo, S Thumbi, B O. Inyangala, J O. Junga, R O. Mosi

Joshua O Amimo

No abstract provided.


Factors Influencing Reproductive Performance Of Cows From Different Nguni Ecotypes In Southern Mozambique, S Maciel, O Mwai, Joshua O. Amimo, S Moyo, M Scholtz, F Neser, M Martins 2011 University of Nairobi

Factors Influencing Reproductive Performance Of Cows From Different Nguni Ecotypes In Southern Mozambique, S Maciel, O Mwai, Joshua O. Amimo, S Moyo, M Scholtz, F Neser, M Martins

Joshua O Amimo

No abstract provided.


Complete Genome Sequence Of “Enterobacter Lignolyticus” Scf1, Kristen DeAngelis, Patrick D'Haeseleer, Dylan Chivian, Julian L. Fortney, Jane Khudyakov, Blake Simmons, Hannah Woo, Adam P. Arkin, Karen Walston Davenport, Lynne Goodwin, Amy Chen, Natalia Ivanova, Nikos C. Kyrpides, Konstantinos Mavromatis, Tanja Woyke, Terry C. Hazen 2011 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Complete Genome Sequence Of “Enterobacter Lignolyticus” Scf1, Kristen Deangelis, Patrick D'Haeseleer, Dylan Chivian, Julian L. Fortney, Jane Khudyakov, Blake Simmons, Hannah Woo, Adam P. Arkin, Karen Walston Davenport, Lynne Goodwin, Amy Chen, Natalia Ivanova, Nikos C. Kyrpides, Konstantinos Mavromatis, Tanja Woyke, Terry C. Hazen

Microbiology Department Faculty Publication Series

In an effort to discover anaerobic bacteria capable of lignin degradation, we isolated Enterobacter lignolyticusSCF1 on minimal media with alkali lignin as the sole source of carbon. This organism was isolated anaerobically from tropical forest soils collected from the Short Cloud Forest site in the El Yunque National Forest in Puerto Rico, USA, part of the Luquillo Long-Term Ecological Research Station. At this site, the soils experience strong fluctuations in redox potential and are net methane producers. Because of its ability to grow on lignin anaerobically, we sequenced the genome. The genome of E. lignolyticus SCF1 is 4.81 ...


Dryland Residue And Soil Organic Matter As Influenced By Tillage, Crop Rotation, And Cultural Practice, Andrew W. Lenssen, Upendra M. Sainju, Thecan Caesar-TonThat, Jalal D. Jabro, Robert T. Lartey, Robert G. Evans, Brett L. Allen 2011 United States Department of Agriculture

Dryland Residue And Soil Organic Matter As Influenced By Tillage, Crop Rotation, And Cultural Practice, Andrew W. Lenssen, Upendra M. Sainju, Thecan Caesar-Tonthat, Jalal D. Jabro, Robert T. Lartey, Robert G. Evans, Brett L. Allen

Andrew W. Lenssen

Novel management practices are needed to increase dryland soil organic matter and crop yields that have been declining due to long-term conventional tillage with spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-fallow system in the northern Great Plains, USA. The effects of tillage, crop rotation, and cultural practice were evaluated on dryland crop biomass (stems + leaves) yield, surface residue, and soil organic C (SOC) and total N (STN) at the 0–20 cm depth in a Williams loam (fine-loamy, mixed, superactive, frigid, Typic Argiustolls) from 2004 to 2007 in eastern Montana, USA. Treatments were two tillage practices [no-tillage (NT) and conventional tillage ...


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