Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Microbiology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

7,897 Full-Text Articles 17,628 Authors 1,845,928 Downloads 233 Institutions

All Articles in Microbiology

Faceted Search

7,897 full-text articles. Page 259 of 261.

The Construction And Analysis Of Marker Gene Libraries, S.M. Short, F. Chen, Steven Wilhelm 2010 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

The Construction And Analysis Of Marker Gene Libraries, S.M. Short, F. Chen, Steven Wilhelm

Microbiology Publications and Other Works

Marker genes for viruses are typically amplified from aquatic samples to determine whether specific viruses are present in the sample, or to examine the diversity of a group of related viruses. In this chapter, we will provide an overview of common methods used to amplify, clone, sequence, and analyze virus marker genes, and will focus our discussion on viruses infecting algae, bacteria, and heterotrophic flagellates. Within this chapter, we endeavor to highlight critical aspects and components of these methods. To this end, instead of providing a detailed experimental protocol for each of the steps involved in examining virus marker gene ...


Autonomous Bioluminescent Expression Of The Bacterial Luciferase Gene Cassette (Lux) In A Mammalian Cell Line, Dan M. Close, Stacey S. Patterson, Steven Ripp, Seung J. Baek, John Sanseverino, Gary S. Sayler 2010 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Autonomous Bioluminescent Expression Of The Bacterial Luciferase Gene Cassette (Lux) In A Mammalian Cell Line, Dan M. Close, Stacey S. Patterson, Steven Ripp, Seung J. Baek, John Sanseverino, Gary S. Sayler

Microbiology Publications and Other Works

Background

The bacterial luciferase (lux) gene cassette consists of five genes (luxCDABE) whose protein products synergistically generate bioluminescent light signals exclusive of supplementary substrate additions or exogenous manipulations. Historically expressible only in prokaryotes, the lux operon was re-synthesized through a process of multi-bicistronic, codon-optimization to demonstrate for the first time self-directed bioluminescence emission in a mammalian HEK293 cell line in vitro and in vivo.

Methodology/Principal Findings

Autonomous in vitro light production was shown to be 12-fold greater than the observable background associated with untransfected control cells. The availability of reduced riboflavin phosphate (FMNH2) was identified as the limiting bioluminescence ...


Spatial Structure And Activity Of Sedimentary Microbial Communities Underlying A Beggiatoa Spp. Mat In A Gulf Of Mexico Hydrocarbon Seep, Karen Lloyd, Daniel B. Albert, Jennifer F. Biddle, Jeffrey P. Chanton, Oscar Pizarro, Andreas Teske 2010 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Spatial Structure And Activity Of Sedimentary Microbial Communities Underlying A Beggiatoa Spp. Mat In A Gulf Of Mexico Hydrocarbon Seep, Karen Lloyd, Daniel B. Albert, Jennifer F. Biddle, Jeffrey P. Chanton, Oscar Pizarro, Andreas Teske

Microbiology Publications and Other Works

Background

Subsurface fluids from deep-sea hydrocarbon seeps undergo methane- and sulfur-cycling microbial transformations near the sediment surface. Hydrocarbon seep habitats are naturally patchy, with a mosaic of active seep sediments and non-seep sediments. Microbial community shifts and changing activity patterns on small spatial scales from seep to non-seep sediment remain to be examined in a comprehensive habitat study.

Methodology/Principal Findings

We conducted a transect of biogeochemical measurements and gene expression related to methane- and sulfur-cycling at different sediment depths across a broad Beggiatoa spp. mat at Mississippi Canyon 118 (MC118) in the Gulf of Mexico. High process rates within ...


Analysing The Effects Of Loss Of Sin3 In Drosophila Melanogaster, Aishwarya Swaminathan 2010 Wayne State University

Analysing The Effects Of Loss Of Sin3 In Drosophila Melanogaster, Aishwarya Swaminathan

Wayne State University Dissertations

Sin3A has been previously shown to be an essential gene for Drosophila viability and is implicated in the regulation of cell cycle. In this study, we show that SIN3 is not only required for embryonic viability but also for post-embryonic development. Genetic analysis suggests that the different isoforms of SIN3 may regulate unique sets of genes during development. The developmental lethality occurring due to ubiquitous knock down of SIN3 is hypothesized to be to the result of defects in cell proliferation. Conditional knock down of SIN3 in the wing discs results in a curly wing phenotype in the adult fly ...


Bacterial Acquisition In Juveniles Of Several Broadcast Spawning Coral Species, Koty H. Sharp, Kim B. Ritchie 2010 Roger Williams University

Bacterial Acquisition In Juveniles Of Several Broadcast Spawning Coral Species, Koty H. Sharp, Kim B. Ritchie

Arts & Sciences Faculty Publications

Coral animals harbor diverse microorganisms in their tissues, including archaea, bacteria, viruses, and zooxanthellae. The extent to which coral-bacterial associations are specific and the mechanisms for their maintenance across generations in the environment are unknown. The high diversity of bacteria in adult coral colonies has made it challenging to identify species-specific patterns. Localization of bacteria in gametes and larvae of corals presents an opportunity for determining when bacterial-coral associations are initiated and whether they are dynamic throughout early development. This study focuses on the early onset of bacterial associations in the mass spawning corals Montastraea annularis, M. franksi, M. faveolata ...


Immunomodulatory Effect Of Host And Fungal Eicosanoids During Host-Pathogen Interactions With Candida Albicans, Gitanjali Kundu 2010 Wayne State University

Immunomodulatory Effect Of Host And Fungal Eicosanoids During Host-Pathogen Interactions With Candida Albicans, Gitanjali Kundu

Wayne State University Dissertations

Candida albicans, an opportunistic fungal pathogen, poses a significant clinical threat to immunocompromised patients. Diseases associated with this fungus ranges from superficial mucosal infection to life-threatening systemic candidiasis. The mechanisms by which Candida persists at mucosal surfaces in the face of an adaptive response are unclear. Candida produces immunomodulatory oxylipins that cross-react functionally with host eicosanoids, which are considered to play important role in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses. Our objective was to characterize the role of prostaglandins produced by the host and this fungus during host pathogen interactions, both in vitro with dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages, and ...


Real-Time Pcr Method For The Quantification Of Burkholderia Cepacia Complex Attached To Lung Epithelial Cells And Inhibitionn Of That Attachment, Ciara Wight, Gillian Herbert, Ruth Pilkington, Máire Callaghan, Siobhan McClean 2010 Institute of Technology Tallaght

Real-Time Pcr Method For The Quantification Of Burkholderia Cepacia Complex Attached To Lung Epithelial Cells And Inhibitionn Of That Attachment, Ciara Wight, Gillian Herbert, Ruth Pilkington, Máire Callaghan, Siobhan Mcclean

Articles

To develop a rapid method to quantify the attachment of the cystic fibrosis pathogen, Burkholderia multivorans, to lung epithelial cells (16HBE14o(-)) using real-time PCR with a view to monitoring potential inhibition of lung cell attachment. Mammalian and bacterial DNA were purified from bacteria attached to lung epithelial cells. The relative amount of bacteria attached was determined by amplification of the recA gene relative to the human GAPDH gene, in the presence of SYBR Green. The method was thoroughly validated and shown to correlate well with traditional plating techniques. Inhibition of bacterial attachment with simple sugars was then evaluated by real-time ...


Subtype-Associated Differences In Hiv-1 Reverse Transcription Affect The Viral Replication, Sergey Iordanskiy, Mackenzie Waltke, Yanjun Feng, Charles Wood 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Subtype-Associated Differences In Hiv-1 Reverse Transcription Affect The Viral Replication, Sergey Iordanskiy, Mackenzie Waltke, Yanjun Feng, Charles Wood

Virology Papers

Background: The impact of the products of the pol gene, specifically, reverse transcriptase (RT) on HIV-1 replication, evolution, and acquisition of drug resistance has been thoroughly characterized for subtype B. For subtype C, which accounts of almost 60% of HIV cases worldwide, much less is known. It has been reported that subtype C HIV-1 isolates have a lower replication capacity than B; however, the basis of these differences remains unclear.

Results: We analyzed the impact of the pol gene products from HIV-1 B and C subtypes on the maturation of HIV virions, accumulation of reverse transcription products, integration of viral ...


Topological Layers In The Hiv-1 Gp120 Inner Domain Regulate Gp41 Interaction And Cd4-Triggered Conformational Transitions, Andrés Finzi, Shi-Hua Xiang, Beatriz Pacheco, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Wang, Jessica Haight, Aemro Kassa, Brenda Danek, Marie Pancera, Peter D. Kwong, Joseph Sodroski 2010 Dana-Farber Cancer Institute

Topological Layers In The Hiv-1 Gp120 Inner Domain Regulate Gp41 Interaction And Cd4-Triggered Conformational Transitions, Andrés Finzi, Shi-Hua Xiang, Beatriz Pacheco, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Wang, Jessica Haight, Aemro Kassa, Brenda Danek, Marie Pancera, Peter D. Kwong, Joseph Sodroski

Virology Papers

The entry of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) into cells is initiated by binding of the gp120 exterior envelope glycoprotein to the receptor, CD4. How does CD4 binding trigger conformational changes in gp120 that allow the gp41 transmembrane envelope glycoprotein to mediate viral-cell membrane fusion? The transition from the unliganded to the CD4-bound state is regulated by two potentially flexible topological layers (layers 1 and 2) in the gp120 inner domain. Both layers apparently contribute to the noncovalent association of unliganded gp120 with gp41. After CD4 makes initial contact with the gp120 outer domain, layer 1-layer 2 interactions strengthen gp120-CD4 binding ...


Subtype-Associated Differences In Hiv-1 Reverse Transcription Affect The Viral Replication, Sergey Iordanskiy, Mackenzie Waltke, Yanjun Feng, Charles Wood 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Subtype-Associated Differences In Hiv-1 Reverse Transcription Affect The Viral Replication, Sergey Iordanskiy, Mackenzie Waltke, Yanjun Feng, Charles Wood

Virology Papers

Background: The impact of the products of the pol gene, specifically, reverse transcriptase (RT) on HIV-1 replication, evolution, and acquisition of drug resistance has been thoroughly characterized for subtype B. For subtype C, which accounts of almost 60% of HIV cases worldwide, much less is known. It has been reported that subtype C HIV-1 isolates have a lower replication capacity than B; however, the basis of these differences remains unclear.

Results: We analyzed the impact of the pol gene products from HIV-1 B and C subtypes on the maturation of HIV virions, accumulation of reverse transcription products, integration of viral ...


Neuroaids In Africa, Kevin Robertson, Jeff Liner, James Hakim, Jean-Louis Sankalé, Igor Grant, Scott Letendre, David Clifford, Amadou Gallo Diop, Assan Jaye, Georgette Kanmogne, Alfred Njamnshi, T. Dianne Langford, Tufa Gemechu Weyessa, Charles Wood, Mwanza Banda, Mina Hosseinipour, Ned Sacktor, Noeline Nakasuja, Paul Bangirana, Robert Paul, John Joska, Joseph Wong, Michael Boivin, Penny Holding, Betsy Kammerer, Annelies Van Rie, Prudence Ive, Avindra Nath, Kathy Lawler, Clement Adebamowo, Walter Royal III, Jeymohan Joseph 2010 University of North Carolina

Neuroaids In Africa, Kevin Robertson, Jeff Liner, James Hakim, Jean-Louis Sankalé, Igor Grant, Scott Letendre, David Clifford, Amadou Gallo Diop, Assan Jaye, Georgette Kanmogne, Alfred Njamnshi, T. Dianne Langford, Tufa Gemechu Weyessa, Charles Wood, Mwanza Banda, Mina Hosseinipour, Ned Sacktor, Noeline Nakasuja, Paul Bangirana, Robert Paul, John Joska, Joseph Wong, Michael Boivin, Penny Holding, Betsy Kammerer, Annelies Van Rie, Prudence Ive, Avindra Nath, Kathy Lawler, Clement Adebamowo, Walter Royal Iii, Jeymohan Joseph

Virology Papers

In July 2009, the Center for Mental Health Research on AIDS at the National Institute of Mental Health organized and supported the meeting “NeuroAIDS in Africa.” This meeting was held in Cape Town, South Africa, and was affiliated with the 5th IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention. Presentations began with an overview of the epidemiology of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, the molecular epidemiology of HIV, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs), and HAND treatment. These introductory talks were followed by presentations on HAND research and clinical care in Botswana, Cameroon, Ethiopia, The Gambia, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, Uganda ...


Chlorella Viruses Encode Most, If Not All, Of The Machinery To Glycosylate Their Glycoproteins Independent Of The Endoplasmic Reticulum And Golgi, James L. Van Etten, James Gurnon, Giane M. Yanai-Balser, David Dunigan, Michael V. Graves 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Chlorella Viruses Encode Most, If Not All, Of The Machinery To Glycosylate Their Glycoproteins Independent Of The Endoplasmic Reticulum And Golgi, James L. Van Etten, James Gurnon, Giane M. Yanai-Balser, David Dunigan, Michael V. Graves

Virology Papers

In contrast to all other viruses that use the host machinery located in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi to glycosylate their glycoproteins, the large dsDNA-containing chlorella viruses encode most, if not all, of the components to glycosylate their major capsid proteins. Furthermore, all experimental results indicate that glycosylation occurs independent of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi. (Review article)


Functional Properties Of The Hiv-1 Subtype C Envelope Glycoprotein Associated With Mother-To-Child Transmission, Hong Zhang, Marzena Rola, John T. West, Damien C. Tully, Piotr Kubis, Jun He, Chipepo Kankasa, Charles Wood 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Functional Properties Of The Hiv-1 Subtype C Envelope Glycoprotein Associated With Mother-To-Child Transmission, Hong Zhang, Marzena Rola, John T. West, Damien C. Tully, Piotr Kubis, Jun He, Chipepo Kankasa, Charles Wood

Virology Papers

Understanding the properties of viruses capable of establishing infection during perinatal transmission of HIV-1 is critical for designing effective means of limiting transmission. We previously demonstrated that the newly transmitted viruses (in infant) were more fit in growth, as imparted by their envelope glycoproteins, than those in their corresponding mothers. Here, we further characterized the viral envelope glycoproteins from six mother-infant transmission pairs and determined whether any specific envelope functions correlate with HIV-1 subtype C perinatal transmission. We found that most newly transmitted viruses were less susceptible to neutralization by their maternal plasma compared to contemporaneous maternal viruses. However, the ...


An Evaluation Of Miru-Vntr Analysis And Spoligotyping For Genotyping Of Mycobacterium Bovis Isolates And A Comparison With Rflp Typing., Joanne McLernon, Eamonn Costello, Orla Flynn, Gillian Madigan, Fergus Ryan 2010 Technological University Dublin

An Evaluation Of Miru-Vntr Analysis And Spoligotyping For Genotyping Of Mycobacterium Bovis Isolates And A Comparison With Rflp Typing., Joanne Mclernon, Eamonn Costello, Orla Flynn, Gillian Madigan, Fergus Ryan

Articles

Strain typing of Mycobacterium bovis isolates based on the variable-number tandem repeats of mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRU-VNTR) and on spoligotyping was evaluated in this study and these typing methods were compared with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) typing. A total of 386 M. bovis isolates from cattle, badgers and deer in the Republic of Ireland that had previously been typed by IS6110, polymorphic GC-rich sequence (PGRS) and direct repeat (DR) RFLP were included in the study. Spoligotyping and analysis of six VNTR loci (2163a, 2163b, 2165, 4052, 2996 and 1895) was performed on the samples. RFLP was the method ...


Primary Gamma-Herpesviral Infection In Zambian Children, Veenu Minhas, Brad P. Brayfield, Kay L. Crabtree, Chipepo Kankasa, Charles D. Mitchell, Charles Wood 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Primary Gamma-Herpesviral Infection In Zambian Children, Veenu Minhas, Brad P. Brayfield, Kay L. Crabtree, Chipepo Kankasa, Charles D. Mitchell, Charles Wood

Virology Papers

Background: HHV-8 is closely related to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), but the clinical presentations of these two infections in early childhood are not well understood. Also, it is not known whether infection by one virus correlates with another. Here, we compare the natural history of infection by these two viruses along with the clinical manifestations and risk factors that are associated with early childhood infection in Zambia, which is an endemic area for HHV-8.

Methods: This study was conducted in a cohort of 12 month old Zambian children (N = 677). Data on socio-economic status and a wide range of clinical manifestations ...


Chronology And Evolution Of The Hiv-1 Subtype C Epidemic In Ethiopia, Damien C. Tully, Charles Wood 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Chronology And Evolution Of The Hiv-1 Subtype C Epidemic In Ethiopia, Damien C. Tully, Charles Wood

Virology Papers

Objective—To reconstruct the onset date and evolutionary history of the HIV-1 subtype C epidemic in Ethiopia - one of the earliest recorded subtype C epidemics in the world.

Design—HIV-1 C env sequences with a known sampling year isolated from HIV-1 positive patients from Ethiopia between 1984 and 2003.

Methods—Evolutionary parameters including origin and demographic growth patterns were estimated using a Bayesian coalescent-based approach under either strict or relaxed molecular clock models.

Results—Bayesian evolutionary analysis indicated a most recent common ancestor date of 1965 with three distinct epidemic growth phases. Regression analysis of root-to-tip distances revealed a highly ...


Ecological Niche Modeling Of Potential West Nile Virus Vector Mosquito Species In Iowa, Scott R. Larson, John P. DeGroote, Lyric Bartholomay, Ramathan Sugumaran 2010 University of Northern Iowa

Ecological Niche Modeling Of Potential West Nile Virus Vector Mosquito Species In Iowa, Scott R. Larson, John P. Degroote, Lyric Bartholomay, Ramathan Sugumaran

Entomology Publications

Ecological niche modeling (ENM) algorithms, Maximum Entropy Species Distribution Modeling (Maxent) and Genetic Algorithm for Rule-set Prediction (GARP), were used to develop models in Iowa for three species of mosquito — two significant, extant West Nile virus (WNV) vectors (Culex pipiens L and Culex tarsalis Coquillett (Diptera: Culicidae)), and the nuisance mosquito, Aedes vexans Meigen (Diptera: Culicidae), a potential WNV bridge vector. Occurrence data for the three mosquito species from a state-wide arbovirus surveillance program were used in combination with climatic and landscape layers. Maxent successfully created more appropriate niche models with greater accuracy than GARP. The three Maxent species' models ...


Thermocrinis Minervae Sp. Nov., A Hydrogen And Sulfur-Oxidizing, Thermophilic Member Of The Aquificales From A Costa Rican Terrestrial Hot Spring, Sara L. Caldwell, Yitai Liu, Isabel Ferrera, Terry Beveridge, Anna-Louise Reysenbach 2010 Portland State University

Thermocrinis Minervae Sp. Nov., A Hydrogen And Sulfur-Oxidizing, Thermophilic Member Of The Aquificales From A Costa Rican Terrestrial Hot Spring, Sara L. Caldwell, Yitai Liu, Isabel Ferrera, Terry Beveridge, Anna-Louise Reysenbach

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

A thermophilic bacterium, designated strain CR11T , was isolated from a filamentous sample collected from a terrestrial hot spring on the south-western foothills of the Rincón volcano in Costa Rica. The Gram-negative cells are approximately 2.4–3.9 mm long and 0.5–0.6 mm wide and are motile rods with polar flagella. Strain CR11T grows between 65 and 85 6C (optimum 75 6C, doubling time 4.5 h) and between pH 4.8 and 7.8 (optimum pH 5.9–6.5). The isolate grows chemolithotrophically with S0 , S2O2{ 3 or H2 as the electron donor and with ...


Soil Organic Matter Fractions And Aggregate Distribution In Response To Tall Fescue Stands, I. P. Handayani, Mark S. Coyne, R. S. Tokosh 2010 Murray State University

Soil Organic Matter Fractions And Aggregate Distribution In Response To Tall Fescue Stands, I. P. Handayani, Mark S. Coyne, R. S. Tokosh

Plant and Soil Sciences Faculty Publications

The study was conducted to evaluate the influences of tall fescue management on soil organic matter fractions and macro- and microaggregate distribution. Soil samples were collected from four paired adjacent fields consisting of five years of tall fescue mono and poly stands in Western Kentucky. Soil samples from 0 to 15 cm and 15 to 30 cm soil depths were analyzed for soil organic C and N, particulate organic matter C (POM-C) and N (POM-N), macro- and micro aggregate distribution and C-associated with macro- and micro- aggregates. Significant effects were observed between stands for all the properties, except total C ...


Tertiary Structure And Characterization Of A Glycoside Hydrolase Family 44 Endoglucanase From Clostridium Acetobutylicum, Christopher D. Warner, Julie A. Hoy, Taran C. Shilling, Michael J. Linnen, Nathaniel D. Ginder, Clark Ford, Richard B. Honzatko, Peter J. Reilly 2010 Iowa State University

Tertiary Structure And Characterization Of A Glycoside Hydrolase Family 44 Endoglucanase From Clostridium Acetobutylicum, Christopher D. Warner, Julie A. Hoy, Taran C. Shilling, Michael J. Linnen, Nathaniel D. Ginder, Clark Ford, Richard B. Honzatko, Peter J. Reilly

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

A gene encoding a glycoside hydrolase family 44 (GH44) protein from Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 was synthesized and transformed into Escherichia coli.The previously uncharacterized protein was expressed with a C-terminal His tag and purified by nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography. Crystallization and X-ray diffraction to a 2.2-Å resolution revealed a triose phosphate isomerase (TIM) barrel-like structure with additional Greek key and β-sandwich folds, similar to other GH44 crystal structures. The enzyme hydrolyzes cellotetraose and larger cellooligosaccharides, yielding an unbalanced product distribution, including some glucose. It attacks carboxymethylcellulose and xylan at approximately the same rates. Its activity on carboxymethylcellulose is ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress