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Organismal Biological Physiology Commons

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Steroid Receptor Isoform Expression In Drosophila Nociceptor Neurons Is Required For Normal Dendritic Arbor And Sensitivity, Aidan L. McParland, Taylor L. Follansbee, Gwendolyn D. Vesenka, Alexandra E. Panaitiu, Geoffrey K. Ganter 2015 University of New England

Steroid Receptor Isoform Expression In Drosophila Nociceptor Neurons Is Required For Normal Dendritic Arbor And Sensitivity, Aidan L. Mcparland, Taylor L. Follansbee, Gwendolyn D. Vesenka, Alexandra E. Panaitiu, Geoffrey K. Ganter

Biology Student Publications

Steroid hormones organize many aspects of development, including that of the nervous system. Steroids also play neuromodulatory and other activational roles, including regulation of sensitivity to painful stimuli in mammals. In Drosophila, ecdysteroids are the only steroid hormones, and therefore the fly represents a simplified model system in which to explore mechanisms of steroid neuromodulation of nociception. In this report, we present evidence that ecdysteroids, acting through two isoforms of their nuclear ecdysone receptor (EcR), modulate sensitivity to noxious thermal and mechanical stimuli in the fly larva. We show that EcRA and EcRB1 are expressed by third instar larvae in ...


A Tail Of Two Phages: Genomic And Functional Analysis Of Listeria Monocytogenes Phages Vb_Lmos_188 And Vb_Lmos_293 Reveal The Receptor-Binding Proteins Involved In Host Specificity, Aidan Casey, Kieran Jordan, Horst Neve, Aidan Coffey, Olivia McAuliffe 2015 Teagasc Food Research Centre, Moorepark, Fermoy, Co. Cork, Ireland; Department of Biological Sciences,Cork Institute of Technology

A Tail Of Two Phages: Genomic And Functional Analysis Of Listeria Monocytogenes Phages Vb_Lmos_188 And Vb_Lmos_293 Reveal The Receptor-Binding Proteins Involved In Host Specificity, Aidan Casey, Kieran Jordan, Horst Neve, Aidan Coffey, Olivia Mcauliffe

Department of Biological Sciences Publications

The physical characteristics of bacteriophages establish them as viable candidates for downstream development of pathogen detection assays and biocontrol measures. To utilize phages for such purposes, a detailed knowledge of their host interaction mechanisms is a prerequisite. There is currently a wealth of knowledge available concerning Gram-negative phage-host interaction, but little by comparison for Gram-positive phages and Listeria phages in particular. In this research, the lytic spectrum of two recently isolated Listeria monocytogenes phages (vB_LmoS_188 and vB_LmoS_293) was determined, and the genomic basis for their observed serotype 4b/4e host-specificity was investigated using comparative genomics. The late tail genes of ...


Dorsal Eye Selector Pannier (Pnr) Suppresses The Eye Fate To Define Dorsal Margin Of The Drosophila Eye, Sarah M. Oros, Meghana Tare, Madhuri Kango-Singh, Amit Singh 2015 University of Dayton

Dorsal Eye Selector Pannier (Pnr) Suppresses The Eye Fate To Define Dorsal Margin Of The Drosophila Eye, Sarah M. Oros, Meghana Tare, Madhuri Kango-Singh, Amit Singh

Madhuri Kango-Singh

Axial patterning is crucial for organogenesis. During Drosophila eye development, dorso-ventral (DV) axis determination is the first lineage restriction event. The eye primordium begins with a default ventral fate, on which the dorsal eye fate is established by expression of the GATA-1 transcription factor pannier (pnr). Earlier, it was suggested that loss of pnr function induces enlargement in the dorsal eye due to ectopic equator formation. Interestingly, we found that in addition to regulating DV patterning, pnr suppresses the eye fate by downregulating the core retinal determination genes eyes absent (eya), sine oculis (so) and dacshund (dac) to define the ...


Dorsal Eye Selector Pannier (Pnr) Suppresses The Eye Fate To Define Dorsal Margin Of The Drosophila Eye, Sarah M. Oros, Meghana Tare, Madhuri Kango-Singh, Amit Singh 2015 University of Dayton

Dorsal Eye Selector Pannier (Pnr) Suppresses The Eye Fate To Define Dorsal Margin Of The Drosophila Eye, Sarah M. Oros, Meghana Tare, Madhuri Kango-Singh, Amit Singh

Amit Singh

Axial patterning is crucial for organogenesis. During Drosophila eye development, dorso-ventral (DV) axis determination is the first lineage restriction event. The eye primordium begins with a default ventral fate, on which the dorsal eye fate is established by expression of the GATA-1 transcription factor pannier (pnr). Earlier, it was suggested that loss of pnr function induces enlargement in the dorsal eye due to ectopic equator formation. Interestingly, we found that in addition to regulating DV patterning, pnr suppresses the eye fate by downregulating the core retinal determination genes eyes absent (eya), sine oculis (so) and dacshund (dac) to define the ...


Generation And Assessment Of Muscular Mutations In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Katie N. Reget 2015 DePaul University

Generation And Assessment Of Muscular Mutations In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Katie N. Reget

DePaul Discoveries

A study of egg laying muscular mutations in C. elegans was conducted over a span of ten weeks. Parent (EGL-19) and wild type (N2) were exposed to mutagenesis and integration mutation techniques to generate genetic and physical different mutants. Overall, four genetic, physical and phenotypically unique worms were generated for the process of mutagenesis. The worms used in the process of integration were found to have shortened life spans, reduced size and decrease numbers of progeny.


Characterization And Investigation Of Fungi Inhabiting The Gastrointestinal Tract Of Healthy And Diseased Humans, Mallory J. Suhr 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Characterization And Investigation Of Fungi Inhabiting The Gastrointestinal Tract Of Healthy And Diseased Humans, Mallory J. Suhr

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Gastrointestinal microbiome studies have failed to include fungi in total community analyses. As a result, their diversity and function in the gut is poorly understood. Recent work has begun to uncover the role intestinal fungi play in diet, immune system development, interactions with other microorganisms in the gut, and pathogenesis of diseases. Advances in sequencing technologies allow for the ability to profile the fungal gut microbiome (“mycobiome”) in healthy and diseased states. This thesis explores the mycobiome in 1) healthy humans with a vegetarian diet and 2) pediatric small bowel transplant recipients that develop fungal bloodstream infections.

The gut mycobiome ...


A Phylogenetic Analysis Of Dictyostelium Purpureum Based On Nuclear Rdna Sequences, Mahmoud Suliman 2015 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

A Phylogenetic Analysis Of Dictyostelium Purpureum Based On Nuclear Rdna Sequences, Mahmoud Suliman

Theses and Dissertations

Dictyostelids (cellular slime molds) are eukaryotic microorganisms that have both unicellular and multicellular stages during their life cycle. In this study, a molecular phylogenetic analysis was conducted for isolates of one species (Dictyostelium purpureum) based DNA sequences of the ITS, 5.8S and SSU regions of nuclear rDNA. Moreover, a detailed morphological study was carried out using images obtained with both dissecting and compound microscopes. Mating experiments were carried out to assess macrocysts formation between each pair of isolates. The constructed molecular phylogenetic trees indicate that (1) D. purpureum isolates are more closely related to each other than to other ...


Exploring The Physiological Role Of Vibrio Fischeri Pepn, Sally L. Cello 2015 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Exploring The Physiological Role Of Vibrio Fischeri Pepn, Sally L. Cello

Master's Theses

The primary contributor to Vibrio fischeri aminopeptidase activity is aminopeptidase N, PepN. Colonization assays revealed the pepN mutant strain to be deficient at forming dense aggregates and populating the host’s light organ compared to wildtype within the first 12 hours of colonization; however the mutant competed normally at 24 hours. To address the role of PepN in colonization initiation and establish additional phenotypes for the pepN mutant strain, stress response and other physiological assays were employed. Marked differences were found between pepN mutant and wildtype strain in response to salinity, acidity, and antibiotic tolerance. This study has provided a ...


Probiotic Potential And Antimicrobial Activity Of Enterococcus Faecium Isolated From Chicken Caecal And Fecal Samples, Salma H. Abu Hafsa, Aubrey F. Mendonca, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher, A. A. Hassan, S. A. Ibrahim 2015 Arid Lands Cultivation Research Institute

Probiotic Potential And Antimicrobial Activity Of Enterococcus Faecium Isolated From Chicken Caecal And Fecal Samples, Salma H. Abu Hafsa, Aubrey F. Mendonca, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher, A. A. Hassan, S. A. Ibrahim

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Enterococci are important inhabitants of the animal intestine and are widely used in probiotic products. A probiotic strain is expected to possess several desirable properties in order to exert beneficial effects. Therefore, the objective of this study was to isolate, characterize and identify Enterococcus sp. from chicken cecal and fecal samples to determine potential probiotic properties. Enterococci were isolated from chicken ceca and feces of thirty three clinically healthy chickens from a local farm. In vitro studies were performed to assess antibacterial activity of the isolated LAB (using agar well diffusion and cell free supernatant broth technique against Salmonella enterica ...


Functional Screening Of The Cronobacter Sakazakii Baa-894 Genome Reveals A Role For Prop (Esa_02131) In Carnitine Uptake, Audrey Feeney, Roy D. Sleator 2015 Department of Biological Sciences; Cork Institute of Technology; Cork, Ireland.

Functional Screening Of The Cronobacter Sakazakii Baa-894 Genome Reveals A Role For Prop (Esa_02131) In Carnitine Uptake, Audrey Feeney, Roy D. Sleator

Department of Biological Sciences Publications

Cronobacter sakazakii is a neonatal pathogen responsible for up to 80% of fatalities in infected infants. Low birth weight infants and neonates infected with C. sakazakii suffer necrotizing enterocolitis, bacteraemia and meningitis. The mode of transmission most often associated with infection is powdered infant formula (PIF) which, with an aw of ∼0.2, is too low to allow most microorganisms to persist. Survival of C. sakazakii in environments subject to extreme hyperosmotic stress has previously been attributed to the uptake of compatible solutes including proline and betaine. Herein, we report the construction and screening of a C. sakazakii genome bank ...


Characterization Of The Ecological Role Of Genes Mediating Acid Resistance In Lactobacillus Reuteri During Colonization Of The Gastrointestinal Tract, Janina A. Krumbeck, Nathan L Marsteller, Steven Frese, Daniel A. Peterson, Amanda Ramer-Tait, Robert W. Hutkins, Jens Walter 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Characterization Of The Ecological Role Of Genes Mediating Acid Resistance In Lactobacillus Reuteri During Colonization Of The Gastrointestinal Tract, Janina A. Krumbeck, Nathan L Marsteller, Steven Frese, Daniel A. Peterson, Amanda Ramer-Tait, Robert W. Hutkins, Jens Walter

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

Rodent-derived strains of Lactobacillus reuteri densely colonize the forestomach of mice and possess several genes whose predicted functions constitute adaptations towards an acidic environment. The objective of this study was to systematically determine which genes of L. reuteri 100-23 contribute to tolerance towards host gastric acid secretion. Genes predicted to be involved in acid resistance were inactivated, and their contribution to survival under acidic conditions was confirmed in model gastric juice. Fitness of five mutants that showed impaired in vitro acid resistance were then compared through competition experiments in ex-germ-free mice that were either treated with omeprazole, a proton-pump inhibitor ...


Comparative Genomics Of Microbial Chemoreceptor Sequence, Structure, And Function, Aaron Daniel Fleetwood 2014 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Comparative Genomics Of Microbial Chemoreceptor Sequence, Structure, And Function, Aaron Daniel Fleetwood

Doctoral Dissertations

Microbial chemotaxis receptors (chemoreceptors) are complex proteins that sense the external environment and signal for flagella-mediated motility, serving as the GPS of the cell. In order to sense a myriad of physicochemical signals and adapt to diverse environmental niches, sensory regions of chemoreceptors are frenetically duplicated, mutated, or lost. Conversely, the chemoreceptor signaling region is a highly conserved protein domain. Extreme conservation of this domain is necessary because it determines very specific helical secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures of the protein while simultaneously choreographing a network of interactions with the adaptor protein CheW and the histidine kinase CheA. This dichotomous ...


Characterization Of Ftsa-Ftsn Interaction During Escherichia Coli Cell Division, kimberly.busiek@gmail.com K. Busiek 2014 The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Characterization Of Ftsa-Ftsn Interaction During Escherichia Coli Cell Division, Kimberly.Busiek@Gmail.Com K. Busiek

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Division of a bacterial cell into two equal daughter cells requires precise assembly and constriction of the division machinery, or divisome. The Escherichia coli divisome includes nearly a dozen essential cell division proteins that assemble at midcell between segregating sister chromosomes. FtsZ, a homolog of eukaryotic tubulin, is the first essential cell division protein to localize at midcell where it polymerizes into a ring-shaped scaffold (Z ring). Establishment of the Z ring is required for recruitment of downstream cell division proteins including FtsA, a cytoplasmic protein that tethers the Z ring to the inner membrane. Following localization of FtsA and ...


Clpxp Modulates Cell Growth And Morphology In Cell Shape Mutants Of E.Coli, Ryann Murphy 2014 University of Rhode Island

Clpxp Modulates Cell Growth And Morphology In Cell Shape Mutants Of E.Coli, Ryann Murphy

Senior Honors Projects

ClpXP modulates cell growth and morphology in cell shape mutants of E. coli

Ryann Murphy1 and Jodi L. Camberg1

1University of Rhode Island, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Kingston, RI, 02881

Penicillin Binding Proteins (PBPs) are a family of prokaryotic membrane proteins named for their propensity to bind the antibiotic penicillin and are involved in remodeling and deposition of peptidoglycan. In wild type Escherichia coli cells, the uniform rod shape is conserved across generations. E.coli cells containing multiple deletions of Low Molecular Weight (LMW) PBPs exhibit irregular shapes. LMW PBP5 (dacA) is a potential substrate ...


The Effects Of Ocean Acidification And Eutrophication On The Growth, Lipid Composition And Toxicity Of The Marine Raphidophyte Heterosigma Akashiwo., Julia Rose Matheson 2014 The University of Western Ontario

The Effects Of Ocean Acidification And Eutrophication On The Growth, Lipid Composition And Toxicity Of The Marine Raphidophyte Heterosigma Akashiwo., Julia Rose Matheson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Anthropogenic forcing, such as ocean acidification caused by rising carbon dioxide emissions, and eutrophication due to increased nutrient loadings in run-off, are causing major changes to the biogeochemistry of the oceans. As a consequence, coastal phytoplankton are susceptible to altered biogeochemical environments. This study examined the effect of a lower pH and increased levels of nutrients on the common coastal harmful alga, Heterosigma akashiwo. Growth rates, maximal cell yields, neutral lipid accumulation and toxicity of cells grown under various pH and nutrients regimes were measured. H. akashiwo growth was near maximal when grown at lower pH levels. There was a ...


Transcriptome Analysis Of Listeria Monocytogenes Exposed To Biocide Stress Reveals A Multi-System Response Involving Cell Wall Synthesis, Sugar Uptake, And Motility, Aidan Casey, Edward M. Fox, Stephan Schmitz-Esser, Aidan Coffey, Olivia McAuliffe, Kieran Jordan 2014 Teagasc Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland

Transcriptome Analysis Of Listeria Monocytogenes Exposed To Biocide Stress Reveals A Multi-System Response Involving Cell Wall Synthesis, Sugar Uptake, And Motility, Aidan Casey, Edward M. Fox, Stephan Schmitz-Esser, Aidan Coffey, Olivia Mcauliffe, Kieran Jordan

Department of Biological Sciences Publications

Listeria monocytogenes is a virulent food-borne pathogen most often associated with the consumption of “ready-to-eat” foods. The organism is a common contaminant of food processing plants where it may persist for extended periods of time. A commonly used approach for the control of Listeria monocytogenes in the processing environment is the application of biocides such as quaternary ammonium compounds. In this study, the transcriptomic response of a persistent strain of L. monocytogenes (strain 6179) on exposure to a sub-lethal concentration of the quaternary ammonium compound benzethonium chloride (BZT) was assessed. Using RNA-Seq, gene expression levels were quantified by sequencing the ...


Higher-Level Production Of Volatile Fatty Acids In Vitro By Chicken Gut Microbiotas Than By Human Gut Microbiotas As Determined By Functional Analyses, Fang Lei, Yeshi Yin, Yuezhu Wang, Bo Deng, Hongwei Yu, Lanjuan Li, Charlie Xiang, Shengyue Wang, Baoli Zhu, Xin Wang 2014 Marshall University

Higher-Level Production Of Volatile Fatty Acids In Vitro By Chicken Gut Microbiotas Than By Human Gut Microbiotas As Determined By Functional Analyses, Fang Lei, Yeshi Yin, Yuezhu Wang, Bo Deng, Hongwei Yu, Lanjuan Li, Charlie Xiang, Shengyue Wang, Baoli Zhu, Xin Wang

Hongwei Yu

The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the composition and function of gut microbiota. Here, we compared the bacterial compositions and fermentation metabolites of human and chicken gut microbiotas. Results generated by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene V3 region showed the compositions of human and chicken microbiotas to be markedly different, with chicken cecal microbiotas displaying more diversity than human fecal microbiotas. The nutrient requirements of each microbiota growing under batch and chemostat conditions were analyzed. The results showed that chicken cecal microbiotas required simple sugars and peptides to maintain ...


Phages Of Non-Diary Lactococci: Isolation And Characterization Of Phi L47, A Phage Infecting The Grass Isolate Lactococcus Lactis Ssp Cremoris Dpc6860, Daniel Cavanagh, Caitríona M. Guinane, Horst Neve, Aidan Coffey, R. Paul Ross, Gerald F. Fitzgerald, Olivia McAuliffe 2014 Department of Food Biosciences, Teagasc Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Co. Cork, Ireland and Department of Microbiology, University College Cork, Co. Cork, Ireland

Phages Of Non-Diary Lactococci: Isolation And Characterization Of Phi L47, A Phage Infecting The Grass Isolate Lactococcus Lactis Ssp Cremoris Dpc6860, Daniel Cavanagh, Caitríona M. Guinane, Horst Neve, Aidan Coffey, R. Paul Ross, Gerald F. Fitzgerald, Olivia Mcauliffe

Department of Biological Sciences Publications

Lactococci isolated from non-dairy sources have been found to possess enhanced metabolic activity when compared to dairy strains. These capabilities may be harnessed through the use of these strains as starter or adjunct cultures to produce more diverse flavor profiles in cheese and other dairy products. To understand the interactions between these organisms and the phages that infect them, a number of phages were isolated against lactococcal strains of non-dairy origin. One such phage, ΦL47, was isolated from a sewage sample using the grass isolate L. lactis ssp. cremoris DPC6860 as a host. Visualization of phage virions by transmission electron ...


Characterization Of Phycoerythrin Physiology In Low-Light Adapted Prochlorococcus Ecotypes, Kathryn H. Roache-Johnson 2013 The University of Maine

Characterization Of Phycoerythrin Physiology In Low-Light Adapted Prochlorococcus Ecotypes, Kathryn H. Roache-Johnson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The marine cyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus are the most abundant phototrophs in the oceans. They cohabit the oligotrophic ocean and thus have coevolved together, yet they have distinctly different methods for harvesting light. Synechococcus, like other cyanobacteria, possess phycobilisomes with various combinations of phycobiliproteins to capture wavelengths of light not otherwise available to chlorophyll. Prochlorococcus lack phycobilisomes and use divinyl chlorophyll b (Chl b2) as their primary accessory pigment to divinyl chlorophyll a (Chl a2) to capture light energy. In addition to the divinyl chlorophylls, Prochlorococcus has genes associated with the phycobiliprotein phycoerythrin (PE), the role of which is still ...


Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Ampr Transcriptional Regulatory Network, Deepak Balasubramanian 2013 Florida International University

Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Ampr Transcriptional Regulatory Network, Deepak Balasubramanian

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In Enterobacteriaceae, the transcriptional regulator AmpR, a member of the LysR family, regulates the expression of a chromosomal β-lactamase AmpC. The regulatory repertoire of AmpR is broader in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen responsible for numerous acute and chronic infections including cystic fibrosis. Previous studies showed that in addition to regulating ampC, P. aeruginosa AmpR regulates the sigma factor AlgT/U and production of some quorum sensing (QS)-regulated virulence factors. In order to better understand the ampR regulon, the transcriptional profiles generated using DNA microarrays and RNA-Seq of the prototypic P. aeruginosa PAO1 strain with its isogenic ampR deletion ...


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