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Organismal Biological Physiology Commons

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Distiphallus Morphology And Its Role In Copulation Dynamics In Anastrepha Suspensa (Loew), Taylor J. Inboden 2018 Eastern Illinois University

Distiphallus Morphology And Its Role In Copulation Dynamics In Anastrepha Suspensa (Loew), Taylor J. Inboden

Masters Theses

Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera; Tephritidae) is an agricultural pest species

causing severe economic damage and is controlled, in part, by applying knowledge

of this species' reproduction (e.g., disrupting fertile copulations by SIT). During

copulation, males transfer sperm as well as protein rich fluids through an aedeagus

and distiphallus, which females then store in three spermathecae and one ventral

receptacle. Within the female reproductive tract, the ventral receptacle and the

three spermathecae are strategically separated from each other. I hypothesized

males' ability to direct sperm transfer within the female reproductive tract is

through the structures found in the distiphallus. Utilizing scanning ...


Evidence For The Priming Effect In Single Strain And Simplified Communities Of Estuarine Bacteria, Abigail Amina Edwards 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Evidence For The Priming Effect In Single Strain And Simplified Communities Of Estuarine Bacteria, Abigail Amina Edwards

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Through their transformation of naturally occurring organic matter, coastal marine bacteria play an essential role in carbon cycling. A phenomenon termed the priming effect (PE) occurs when microbial communities remineralize recalcitrant organic matter faster in the presence of labile organic matter and may be prevalent in coastal systems. To understand how microbial community members interact to induce PE, it is essential to first understand the mechanisms underlying PE in single strains and simplified bacterial communities. The effect to which different concentrations and sources of labile carbon stimulated the production of bacterial biomass from riverine organic matter by two marine bacteria ...


The Effect Of Diet On Midgut And Resulting Changes In Infectiousness Of Acmnpv Baculovirus In Trichoplusia Ni, Elizabeth Chen 2017 The University of Western Ontario

The Effect Of Diet On Midgut And Resulting Changes In Infectiousness Of Acmnpv Baculovirus In Trichoplusia Ni, Elizabeth Chen

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, a global generalist lepidopteran pest, has developed resistance to many synthetic and biological insecticides, requiring effective and environmentally acceptable alternatives. One possibility is the Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV). This baculovirus is highly infectious for T. ni, with potential as a biocontrol agent, however, its effectiveness is strongly influenced by dietary context. In this study, microscopy and transcriptomics were used to examine how the efficacy of this virus was affected when T. ni larvae were raised on different diets. Larvae raised on potato host plants had lower chitinase and chitin deacetylase transcript levels and thickened ...


Functional Analysis Of Microrna Pathway Genes In The Somatic Gonad And Germ Cells During Ovulation In C. Elegans, Carmela Rios 2017 Marquette University

Functional Analysis Of Microrna Pathway Genes In The Somatic Gonad And Germ Cells During Ovulation In C. Elegans, Carmela Rios

Dissertations (1934 -)

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are post-­transcriptional regulators of gene expression that play critical roles in animal development and physiology, though functions for most miRNAs remain unknown. Worms with reduced miRNA biogenesis due to loss of Drosha or Pasha/DGCR8 activity are sterile and fail to ovulate, indicating that miRNAs are required for the process of oocyte maturation and ovulation. Starting with this penetrant sterile phenotype and using new strains created to perform tissue-­specific RNAi, we characterize the roles of the C. elegans Pasha, pash-­1, and two miRNA-­specific Argonautes, alg-­1 and alg-­2, in somatic gonad cells and ...


Characterization Of Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors And Their Positive Allosteric Modulators, Doris Clark Jackson 2017 Brigham Young University

Characterization Of Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors And Their Positive Allosteric Modulators, Doris Clark Jackson

Theses and Dissertations

Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ligand-gated ion channels that are necessary in memory and cognition. They are pentameric and consist of α and β subunits. They are most commonly heteromeric but, can sometimes be homomeric. nAChRs are activated by many ligands including nicotine (exogenous) and acetylcholine (endogenous).nAChRs are located on hippocampal interneurons. The interneurons, although sparse, control the synchronous firing of the pyramidal cells. However, the hippocampal interneuron structure and function is quite diverse and not fully characterized. Therefore, we sought to quantify nAChR subunit mRNA levels using real-time PCR of CA1 hippocampal interneurons.Surprisingly we found that ...


Elucidating The Interplay Between Sodium Selenite On The Tick Amblyomma Maculatum Selenoprotein Gene Expression, Afnan M. Beauti 2017 University of Southern Mississippi

Elucidating The Interplay Between Sodium Selenite On The Tick Amblyomma Maculatum Selenoprotein Gene Expression, Afnan M. Beauti

Honors Theses

Selenium (Se) is an element recognized as an essential micronutrient in eukaryote organisms. Selenoproteins contain selenium as selenocysteine, the 21st amino acid. Selenium plays a role in cell growth and functioning. At low concentrations, it can induce growth and at high concentrations, it can cause a cell to stop growing and potentially have toxic effects on the cell and organism. When selenium levels are high, oxidative stress results by the production of reactive oxidative species. Selenoproteins, however, can aid the antioxidant response in the cell. Ticks are arthropods of interest, as they are one of few that contain many selenogenes ...


Antimicrobial Properties Of S-Benzofuran-2-Yl Ethanol Produced By Biotransformation, Nick Cheatwood, Ann Davis, Elizabeth Schabeck, Kelsi Hooker, Michele Harris 2017 Stephen F Austin State University

Antimicrobial Properties Of S-Benzofuran-2-Yl Ethanol Produced By Biotransformation, Nick Cheatwood, Ann Davis, Elizabeth Schabeck, Kelsi Hooker, Michele Harris

Undergraduate Research Conference

All living organisms contain enzymes to carry out biological reactions, which produce substances with a specific three dimensional shape. Enantiomers are two molecules that are mirror images of each other just as hands are mirror images of each other. It is well known in the pharmaceutical world that one of the enantiomers (one of the mirrorimage molecules) has a positive biological effect while the other can be harmful or have no effect. Currently, any potential pharmaceutical that could exist as enantiomers must have each enantiomer tested for biological activity prior to FDA approval. In our laboratory, we have focused on ...


Bioethics In The Work Of Ernest Everett Just: + Missing - Some 400 Pages, Theodore Walker 2017 Southern Methodist University

Bioethics In The Work Of Ernest Everett Just: + Missing - Some 400 Pages, Theodore Walker

Perkins Faculty Research and Special Events

Biology + ethics = bioethics. Here we see that Howard University biologist Ernest Everett Just (born 1883, died 1941) connected biology to ethics.

According to Just, various forms of specific biology (including especially cell biology) plus “general biology” are necessary for explaining adequately the origin of ethical behaviors. Social ethical behaviors, especially mutual aid and cooperative interactions with others and the environment, are essential to evolutionary advances among living creatures, ranging from humans to cells. Accordingly, theory of ethics (moral theory) should have roots in biology.

Also, Just wrote an unpublished book-length manuscript—“some 400 typed pages” (Just 1940)—on seeking the ...


Determining Whether Drosophila Melanogaster Have An Innate Directional Preference Based On The Ambient Magnetic Field Of The Earth, Rachel L. Mendazona, Marian McKechnie, Natalie Wallace, Stephanie Torrez, Michael Baltzley, Kristin Latham 2017 Western Oregon University

Determining Whether Drosophila Melanogaster Have An Innate Directional Preference Based On The Ambient Magnetic Field Of The Earth, Rachel L. Mendazona, Marian Mckechnie, Natalie Wallace, Stephanie Torrez, Michael Baltzley, Kristin Latham

Student Theses, Papers and Projects (Biology)

The status of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism for behavioral and genetic research makes it an attractive candidate for investigations of the genetic basis of magnetoreception. There are two main hypotheses for how animals detect Earth-strength magnetic fields. One hypothesis is that animals use magnetite, which forms long chains and serves as a magnetic dipole, while the other hypothesis is that animals have a light-dependent magnetic response utilizing cryptochrome. Several studies have found that Drosophila can orient to Earth-strength magnetic fields using a mechanism consistent with a cryptochrome-based magnetoreceptor, but the specifics of the findings have ...


Using Artificial Selection To Understand Orientation Behavior In Drosophila, Mariah M. McKechnie, Rachel L. Mendazona, Secilia Torrez, Natalie E. Wallace, Michael J. Baltzley, Kristin L. Latham 2017 Western Oregon University

Using Artificial Selection To Understand Orientation Behavior In Drosophila, Mariah M. Mckechnie, Rachel L. Mendazona, Secilia Torrez, Natalie E. Wallace, Michael J. Baltzley, Kristin L. Latham

Student Theses, Papers and Projects (Biology)

Several studies suggest that the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster can use magnetic fields for orientation1-4; however, the responses to magnetic fields are not consistent across studies and experiments investigating the mechanism of magnetoreception rely on magnetic fields that are at least 10 times stronger than the magnetic field of the Earth5-6. We are attempting to determine whether Drosophila have the ability to detect Earth-strength magnetic fields by running flies through a progressive Y-maze and then selectively breeding the flies based on their choices in the maze. There are two main hypotheses about the mechanism of magnetoreception in animals. The first ...


Biomarkers Of Sepsis: A Retrospective Approach, Jose M. Roberts 2017 The University of Akron

Biomarkers Of Sepsis: A Retrospective Approach, Jose M. Roberts

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Background: Biomarkers are taking the spotlight in becoming the norm for early diagnoses. Sepsis is an inflammatory disease that increases metabolic rate in children. The first biomarker is hyponatremia. Hyponatremia is a frequent electrolyte imbalance in clinical practice, often observed in children with inflammatory disease and infection. Presence of hyponatremia is associated with electrical signaling imbalances, inflammation and renal dysfunction. The clinical value of hyponatremia in pediatric patients is unknown. The C-reactive protein is a second biomarker. Its presence signifies that necrotic cells and inflammation are present.

Objectives: To evaluate the use of biomarkers in children seen in the Emergency ...


Identification And Characterization Of Fungal Isolates From Land-Applied Sewage Sludge, Vaille Swenson, Hope L. Juntunen, R Honour, R C. Hale, Michael Gaylor, Patrick Videau 2017 Dakota State University

Identification And Characterization Of Fungal Isolates From Land-Applied Sewage Sludge, Vaille Swenson, Hope L. Juntunen, R Honour, R C. Hale, Michael Gaylor, Patrick Videau

Faculty Research & Publications

Approximately eight million dry tons of sewage sludge is generated in the U.S. each year, with more than half of that now land-applied as the primary method of disposal. Despite the proliferation of this practice, little is known about the microbial constituents of these noxious materials. To address this knowledge gap, we isolated and characterized fungi present in archived samples of land-disposed sewage sludge collected from the Snoqualmie National Forest (Washington State). Sludge samples were resuspended in sterile water and 15 fungal isolates were selected and purified on sabouraud dextrose agar plates supplemented with 50 mg/L of chloramphenicol ...


Trophic Roles Of Tadpoles In Tropical Australian Streams, Katrin Schmidt, Melanie L. Blanchette, Richard G. Pearson, Ross A. Alford, Aaron M. Davis 2017 Edith Cowan University

Trophic Roles Of Tadpoles In Tropical Australian Streams, Katrin Schmidt, Melanie L. Blanchette, Richard G. Pearson, Ross A. Alford, Aaron M. Davis

ECU Publications Post 2013

Tadpoles can be abundant consumers in stream ecosystems, and may influence the structure and function of streams through their feeding activities and interactions with other organisms. To understand the contribution of tadpoles to stream functioning, and the potential impact of their loss, it is necessary to determine their diets and how they might influence food-web structure. Using gut-content analysis and stable-isotope analysis of N and C, we determined the main food sources and trophic positions of tadpoles of five native frog species, invertebrates, and fish in upland and lowland Australian Wet Tropics streams. Omnivory was prevalent among the tadpoles and ...


Effects Of Acute Heat And Oxidative Stress On The Hepatic Expression Of Orexin And Its Related Receptors, Stephanie Khaldi 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effects Of Acute Heat And Oxidative Stress On The Hepatic Expression Of Orexin And Its Related Receptors, Stephanie Khaldi

Theses and Dissertations

It is widely known that orexin A and B peptides as well as their receptors are expressed in the hypothalamus and distributed throughout the central nervous system, but there have been few studies regarding its presences in other parts of the body. There is now evidence that orexin (ORX) and its receptors (ORXR1/2) are present in the avian liver; however, their regulation under different environmental conditions is still unknown. In the current study, we sought to determine the effects of heat and oxidative stress using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) on the hepatic expression of ORX and ORXR1 ...


Expansion Of And Reclassification Within The Family Lachnospiraceae, Kelly N. Haas 2016 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Expansion Of And Reclassification Within The Family Lachnospiraceae, Kelly N. Haas

Doctoral Dissertations

Many of the taxa in the family Lachnospiraceae are currently misclassified as Clostridium spp. Here attempt to rectify many of these issues, beginning with an in-depth genomic and physiologic analysis of Clostridium methoxybenzovorans, culminating in the assertion that is a heterotype of Clostridium indolis, followed by reclassification of the broader group in which this organism resides. We propose two novel genera, Lacriformis and Enterocloster, to reclassify this clade, this includes reclassification of Clostridium sphenoides, Clostridium indolis, Clostridium saccharolyticum, Clostridium celerecrescens, Clostridium xylanolyticum, Clostridium algidixylanolyticum, Clostridium aerotolerans, Clostridium amygdalinum, and Desulfotomaculum guttoideum as Lacriformis sphenoides, comb. nov., Lacriformis indolis, comb. nov ...


External Morphology Of The Eggs Of Asplanchnopus Multiceps (Schrank, 1793) (Rotifera): Solving The 150-Year-Old Case Of Mistaken Identity, Elizabeth S. Wurdak 2016 College of Saint Benedict/Saint John's University

External Morphology Of The Eggs Of Asplanchnopus Multiceps (Schrank, 1793) (Rotifera): Solving The 150-Year-Old Case Of Mistaken Identity, Elizabeth S. Wurdak

Biology Faculty Publications

This report calls into question the practice of passing along illustrations and anatomical descriptions from the literature without scrutiny. An error made by Leydig (Zeischrift für wissenschaftliche Zoologie 6:1–120, 1854) in characterizing the egg of Asplanchnopus multiceps was perpetuated in authoritative publications (Hyman, The Invertebrates: Acanthocephala, Aschelminthes, and Entoprocta. The pseudocoelomate Bilateria, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1951; Voigt, Rotatoria: Die Rädertiere Mitteleuropas, Gebrüder Borntraeger, Berlin-Nikolassee, 1957; Ruttner-Kolisko, Plankton rotifers, biology and taxonomy supplementary edition of Die Binnengewässer 26, Stuttgart, 1974; Koste, Rotatoria: Die Rädertiere Mitteleuropas begründet von Max Voigt. Monogononta 2. Auflage neubearbeitet von Walter Koste, Gebrüder ...


Characterization Of Histone Mutants Associated With Mitotic Defects In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Md Riajul Hossain 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Characterization Of Histone Mutants Associated With Mitotic Defects In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Md Riajul Hossain

Theses and Dissertations

Nucleosomes, the basic unit and the building blocks of chromatin have an essential role in the tight packaging of DNA into higher order chromatin. Work from our lab and others have provided information on the contributions of different histone proteins and specific domains within the nucleosome made to create the centromeric chromatin structure required for normal chromosome segregation during mitosis. The DNA entry/exit site is a particular region of the nucleosome where histone H2A, H3 and H4 form critical interactions that appear to be essential for the association of Sgo1, a tension sensing protein that monitors kinetochore-microtubule attachment. In ...


The Thioredoxin Trx-1 Regulates The Major Oxidative Stress Response Transcription Factor, Skn-1, In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Katie C. McCallum 2016 The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

The Thioredoxin Trx-1 Regulates The Major Oxidative Stress Response Transcription Factor, Skn-1, In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Katie C. Mccallum

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The ability to respond to hostile environmental conditions is critical for the survival of an organism. Oxidative stress is an adverse state in which reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulate to a harmful level and, if left unresolved, can lead to cellular dysfunction and organismal disease. Sophisticated detoxification systems, characterized by a battery of enzymatic antioxidants, are utilized to neutralize ROS thereby reducing stress. However, ROS are also purposefully produced by designated cellular enzymes to facilitate the signaling and regulation of critical physiological processes. Therefore, both the production and neutralization of ROS must be tightly controlled. Indeed, the expression of detoxification ...


Toxicity Of Engineered Nanomaterials To Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria, Ricky W. Lewis 2016 University of Kentucky

Toxicity Of Engineered Nanomaterials To Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria, Ricky W. Lewis

Theses and Dissertations--Plant and Soil Sciences

Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) have become ubiquitous in consumer products and industrial applications, and consequently the environment. Much of the environmentally released ENMs are expected to enter terrestrial ecosystems via land application of nano-enriched biosolids to agricultural fields. Among the organisms most likely to encounter nano-enriched biosolids are the key soil bacteria known as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). I reviewed what is known concerning the toxicological effects of ENMs to PGPR and observed the need for high-throughput methods to evaluate lethal and sublethal toxic responses of aerobic microbes. I addressed this issue by developing high-throughput microplate assays which allowed me ...


Isolation And Identification Of Bacterial Endosymbionts In The Brooding Brittle Star Amphipholis Squamata, Abbey Rose Tedford 2016 University of New Hampshire - Main Campus

Isolation And Identification Of Bacterial Endosymbionts In The Brooding Brittle Star Amphipholis Squamata, Abbey Rose Tedford

Honors Theses and Capstones

Symbiotic associations with subcuticular bacteria (SCB) have been identified and studied in numerous echinoderms, including the SCB of the brooding brittle star, Amphipholis squamata. These SCB, however, have not been studied using current next generation sequencing technologies. Previous studies on the SCB of A. squamata placed these bacteria in the genus Vibrio (γ-Proteobacteria), but subsequent studies suggested that the SCB are primarily composed of α-Proteobacteria. The present study examines the taxonomic composition of SCB associated with A. squamata from the Northwest Atlantic. DNA was extracted using a CTAB protocol and 16S rRNA sequences were amplified using gene-targeted PCR ...


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