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Smooth Muscle Hyperplasia Due To Acta2/Myh11 Mutations: Identification Of Novel Pathology And Pathways Leading To Aneurysms And Diverse Vascular Occlusive Diseases, Christina L. Papke 2010 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Smooth Muscle Hyperplasia Due To Acta2/Myh11 Mutations: Identification Of Novel Pathology And Pathways Leading To Aneurysms And Diverse Vascular Occlusive Diseases, Christina L. Papke

Dissertations & Theses (Open Access)

Missense mutations in smooth muscle cell (SMC) specific ACTA2 (á-actin) and MYH11 (â-myosin heavy chain) cause diffuse and diverse vascular diseases, including thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections (TAAD) and early onset coronary artery disease and stroke. The mechanism by which these mutations lead to dilatation of some arteries but occlusion of others is unknown. We hypothesized that the mutations act through two distinct mechanisms to cause varied vascular diseases: a loss of function, leading to decreased SMC contraction and aneurysms, and a gain of function, leading to increased SMC proliferation and occlusive disease. To test this hypothesis, ACTA2 mutant SMCs …


Myogenin Modulates Exercise Endurance By Altering Skeletal Muscle Metabolism, james eric meadows 2010 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Myogenin Modulates Exercise Endurance By Altering Skeletal Muscle Metabolism, James Eric Meadows

Dissertations & Theses (Open Access)

The function of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) during adult life is not well understood. The requirement of one of these MRFs, myogenin (Myog), during embryonic muscle development suggests an equally important role in adult muscle. In this study, we have determined the function of myogenin during adult life using a conditional allele of Myog. In contrast to embryonic development, myogenin is not required for adult viability, and Myog-deleted mice exhibited no remarkable phenotypic changes during sedentary life. Remarkably, sedentary Myog-deleted mice demonstrated enhanced exercise endurance during involuntary treadmill running. Altered blood glucose and lactate levels in sedentary Myog-deleted mice after …


Survival Prediction For Brain Tumor Patients Using Gene Expression Data, Vinicius Bonato 2010 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Survival Prediction For Brain Tumor Patients Using Gene Expression Data, Vinicius Bonato

Dissertations & Theses (Open Access)

Brain tumor is one of the most aggressive types of cancer in humans, with an estimated median survival time of 12 months and only 4% of the patients surviving more than 5 years after disease diagnosis. Until recently, brain tumor prognosis has been based only on clinical information such as tumor grade and patient age, but there are reports indicating that molecular profiling of gliomas can reveal subgroups of patients with distinct survival rates. We hypothesize that coupling molecular profiling of brain tumors with clinical information might improve predictions of patient survival time and, consequently, better guide future treatment decisions. …


Mechanism-Based Strategies To Enhance The Actions Of A, fabiola c. gomez 2010 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Mechanism-Based Strategies To Enhance The Actions Of A, Fabiola C. Gomez

Dissertations & Theses (Open Access)

Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is an abundant molecular chaperone that regulates the functional stability of client oncoproteins, such as STAT3, Raf-1 and Akt, which play a role in the survival of malignant cells. The chaperone function of HSP90 is driven by the binding and hydrolysis of ATP. The geldanamycin analog, 17-AAG, binds to the ATP pocket of HSP90 leading to the degradation of client proteins. However, treatment with 17-AAG results in the elevation of the levels of antiapoptotic proteins HSP70 and HSP27, which may lead to cell death resistance. The increase in HSP70 and HSP27 protein levels is due …


Mult1e-Rgd Fusion Protein Drives Nk Cell-Mediated Anti-Tumor Response, Meg Steiner 2010 Clemson University

Mult1e-Rgd Fusion Protein Drives Nk Cell-Mediated Anti-Tumor Response, Meg Steiner

All Theses

A growing body of evidence indicates that natural killer (NK) cells are paramount to the identification and elimination of cancerous and pre-cancerous cells during normal immunosurveillance. In addition, NK cells provide a vital link between the innate and adaptive immune systems during an anti-tumoral response. In the present study, a novel fusion protein was designed from the extracellular portion of mouse UL16-binding protein-like transcript 1 (MULT1), a ligand for the activating NKG2D receptor on NK cells, and a short arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) -containing peptide, which binds the integrin αvβ3 of tumor-specific neovasculature. In vitro studies showed that the fusion protein …


Discrete Fractional Calculus And Its Applications To Tumor Growth, Sevgi Sengul 2010 Western Kentucky University

Discrete Fractional Calculus And Its Applications To Tumor Growth, Sevgi Sengul

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Almost every theory of mathematics has its discrete counterpart that makes it conceptually easier to understand and practically easier to use in the modeling process of real world problems. For instance, one can take the "difference" of any function, from 1st order up to the n-th order with discrete calculus. However, it is also possible to extend this theory by means of discrete fractional calculus and make n- any real number such that the ½-th order difference is well defined. This thesis is comprised of five chapters that demonstrate some basic definitions and properties of discrete fractional calculus …


A Guide To The Continuing Investigation Of The Relationship Between The Cytoskeleton And Cell Wall In Developing Buds Of Physcomitrella Patens, Derek Brockman 2010 University of Rhode Island

A Guide To The Continuing Investigation Of The Relationship Between The Cytoskeleton And Cell Wall In Developing Buds Of Physcomitrella Patens, Derek Brockman

Senior Honors Projects

Persistent questions in biology address the nature of tissue organization and how information encoded in the genome can be manifested as a physical form. While the ‘final’ product of gene expression is a protein, science has yet to elucidate how those proteins are able to interact with other cellular components and external forces to generate a specific cell shape. This complex process is critical in determining not only the shape of an individual cell but also that of an entire organ. In plants, cell shape is controlled by cellulose microfibrils of the cell wall, which are typically oriented perpendicular to …


Genetic And Biochemical Studies Of Plasmid Pir52-1 In Lactobacillus Helveticus, Cody Alexander Tramp 2010 Utah State University

Genetic And Biochemical Studies Of Plasmid Pir52-1 In Lactobacillus Helveticus, Cody Alexander Tramp

Undergraduate Honors Capstone Projects

Lactobacillus helveticus is a species of lactic acid bacteria. These bacteria, which produce lactic acid as a major product of carbohydrate metabolism, are used industrially to produce cheese and other fermented dairy products (Ebringer et al., 2008). Many species of lactic acid bacteria also possess probiotic characteristics and when ingested potentially confer increased immune function, regulate gut microbiota, and improve digestion in the host (Reid, 2008). Genetic studies of these probiotic effects and other characteristics of L. helveticus and related species have been hindered by the lack of stably replicating plasmid vectors. Plasmid vectors for several Lactobacillus species have been …


Midterm Outcomes Of Autologous Cultivated Limbal Stem Cell Transplantation With Or Without Penetrating Keratoplasty, Hossein Baharvand 2010 university of science & culture

Midterm Outcomes Of Autologous Cultivated Limbal Stem Cell Transplantation With Or Without Penetrating Keratoplasty, Hossein Baharvand

university of science & culture

To report the midterm outcomes of autologous limbal stem cell transplantation cultivated on amniotic membrane (AM) with or without subsequent penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) in patients with total unilateral limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). Methods: Eight eyes of 8 consecutive patients with unilateral total LSCD underwent autologous limbal stem cell transplantation cultivated on AM. Four eyes underwent subsequent optical PKP. Main outcome measures were corneal vascularization and transparency. Results: The patients were followed for 34.0 6 13.5 months (6–48 months). Seven cases had a stable corneal epithelium with marked decrease in opacification and vascularization. Progressive sectorial conjunctivalization was evident in all …


Role Of Protein Kinase C In Tbt-Induced Inhibition Of Lytic Function And Mapk Activation In Human Natural Killer Cells, Abraham B. Abraha, Krupa Rana, Margaret M. Whalen 2010 Tennessee State University

Role Of Protein Kinase C In Tbt-Induced Inhibition Of Lytic Function And Mapk Activation In Human Natural Killer Cells, Abraham B. Abraha, Krupa Rana, Margaret M. Whalen

Chemistry Faculty Research

Human natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes that destroy tumor and virally infected cells. Previous studies have shown that exposure of NK cells to tributyltin (TBT) greatly diminishes their ability to destroy tumor cells (lytic function) while activating mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) (p44/42, p38, and JNK) in NK cells. The signaling pathway that regulates NK lytic function appears to include activation of protein kinase C (PKC) as well as MAPK activity. TBT-induced activation of MAPKs would trigger a portion of the NK lytic signaling pathway, which would then leave the NK cell unable to trigger this pathway in response to …


Temporal Regulation Of The Muscle Gene Cascade By Macho1 And Tbx6 Transcription Factors In Ciona Intestinalis, Jamie E. Kugler, Stefan Gazdoiu, Izumi Oda-Ishii, Yale J. Passamaneck, Albert J. Erives, Anna Di Gregorio 2010 Cornell University

Temporal Regulation Of The Muscle Gene Cascade By Macho1 And Tbx6 Transcription Factors In Ciona Intestinalis, Jamie E. Kugler, Stefan Gazdoiu, Izumi Oda-Ishii, Yale J. Passamaneck, Albert J. Erives, Anna Di Gregorio

Dartmouth Scholarship

For over a century, muscle formation in the ascidian embryo has been representative of 'mosaic' development. The molecular basis of muscle-fate predetermination has been partly elucidated with the discovery of Macho1, a maternal zinc-finger transcription factor necessary and sufficient for primary muscle development, and of its transcriptional intermediaries Tbx6b and Tbx6c. However, the molecular mechanisms by which the maternal information is decoded by cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) associated with muscle transcription factor and structural genes, and the ways by which a seamless transition from maternal to zygotic transcription is ensured, are still mostly unclear. By combining misexpression assays with CRM analyses, …


Effects Of Butyltin Exposures On Map Kinase-Dependent Transcription Regulators In Human Natural Killer Cells, Rachel J. Person, Margaret M. Whalen 2010 Tennessee State University

Effects Of Butyltin Exposures On Map Kinase-Dependent Transcription Regulators In Human Natural Killer Cells, Rachel J. Person, Margaret M. Whalen

Chemistry Faculty Research

Natural killer (NK) cells are a major immune defense mechanism against cancer development and viral infection. The butyltins (BTs), tributyltin (TBT) and dibutyltin (DBT), have been widely used in industrial and other applications and significantly contaminate the environment. Both TBT and DBT have been detected in human blood. These compounds inhibit the lytic and binding function of human NK cells and thus could increase the incidence of cancer and viral infections. Butyltin (BT)-induced loss of NK function is accompanied by activation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and decreases in expression of cell-surface and cytolytic proteins. MAPKs activate components of …


Pcdp1 Is A Central Apparatus Protein That Binds Ca2+-Calmodulin And Regulates Ciliary Motility, Christen G. DiPetrillo, Elizabeth F. Smith 2010 Dartmouth College

Pcdp1 Is A Central Apparatus Protein That Binds Ca2+-Calmodulin And Regulates Ciliary Motility, Christen G. Dipetrillo, Elizabeth F. Smith

Dartmouth Scholarship

For all motile eukaryotic cilia and flagella, beating is regulated by changes in intraciliary calcium concentration. Although the mechanism for calcium regulation is not understood, numerous studies have shown that calmodulin (CaM) is a key axonemal calcium sensor. Using anti-CaM antibodies and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii axonemal extracts, we precipitated a complex that includes four polypeptides and that specifically interacts with CaM in high [Ca2+]. One of the complex members, FAP221, is an orthologue of mammalian Pcdp1 (primary ciliary dyskinesia protein 1). Both FAP221 and mammalian Pcdp1 specifically bind CaM in high [Ca2+]. Reduced expression of Pcdp1 complex …


The Reaction Of A Water Soluble Platinum Compound With Methionine And Derivatives, Yueh Ying Liao 2010 Western Kentucky University

The Reaction Of A Water Soluble Platinum Compound With Methionine And Derivatives, Yueh Ying Liao

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Water soluble platinum complexes are a recent area of emphasis of cisplatin chemistry. The water soluble complexes could have a reduced toxicity compared with cisplatin. Oxaliplatin, which has an oxalate leaving group, has previously been shown to have less nephro-toxicity and higher water solubility than cisplatin. [Pt(en)(oxalate)] (en = ethylenediamine) has been prepared from Pt(en)Cl2 and silver oxalate. This complex has been reacted with methionine and N-acetylmethionine at different molar ratios. At high Pt: methionine ratios, chelates with the sulfur and nitrogen atoms of the methionine are dominant; at lower Pt: methionine ratios, a bis-methionine product is formed. The en …


Dysautonomia Due To Reduced Cholinergic Neurotransmission Causes Cardiac Remodeling And Heart Failure, Aline Lara, Denis D. Damasceno, Rita Pires, Robert Gros, Eneas R. Gomes, Mariana Gavioli, Ricardo F. Lima, Diogo Guimaraes, Patricia Lima, Carlos Roberto Bueno Jr., Anilton Vasconcelos, Danilo Roman-Campos, Cristiane A. S. Menezes, Raquel A. Sirvente, Vera M. Salemi, Charles Mady, Marc G. Caron, Anderson J. Ferreira, Patricia C. Brum, Rodrigo R. Resende, Jader S. Cruz, Marcus Vinicius Gomez, Vania F. Prado, Alvair P. de Almeida, Marco A. M. Prado, Silvia Guatimosim 2010 Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais

Dysautonomia Due To Reduced Cholinergic Neurotransmission Causes Cardiac Remodeling And Heart Failure, Aline Lara, Denis D. Damasceno, Rita Pires, Robert Gros, Eneas R. Gomes, Mariana Gavioli, Ricardo F. Lima, Diogo Guimaraes, Patricia Lima, Carlos Roberto Bueno Jr., Anilton Vasconcelos, Danilo Roman-Campos, Cristiane A. S. Menezes, Raquel A. Sirvente, Vera M. Salemi, Charles Mady, Marc G. Caron, Anderson J. Ferreira, Patricia C. Brum, Rodrigo R. Resende, Jader S. Cruz, Marcus Vinicius Gomez, Vania F. Prado, Alvair P. De Almeida, Marco A. M. Prado, Silvia Guatimosim

Anatomy and Cell Biology Publications

Overwhelming evidence supports the importance of the sympathetic nervous system in heart failure. In contrast, much less is known about the role of failing cholinergic neurotransmission in cardiac disease. By using a unique genetically modified mouse line with reduced expression of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) and consequently decreased release of acetylcholine, we investigated the consequences of altered cholinergic tone for cardiac function. M-mode echocardiography, hemodynamic experiments, analysis of isolated perfused hearts, and measurements of cardiomyocyte contraction indicated that VAChT mutant mice have decreased left ventricle function associated with altered calcium handling. Gene expression was analyzed by quantitative reverse transcriptase …


Rapid Biocompatibility Analysis Of Materials Via In Vivo Fluorescence Imaging Of Mouse Models, Kaitlin M. Bratlie, Tram T. Dang, Stephen Lyle, Matthias Nahrendorf, Ralph Weissleder, Robert Langer, Daniel G. Anderson 2010 Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Rapid Biocompatibility Analysis Of Materials Via In Vivo Fluorescence Imaging Of Mouse Models, Kaitlin M. Bratlie, Tram T. Dang, Stephen Lyle, Matthias Nahrendorf, Ralph Weissleder, Robert Langer, Daniel G. Anderson

Kaitlin M. Bratlie

Background: Many materials are unsuitable for medical use because of poor biocompatibility. Recently, advances in the high throughput synthesis of biomaterials has significantly increased the number of potential biomaterials, however current biocompatibility analysis methods are slow and require histological analysis. Methodology/Principal Findings: Here we develop rapid, non-invasive methods for in vivo quantification of the inflammatory response to implanted biomaterials. Materials were placed subcutaneously in an array format and monitored for host responses as per ISO 10993-6: 2001. Host cell activity in response to these materials was imaged kinetically, in vivo using fluorescent whole animal imaging. Data captured using whole animal …


An Entrepreneurial Approach To Librarianship, Flora G. Shrode, Jennifer R. Duncan, Wendy Holliday 2010 Utah State University

An Entrepreneurial Approach To Librarianship, Flora G. Shrode, Jennifer R. Duncan, Wendy Holliday

Flora Shrode

Librarians from Utah State University explain recent efforts to encourage subject librarians to take a more holistic view of their roles. We are shifting from a traditional emphasis primarily on collection development and refocusing on natural connections between collections, instruction, liaison, and reference service. The poster provides background about Utah State University’s situation and explains our approach to analyzing local needs and culture to inform development of a new organizational structure. We describe our vision of subject librarianship, the process by which we assessed librarians’ ideas and goals for performing as subject librarians, and the actions we are taking to …


The Ontogeny Of Muscle Structure And Locomotory Function In The Long-Finned Squid Doryteuthis Pealeii, J. T. Thompson, I. K. Bartol, A. E. Baksi, P. S. Krueger 2010 Old Dominion University

The Ontogeny Of Muscle Structure And Locomotory Function In The Long-Finned Squid Doryteuthis Pealeii, J. T. Thompson, I. K. Bartol, A. E. Baksi, P. S. Krueger

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Understanding the extent to which changes in muscle form and function underlie ontogenetic changes in locomotory behaviors and performance is important in understanding the evolution of musculoskeletal systems and also the ecology of different life stages. We explored ontogenetic changes in the structure, myosin heavy chain (MHC) expression and contractile properties of the circular muscles that provide power for jet locomotion in the long-finned squid Doryteuthis pealeii. The circular muscle fibers of newly hatched paralarvae had different sizes, shapes, thick filament lengths, thin: thick filament ratio, myofilament organization and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) distribution than those of adults. Viewed in …


An Entrepreneurial Approach To Librarianship, Flora Shrode, Jennifer Duncan, Wendy Holliday 2010 Utah State University

An Entrepreneurial Approach To Librarianship, Flora Shrode, Jennifer Duncan, Wendy Holliday

Library Faculty & Staff Publications

Librarians from Utah State University explain recent efforts to encourage subject librarians to take a more holistic view of their roles. We are shifting from a traditional emphasis primarily on collection development and refocusing on natural connections between collections, instruction, liaison, and reference service. The poster provides background about Utah State University’s situation and explains our approach to analyzing local needs and culture to inform development of a new organizational structure. We describe our vision of subject librarianship, the process by which we assessed librarians’ ideas and goals for performing as subject librarians, and the actions we are taking to …


Human Osteoblast Proliferation In Culture Following A Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Field (Nspef), Leonard Joseph Carinci Jr. 2010 Old Dominion University

Human Osteoblast Proliferation In Culture Following A Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Field (Nspef), Leonard Joseph Carinci Jr.

Biological Sciences Theses & Dissertations

Osteoblasts are mononucleate bone forming cells responsible for the deposition of new bone. Application of mechanical stress on bone reveals its ability to produce and release electric potentials across the cell membrane called piezoelectricity. The electric potentials produced in response to mechanical stress may have a direct correlation on osseous cells and the signaling pathways that regulate proliferation. Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) are high intensity, ultrashort pulses which have the ability to maintain the integrity of the cell membrane by avoiding traditional electroporation. We delivered 8 nsPEFs (0.5 Hz) of a 25 kV/cm or 35 kV/cm electric field strength …


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