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Mechanism-Based Strategies To Enhance The Actions Of A, fabiola c. gomez 2010 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Mechanism-Based Strategies To Enhance The Actions Of A, Fabiola C. Gomez

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is an abundant molecular chaperone that regulates the functional stability of client oncoproteins, such as STAT3, Raf-1 and Akt, which play a role in the survival of malignant cells. The chaperone function of HSP90 is driven by the binding and hydrolysis of ATP. The geldanamycin analog, 17-AAG, binds to the ATP pocket of HSP90 leading to the degradation of client proteins. However, treatment with 17-AAG results in the elevation of the levels of antiapoptotic proteins HSP70 and HSP27, which may lead to cell death resistance. The increase in HSP70 and HSP27 protein levels is due ...


Delta Like Ligand 4 Is A Critical Regulator Of Bone Marrow Cell Differentiation Into Pericytes/Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells And Is Essential For The Vasculogenesis That Supports The Growth Of Ewing’S Sarcoma, Keri L. Stewart 2010 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Delta Like Ligand 4 Is A Critical Regulator Of Bone Marrow Cell Differentiation Into Pericytes/Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells And Is Essential For The Vasculogenesis That Supports The Growth Of Ewing’S Sarcoma, Keri L. Stewart

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

We have previously shown that vasculogenesis, the process by which bone marrow-derived cells are recruited to the tumor and organized to form a blood vessel network de novo, is essential for the growth of Ewing’s sarcoma. We further demonstrated that these bone marrow cells differentiate into pericytes/vascular smooth muscle cells(vSMC) and contribute to the formation of the functional vascular network. The molecular mechanisms that control bone marrow cell differentiation into pericytes/vSMC in Ewing’s sarcoma are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the Notch ligand Delta like ligand 4 (DLL4) plays a critical role in this ...


Cip4 And Src In Promoting The Migration And Invasion Of Breast Cancers, Christina S. Pichot 2010 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Cip4 And Src In Promoting The Migration And Invasion Of Breast Cancers, Christina S. Pichot

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Cellular invasion represents a critical early step in the metastatic cascade, and many proteins have been identified as part of an “invasive signature.” The non-receptor tyrosine kinase Src is commonly upregulated in breast cancers, often in conjunction with overexpression of EGFR. Signaling from this pathway stimulates cell proliferation, migration, and invasion and frequently involves proteins that regulate the cytoskeleton. My data demonstrates that inhibition of Src, using the small-molecule inhibitor dasatinib, impairs cellular migration and invasion. Furthermore, Src inhibition sensitizes the cells to the effects of the chemotherapeutic doxorubicin resulting in dramatic, synergistic inhibition of proliferation with combination treatments. The ...


Inhibition Of Deubiquitinase Activity And Ubiquitination Of Jak2 Blocks Cytokine Signaling And Induces Tumor Cell Apoptosis, Vaibhav Kapuria 2010 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Inhibition Of Deubiquitinase Activity And Ubiquitination Of Jak2 Blocks Cytokine Signaling And Induces Tumor Cell Apoptosis, Vaibhav Kapuria

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The Jak-stat pathway is critical for cellular proliferation and is commonly found to be deregulated in many solid tumors as well as hematological malignancies. Such findings have spurred the development of novel therapeutic agents that specifically inhibit Jak2 kinase, thereby suppressing tumor cell growth. Tyrphostin AG490, the first described Jak2 inhibitor, displays poor pharmacology and requires high concentrations for anti-tumor activities. Our research group screened a small library of AG490 structural analogues and identified WP1130 as a potent inhibitor of Jak2 signaling. However, unlike AG490, WP1130 did not directly inhibit Jak2 kinase activity. Our results show that WP1130 induces rapid ...


Xenoestrogen-Specific Mechanisms Of Developmental Reprogramming Correlate With Gene Expression And Tumor Development, Kristen L. Greathouse 2010 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Xenoestrogen-Specific Mechanisms Of Developmental Reprogramming Correlate With Gene Expression And Tumor Development, Kristen L. Greathouse

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Environmental exposures during sensitive windows of development can reprogram normal physiological responses and alter disease susceptibility later in life in a process known as developmental reprogramming. We have shown that neonatal exposure to the xenoestrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES) can developmentally reprogram the reproductive tract in genetically susceptible Eker rats giving rise to complete penetrance of uterine leiomyoma. Based on this, we hypothesized that xenoestrogens, including genistein (GEN) and bisphenol A (BPA), reprogram estrogen-responsive gene expression in the myometrium and promote the development of uterine leiomyoma. We proposed the mechanism that is responsible for the developmental reprogramming of gene expression was through ...


Role Of Protein Kinase C In Tbt-Induced Inhibition Of Lytic Function And Mapk Activation In Human Natural Killer Cells, Abraham B. Abraha, Krupa Rana, Margaret M. Whalen 2010 Tennessee State University

Role Of Protein Kinase C In Tbt-Induced Inhibition Of Lytic Function And Mapk Activation In Human Natural Killer Cells, Abraham B. Abraha, Krupa Rana, Margaret M. Whalen

Chemistry Faculty Research

Human natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes that destroy tumor and virally infected cells. Previous studies have shown that exposure of NK cells to tributyltin (TBT) greatly diminishes their ability to destroy tumor cells (lytic function) while activating mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) (p44/42, p38, and JNK) in NK cells. The signaling pathway that regulates NK lytic function appears to include activation of protein kinase C (PKC) as well as MAPK activity. TBT-induced activation of MAPKs would trigger a portion of the NK lytic signaling pathway, which would then leave the NK cell unable to trigger this pathway in response ...


Effects Of Butyltin Exposures On Map Kinase-Dependent Transcription Regulators In Human Natural Killer Cells, Rachel J. Person, Margaret M. Whalen 2010 Tennessee State University

Effects Of Butyltin Exposures On Map Kinase-Dependent Transcription Regulators In Human Natural Killer Cells, Rachel J. Person, Margaret M. Whalen

Chemistry Faculty Research

Natural killer (NK) cells are a major immune defense mechanism against cancer development and viral infection. The butyltins (BTs), tributyltin (TBT) and dibutyltin (DBT), have been widely used in industrial and other applications and significantly contaminate the environment. Both TBT and DBT have been detected in human blood. These compounds inhibit the lytic and binding function of human NK cells and thus could increase the incidence of cancer and viral infections. Butyltin (BT)-induced loss of NK function is accompanied by activation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and decreases in expression of cell-surface and cytolytic proteins. MAPKs activate components ...


Rapid Biocompatibility Analysis Of Materials Via In Vivo Fluorescence Imaging Of Mouse Models, Kaitlin M. Bratlie, Tram T. Dang, Stephen Lyle, Matthias Nahrendorf, Ralph Weissleder, Robert Langer, Daniel G. Anderson 2010 Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Rapid Biocompatibility Analysis Of Materials Via In Vivo Fluorescence Imaging Of Mouse Models, Kaitlin M. Bratlie, Tram T. Dang, Stephen Lyle, Matthias Nahrendorf, Ralph Weissleder, Robert Langer, Daniel G. Anderson

Kaitlin M. Bratlie

Background: Many materials are unsuitable for medical use because of poor biocompatibility. Recently, advances in the high throughput synthesis of biomaterials has significantly increased the number of potential biomaterials, however current biocompatibility analysis methods are slow and require histological analysis. Methodology/Principal Findings: Here we develop rapid, non-invasive methods for in vivo quantification of the inflammatory response to implanted biomaterials. Materials were placed subcutaneously in an array format and monitored for host responses as per ISO 10993-6: 2001. Host cell activity in response to these materials was imaged kinetically, in vivo using fluorescent whole animal imaging. Data captured using whole ...


The Reaction Of A Water Soluble Platinum Compound With Methionine And Derivatives, Yueh Ying Liao 2010 Western Kentucky University

The Reaction Of A Water Soluble Platinum Compound With Methionine And Derivatives, Yueh Ying Liao

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Water soluble platinum complexes are a recent area of emphasis of cisplatin chemistry. The water soluble complexes could have a reduced toxicity compared with cisplatin. Oxaliplatin, which has an oxalate leaving group, has previously been shown to have less nephro-toxicity and higher water solubility than cisplatin. [Pt(en)(oxalate)] (en = ethylenediamine) has been prepared from Pt(en)Cl2 and silver oxalate. This complex has been reacted with methionine and N-acetylmethionine at different molar ratios. At high Pt: methionine ratios, chelates with the sulfur and nitrogen atoms of the methionine are dominant; at lower Pt: methionine ratios, a bis-methionine product is ...


Trastuzumab Sensitizes Ovarian Cancer Cells To Egfr-Targeted Therapeutics, Jason A. Wilken, Kristy T. Webster, Nita J. Maihle 2010 Yale University

Trastuzumab Sensitizes Ovarian Cancer Cells To Egfr-Targeted Therapeutics, Jason A. Wilken, Kristy T. Webster, Nita J. Maihle

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

BACKGROUND: Early studies have demonstrated comparable levels of HER2/ErbB2 expression in both breast and ovarian cancer. Trastuzumab (Herceptin), a therapeutic monoclonal antibody directed against HER2, is FDA-approved for the treatment of both early and late stage breast cancer. However, clinical studies of trastuzumab in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients have not met the same level of success. Surprisingly, however, no reports have examined either the basis for primary trastuzumab resistance in ovarian cancer or potential ways of salvaging trastuzumab as a potential ovarian cancer therapeutic.

METHODS: An in vitro model of primary trastuzumab-resistant ovarian cancer was created by long-term ...


Immunosuppressive Effects Of Triclosan, Nonylphenol, And Ddt On Human Natural Killer Cells In Vitro, Felicia Udoji, Tamara Martin, Rachel Etherton, Margaret M. Whalen 2010 Tennessee State University

Immunosuppressive Effects Of Triclosan, Nonylphenol, And Ddt On Human Natural Killer Cells In Vitro, Felicia Udoji, Tamara Martin, Rachel Etherton, Margaret M. Whalen

Chemistry Faculty Research

Human natural killer (NK) cells are a first-line immune defense against tumor cells and virally-infected cells. If their function is impaired, it leaves an individual more susceptible to cancer development or viral infection. The ability of compounds that contaminate the environment to suppress the function of NK cells could contribute to the increased risk of cancer development. There are a wide spectrum of compounds that significantly contaminate water and food that are consumed by humans, leading to accumulation of some of these compounds in human tissues. In the current study, we examined the ability of three such compounds to diminish ...


An Integral Role Of Arrdc3 In Stem Cell Migration And Breast Cancer Progression: A Dissertation, Kyle M. Draheim 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

An Integral Role Of Arrdc3 In Stem Cell Migration And Breast Cancer Progression: A Dissertation, Kyle M. Draheim

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Despite the importance of integrins in epithelial cell biology surprisingly little is known about their regulation. It is known that they form hemidesmosomes (HDs), are actively involved in cell contacts during cell migration/invasion, and are key signaling molecules for survival and growth. However, there has been a distinct lack of understanding about what controls the dynamic integrin localization during cell activation and movement. Growth factors, such as EGF, are elevated during wound healing and carcinoma invasion leading to phosphorylation of ITGβ4 and the disassembly of the HD and mobilization of ITGβ4 to actin-rich protrusions. More recently the phosphorylation of ...


The Correlation Between Rates Of Cancer And Autism: An Exploratory Ecological Investigation, Hung-Teh Kao, Stephen L. Buka, Karl T. Kelsey, David F. Gruber, Barbara Porton 2010 Brown University

The Correlation Between Rates Of Cancer And Autism: An Exploratory Ecological Investigation, Hung-Teh Kao, Stephen L. Buka, Karl T. Kelsey, David F. Gruber, Barbara Porton

Publications and Research

Background: Autism is associated with high rates of genomic aberrations, including chromosomal rearrangements and de novo copy-number variations. These observations are reminiscent of cancer, a disease where genomic rearrangements also play a role. We undertook a correlative epidemiological study to explore the possibility that shared risk factors might exist for autism and specific types of cancer.

Methodology/Principal Findings: To determine if significant correlations exist between the prevalence of autism and the incidence of cancer, we obtained and analyzed state-wide data reported by age and gender throughout the United States. Autism data were obtained from the U.S. Department of ...


Analysis Of Primary Risk Factors For Oral Cancer From Us States With Increasing Rates, Anthony Bunnell, Nathan Pettit, Nicole Reddout, Kanika Sharma, Susan O'Malley, Michelle Chino, Karl Kingsley 2010 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Analysis Of Primary Risk Factors For Oral Cancer From Us States With Increasing Rates, Anthony Bunnell, Nathan Pettit, Nicole Reddout, Kanika Sharma, Susan O'Malley, Michelle Chino, Karl Kingsley

Public Health Faculty Publications

Objectives

To examine the primary risk factor for oral cancer in the US, smoking and tobacco use, among the specific US states that experienced short-term increases in oral cancer incidence and mortality.

Methods

Population-based data on oral cancer morbidity and mortality in the US were obtained from the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database for analysis of recent trends. Data were also obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to measure current and former trends of tobacco usage. To comprehensive measures of previous state tobacco ...


Defining The Roles Of P300/Cbp (Creb Binding Protein) And S5a In P53 Polyubiquitination, Degradation And Dna Damage Responses: A Dissertation, Dingding Shi 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Defining The Roles Of P300/Cbp (Creb Binding Protein) And S5a In P53 Polyubiquitination, Degradation And Dna Damage Responses: A Dissertation, Dingding Shi

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

p53, known as the “guardian of the genome”, is the most well-characterized tumor suppressor gene. The central role of p53 is to prevent genome instability. p53 is the central node in an incredibly elaborate genome defense network for receiving various input stress signals and controlling diverse cellular responses. The final output of this network is determined not only by the p53 protein itself, but also by other p53 cooperating proteins.

p300 and CBP (CREB-Binding Protein) act as multifunctional regulators of p53 via acetylase and ubiquitin ligase activities. Prior work in vitro has shown that the N-terminal 595 aa of p300 ...


Transcriptional Regulation Of Vegf-A By The Unfolded Protein Response Pathway, Rajarshi Ghosh, Kathryn L. Lipson, Karen E. Sargent, Arthur M. Mercurio, Joan S. Hunt, David Ron, Fumihiko Urano 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Transcriptional Regulation Of Vegf-A By The Unfolded Protein Response Pathway, Rajarshi Ghosh, Kathryn L. Lipson, Karen E. Sargent, Arthur M. Mercurio, Joan S. Hunt, David Ron, Fumihiko Urano

Program in Gene Function and Expression Publications

BACKGROUND: Angiogenesis is crucial to many physiological and pathological processes including development and cancer cell survival. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGFA) is the predominant mediator of angiogenesis in the VEGF family. During development, adverse environmental conditions like nutrient deprivation, hypoxia and increased protein secretion occur. IRE1alpha, PERK, and ATF6alpha, master regulators of the unfolded protein response (UPR), are activated under these conditions and are proposed to have a role in mediating angiogenesis.

PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show that IRE1alpha, PERK, and ATF6alpha powerfully regulate VEGFA mRNA expression under various stress conditions. In Ire1alpha(-/-) and Perk(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts and ATF6alpha-knockdown ...


Cordyceps Mushroom: A Potent Anticancer Nutraceutical, Md. Asaduzzaman Khan, Mousumi Tania, Dianzheng Zhang, Hanchun Chen 2010 Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine

Cordyceps Mushroom: A Potent Anticancer Nutraceutical, Md. Asaduzzaman Khan, Mousumi Tania, Dianzheng Zhang, Hanchun Chen

PCOM Scholarly Papers

The Cordyceps mushrooms have a long history as medicinal fungi. In Traditional Chinese Medicine, Cordyceps have been used to treat several conditions including cancers for thousand of years. Extracts from both mycelium and fruiting bodies of C. sinensis, C. militaris and other Cordyceps species showed significant anticancer activities by various mechanisms such as, modulating immune system and inducing cell apoptosis. Some polysaccharide components and cordycepin (3' -deoxyadenosine) have been isolated from C. sinensis and C. militaris, which acted as potent anticancer components. This review article aims to further elucidate the importance of Cordyceps mushrooms by summarizing the findings of some ...


Regulation Of Crbp1 In Mammary Epithelial Cells, Stacy L. Pease 2010 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Regulation Of Crbp1 In Mammary Epithelial Cells, Stacy L. Pease

Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014

Breast cancer is the second leading cause of death of women in the United States, warranting further investigation into preventative therapies. It has been well documented that early pregnancy results in a lifetime decreased risk of breast cancer in humans and mounting evidence suggests that the retinoic acid pathway may play an important role in this protective effect. Cellular retinol binding protein-1 (CRBP1) is an essential component of the retinoic acid pathway and we propose that it plays an important role in pregnancy-induced protection against breast cancer. In order to investigate the role of CRBP1 in parity-induced protection against breast ...


The Role Of Chmp1 In Drosophila Melanogaster, Meagan E. Valentine 2010 Marshall University

The Role Of Chmp1 In Drosophila Melanogaster, Meagan E. Valentine

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Chmp1A has recently been linked to pancreatic cancer, a leading cause of cancer death in humans. Pancreatic tumors have lowered Chmp1A expression, and it has been described as a tumor suppressor. Chmp1A is also a member of ESCRT III (Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport), a conserved protein complex involved in the degradation and recycling of activated transmembrane receptors. There is a single Chmp1 protein in Drosophila that is homologous to vertebrate Chmp1A; however, Chmp1 hasn’t been studied in Drosophila. The objective of this study was to characterize Chmp1 in Drosophila using gene knockdown and over-expression. We used an ...


Chemosensitization Of Cancer Cells By Sirna Using Targeted Nanogel Delivery, Erin B. Dickerson, William H. Blackburn, Michael H. Smith, Laura B. Kapa, L. Andrew Lyon, John F. McDonald 2010 Georgia Institute of Technology

Chemosensitization Of Cancer Cells By Sirna Using Targeted Nanogel Delivery, Erin B. Dickerson, William H. Blackburn, Michael H. Smith, Laura B. Kapa, L. Andrew Lyon, John F. Mcdonald

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Background: Chemoresistance is a major obstacle in cancer treatment. Targeted therapies that enhance cancer cell sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents have the potential to increase drug efficacy while reducing toxic effects on untargeted cells. Targeted cancer therapy by RNA interference (RNAi) is a relatively new approach that can be used to reversibly silence genes in vivo by selectively targeting genes such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which has been shown to increase the sensitivity of cancer cells to taxane chemotherapy. However, delivery represents the main hurdle for the broad development of RNAi therapeutics.

Methods: We report here the use ...


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