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Functions Of Dna Damage Response Factors In Lymphocyte Development And Transformation, Bu Yin 2010 University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

Functions Of Dna Damage Response Factors In Lymphocyte Development And Transformation, Bu Yin

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) can activate cell cycle checkpoints or apoptosis, and lead to genomic alterations that drive malignant transformation. The H2AX core histone variant is phosphorylated in chromatin around DSBs by kinases such as ATM and DNA-PKcs. However, how H2AX suppresses chromosome breaks and translocations in cells and prevents tumorigenesis in mice and humans is not well understood. V(D)J recombination is a genetically programmed DNA damage and repair process that assembles the variable region exons of antigen receptor genes in developing lymphocytes. Using an inducible V(D)J recombination system, I found that H2AX is phosphorylated ...


The Role Of The Transcription Factor Atf4iin Tumor Progression Under Nutrient Deprivation And Hypoxia, Jiangbin Ye 2010 University of Pennsylvania

The Role Of The Transcription Factor Atf4iin Tumor Progression Under Nutrient Deprivation And Hypoxia, Jiangbin Ye

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The transcription factor ATF4 regulates the expression of mRNAs involved in amino acid metabolism, redox homeostasis and ER stress responses. Its overexpression in human solid tumors suggests an important role in tumor biology. Here we report that inhibition of ATF4 expression blocks proliferation and survival of transformed cells, despite an initial activation of cytoprotective macroautophagy. Knockdown of ATF4 significantly reduced the levels of asparagine synthetase (ASNS). Overexpression of ASNS or supplementation of asparagine in trans, reverses the proliferation block and increases survival in ATF4 knockdown cells. Both amino acid and glucose deprivation, stresses found in solid tumors, activate the upstream ...


Mechanisms Of The Downregulation Of Prolactin Receptor And Their Role In Cell Proliferation, Bentley J. Varghese 2010 University of Pennsylvania

Mechanisms Of The Downregulation Of Prolactin Receptor And Their Role In Cell Proliferation, Bentley J. Varghese

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Cells react to diverse stimuli by expressing specific receptors that recognize these stimuli and initiate specific signaling pathways that enable a cell to change with the environment. Downregulation of these signaling receptors represents the most direct method for limiting the magnitude and duration of downstream signal transduction. For cell surface transmembrane receptors, ligand-stimulated endocytosis is a major mechanism by which the ability of a cell to react to a ligand is restricted. In order to investigate the downregulation of the prolactin receptor (PRLr), we investigated the mechanism and key determinants in the endocytosis and downregulation of PRLr. In Chapter 2 ...


Regulation Of Dna Damage Processing By Covalent Modification Of Thymine Dna Glycosylase, Ryan D. Mohan 2010 The University of Western Ontario

Regulation Of Dna Damage Processing By Covalent Modification Of Thymine Dna Glycosylase, Ryan D. Mohan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) is an essential DNA repair enzyme mediating excision of uracil and thymine mispaired with guanine within CpG contexts. Unrepaired, these lesions result in G:C to A:T transitions which are major contributors to genome instability. Interestingly, TDG interacts functionally with transcriptional regulators and participates in directed cytosine demethylation at promoters. TDG is subject to multiple post-translational modifications (PTM) and we undertook an analysis of how these regulate TDG function. Initially, we examined TDG regulation by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) and identified a novel SUMO binding motif (SBM1, residues 144-148). We hypothesized that SBM1, along with ...


Functional Analysis Of Chromodomain Helicase Dna Binding Protein 2(Chd2) Mediated Genomic Stability, Sangeetha Rajagopalan 2010 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Functional Analysis Of Chromodomain Helicase Dna Binding Protein 2(Chd2) Mediated Genomic Stability, Sangeetha Rajagopalan

Doctoral Dissertations

Histone modifying enzymes and chromatin remodeling complexes play an important regulatory role in chromatin dynamics that dictate the interaction of regulatory factors involved in processes such as DNA replication, recombination, repair and transcription, with DNA template. The CHD (Chromodomain Helicase DNA Binding Protein) family of proteins is known to be involved in the regulation of gene expression, recombination and chromatin remodeling via their chromatin specific interactions and activities. Phenotypic analysis of the Chd2 mutant mouse model developed by our laboratory indicates that the Chd2 protein plays a critical role in tumor suppression as the heterozygous mutant mice develop spontaneous lymphomas ...


Cip4 And Src In Promoting The Migration And Invasion Of Breast Cancers, Christina S. Pichot 2010 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Cip4 And Src In Promoting The Migration And Invasion Of Breast Cancers, Christina S. Pichot

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Cellular invasion represents a critical early step in the metastatic cascade, and many proteins have been identified as part of an “invasive signature.” The non-receptor tyrosine kinase Src is commonly upregulated in breast cancers, often in conjunction with overexpression of EGFR. Signaling from this pathway stimulates cell proliferation, migration, and invasion and frequently involves proteins that regulate the cytoskeleton. My data demonstrates that inhibition of Src, using the small-molecule inhibitor dasatinib, impairs cellular migration and invasion. Furthermore, Src inhibition sensitizes the cells to the effects of the chemotherapeutic doxorubicin resulting in dramatic, synergistic inhibition of proliferation with combination treatments. The ...


Survival Prediction For Brain Tumor Patients Using Gene Expression Data, Vinicius Bonato 2010 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Survival Prediction For Brain Tumor Patients Using Gene Expression Data, Vinicius Bonato

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Brain tumor is one of the most aggressive types of cancer in humans, with an estimated median survival time of 12 months and only 4% of the patients surviving more than 5 years after disease diagnosis. Until recently, brain tumor prognosis has been based only on clinical information such as tumor grade and patient age, but there are reports indicating that molecular profiling of gliomas can reveal subgroups of patients with distinct survival rates. We hypothesize that coupling molecular profiling of brain tumors with clinical information might improve predictions of patient survival time and, consequently, better guide future treatment decisions ...


Delta Like Ligand 4 Is A Critical Regulator Of Bone Marrow Cell Differentiation Into Pericytes/Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells And Is Essential For The Vasculogenesis That Supports The Growth Of Ewing’S Sarcoma, Keri L. Stewart 2010 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Delta Like Ligand 4 Is A Critical Regulator Of Bone Marrow Cell Differentiation Into Pericytes/Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells And Is Essential For The Vasculogenesis That Supports The Growth Of Ewing’S Sarcoma, Keri L. Stewart

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

We have previously shown that vasculogenesis, the process by which bone marrow-derived cells are recruited to the tumor and organized to form a blood vessel network de novo, is essential for the growth of Ewing’s sarcoma. We further demonstrated that these bone marrow cells differentiate into pericytes/vascular smooth muscle cells(vSMC) and contribute to the formation of the functional vascular network. The molecular mechanisms that control bone marrow cell differentiation into pericytes/vSMC in Ewing’s sarcoma are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the Notch ligand Delta like ligand 4 (DLL4) plays a critical role in this ...


Mechanism-Based Strategies To Enhance The Actions Of A, fabiola c. gomez 2010 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Mechanism-Based Strategies To Enhance The Actions Of A, Fabiola C. Gomez

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is an abundant molecular chaperone that regulates the functional stability of client oncoproteins, such as STAT3, Raf-1 and Akt, which play a role in the survival of malignant cells. The chaperone function of HSP90 is driven by the binding and hydrolysis of ATP. The geldanamycin analog, 17-AAG, binds to the ATP pocket of HSP90 leading to the degradation of client proteins. However, treatment with 17-AAG results in the elevation of the levels of antiapoptotic proteins HSP70 and HSP27, which may lead to cell death resistance. The increase in HSP70 and HSP27 protein levels is due ...


Inhibition Of Deubiquitinase Activity And Ubiquitination Of Jak2 Blocks Cytokine Signaling And Induces Tumor Cell Apoptosis, Vaibhav Kapuria 2010 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Inhibition Of Deubiquitinase Activity And Ubiquitination Of Jak2 Blocks Cytokine Signaling And Induces Tumor Cell Apoptosis, Vaibhav Kapuria

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The Jak-stat pathway is critical for cellular proliferation and is commonly found to be deregulated in many solid tumors as well as hematological malignancies. Such findings have spurred the development of novel therapeutic agents that specifically inhibit Jak2 kinase, thereby suppressing tumor cell growth. Tyrphostin AG490, the first described Jak2 inhibitor, displays poor pharmacology and requires high concentrations for anti-tumor activities. Our research group screened a small library of AG490 structural analogues and identified WP1130 as a potent inhibitor of Jak2 signaling. However, unlike AG490, WP1130 did not directly inhibit Jak2 kinase activity. Our results show that WP1130 induces rapid ...


Xenoestrogen-Specific Mechanisms Of Developmental Reprogramming Correlate With Gene Expression And Tumor Development, Kristen L. Greathouse 2010 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Xenoestrogen-Specific Mechanisms Of Developmental Reprogramming Correlate With Gene Expression And Tumor Development, Kristen L. Greathouse

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Environmental exposures during sensitive windows of development can reprogram normal physiological responses and alter disease susceptibility later in life in a process known as developmental reprogramming. We have shown that neonatal exposure to the xenoestrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES) can developmentally reprogram the reproductive tract in genetically susceptible Eker rats giving rise to complete penetrance of uterine leiomyoma. Based on this, we hypothesized that xenoestrogens, including genistein (GEN) and bisphenol A (BPA), reprogram estrogen-responsive gene expression in the myometrium and promote the development of uterine leiomyoma. We proposed the mechanism that is responsible for the developmental reprogramming of gene expression was through ...


The Consequences Of Disrupting The Mdm2-P53 Balance In Hematopoiesis, Hussein A. Abbas 2010 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

The Consequences Of Disrupting The Mdm2-P53 Balance In Hematopoiesis, Hussein A. Abbas

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The bone marrow accommodates hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors. These cells provide an indispensible resource for replenishing the blood constituents throughout an organism’s life. A tissue with such a high turn-over rate mandates intact cycling checkpoint and apoptotic pathways to avoid inappropriate cell proliferation and ultimately the development of leukemias. p53, a major tumor suppressor, is a transcription factor that regulates cell cycle, and induces apoptosis and senescence. Mice inheriting a hypomorphic p53 allele in the absence of Mdm2, a p53 inhibitor, have elevated p53 cell cycle activity and die by postnatal day 13 due to hematopoietic failure. Hematopoiesis ...


Role Of Protein Kinase C In Tbt-Induced Inhibition Of Lytic Function And Mapk Activation In Human Natural Killer Cells, Abraham B. Abraha, Krupa Rana, Margaret M. Whalen 2010 Tennessee State University

Role Of Protein Kinase C In Tbt-Induced Inhibition Of Lytic Function And Mapk Activation In Human Natural Killer Cells, Abraham B. Abraha, Krupa Rana, Margaret M. Whalen

Chemistry Faculty Research

Human natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes that destroy tumor and virally infected cells. Previous studies have shown that exposure of NK cells to tributyltin (TBT) greatly diminishes their ability to destroy tumor cells (lytic function) while activating mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) (p44/42, p38, and JNK) in NK cells. The signaling pathway that regulates NK lytic function appears to include activation of protein kinase C (PKC) as well as MAPK activity. TBT-induced activation of MAPKs would trigger a portion of the NK lytic signaling pathway, which would then leave the NK cell unable to trigger this pathway in response ...


Effects Of Butyltin Exposures On Map Kinase-Dependent Transcription Regulators In Human Natural Killer Cells, Rachel J. Person, Margaret M. Whalen 2010 Tennessee State University

Effects Of Butyltin Exposures On Map Kinase-Dependent Transcription Regulators In Human Natural Killer Cells, Rachel J. Person, Margaret M. Whalen

Chemistry Faculty Research

Natural killer (NK) cells are a major immune defense mechanism against cancer development and viral infection. The butyltins (BTs), tributyltin (TBT) and dibutyltin (DBT), have been widely used in industrial and other applications and significantly contaminate the environment. Both TBT and DBT have been detected in human blood. These compounds inhibit the lytic and binding function of human NK cells and thus could increase the incidence of cancer and viral infections. Butyltin (BT)-induced loss of NK function is accompanied by activation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and decreases in expression of cell-surface and cytolytic proteins. MAPKs activate components ...


Rapid Biocompatibility Analysis Of Materials Via In Vivo Fluorescence Imaging Of Mouse Models, Kaitlin M. Bratlie, Tram T. Dang, Stephen Lyle, Matthias Nahrendorf, Ralph Weissleder, Robert Langer, Daniel G. Anderson 2010 Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Rapid Biocompatibility Analysis Of Materials Via In Vivo Fluorescence Imaging Of Mouse Models, Kaitlin M. Bratlie, Tram T. Dang, Stephen Lyle, Matthias Nahrendorf, Ralph Weissleder, Robert Langer, Daniel G. Anderson

Kaitlin M. Bratlie

Background: Many materials are unsuitable for medical use because of poor biocompatibility. Recently, advances in the high throughput synthesis of biomaterials has significantly increased the number of potential biomaterials, however current biocompatibility analysis methods are slow and require histological analysis. Methodology/Principal Findings: Here we develop rapid, non-invasive methods for in vivo quantification of the inflammatory response to implanted biomaterials. Materials were placed subcutaneously in an array format and monitored for host responses as per ISO 10993-6: 2001. Host cell activity in response to these materials was imaged kinetically, in vivo using fluorescent whole animal imaging. Data captured using whole ...


The Reaction Of A Water Soluble Platinum Compound With Methionine And Derivatives, Yueh Ying Liao 2010 Western Kentucky University

The Reaction Of A Water Soluble Platinum Compound With Methionine And Derivatives, Yueh Ying Liao

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Water soluble platinum complexes are a recent area of emphasis of cisplatin chemistry. The water soluble complexes could have a reduced toxicity compared with cisplatin. Oxaliplatin, which has an oxalate leaving group, has previously been shown to have less nephro-toxicity and higher water solubility than cisplatin. [Pt(en)(oxalate)] (en = ethylenediamine) has been prepared from Pt(en)Cl2 and silver oxalate. This complex has been reacted with methionine and N-acetylmethionine at different molar ratios. At high Pt: methionine ratios, chelates with the sulfur and nitrogen atoms of the methionine are dominant; at lower Pt: methionine ratios, a bis-methionine product is ...


Immunosuppressive Effects Of Triclosan, Nonylphenol, And Ddt On Human Natural Killer Cells In Vitro, Felicia Udoji, Tamara Martin, Rachel Etherton, Margaret M. Whalen 2010 Tennessee State University

Immunosuppressive Effects Of Triclosan, Nonylphenol, And Ddt On Human Natural Killer Cells In Vitro, Felicia Udoji, Tamara Martin, Rachel Etherton, Margaret M. Whalen

Chemistry Faculty Research

Human natural killer (NK) cells are a first-line immune defense against tumor cells and virally-infected cells. If their function is impaired, it leaves an individual more susceptible to cancer development or viral infection. The ability of compounds that contaminate the environment to suppress the function of NK cells could contribute to the increased risk of cancer development. There are a wide spectrum of compounds that significantly contaminate water and food that are consumed by humans, leading to accumulation of some of these compounds in human tissues. In the current study, we examined the ability of three such compounds to diminish ...


Analysis Of Primary Risk Factors For Oral Cancer From Us States With Increasing Rates, Anthony Bunnell, Nathan Pettit, Nicole Reddout, Kanika Sharma, Susan O'Malley, Michelle Chino, Karl Kingsley 2010 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Analysis Of Primary Risk Factors For Oral Cancer From Us States With Increasing Rates, Anthony Bunnell, Nathan Pettit, Nicole Reddout, Kanika Sharma, Susan O'Malley, Michelle Chino, Karl Kingsley

Public Health Faculty Publications

Objectives

To examine the primary risk factor for oral cancer in the US, smoking and tobacco use, among the specific US states that experienced short-term increases in oral cancer incidence and mortality.

Methods

Population-based data on oral cancer morbidity and mortality in the US were obtained from the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database for analysis of recent trends. Data were also obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to measure current and former trends of tobacco usage. To comprehensive measures of previous state tobacco ...


The Correlation Between Rates Of Cancer And Autism: An Exploratory Ecological Investigation, Hung-Teh Kao, Stephen L. Buka, Karl T. Kelsey, David F. Gruber, Barbara Porton 2010 Brown University

The Correlation Between Rates Of Cancer And Autism: An Exploratory Ecological Investigation, Hung-Teh Kao, Stephen L. Buka, Karl T. Kelsey, David F. Gruber, Barbara Porton

Publications and Research

Background: Autism is associated with high rates of genomic aberrations, including chromosomal rearrangements and de novo copy-number variations. These observations are reminiscent of cancer, a disease where genomic rearrangements also play a role. We undertook a correlative epidemiological study to explore the possibility that shared risk factors might exist for autism and specific types of cancer.

Methodology/Principal Findings: To determine if significant correlations exist between the prevalence of autism and the incidence of cancer, we obtained and analyzed state-wide data reported by age and gender throughout the United States. Autism data were obtained from the U.S. Department of ...


The Role Of Chmp1 In Drosophila Melanogaster, Meagan E. Valentine 2010 Marshall University

The Role Of Chmp1 In Drosophila Melanogaster, Meagan E. Valentine

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Chmp1A has recently been linked to pancreatic cancer, a leading cause of cancer death in humans. Pancreatic tumors have lowered Chmp1A expression, and it has been described as a tumor suppressor. Chmp1A is also a member of ESCRT III (Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport), a conserved protein complex involved in the degradation and recycling of activated transmembrane receptors. There is a single Chmp1 protein in Drosophila that is homologous to vertebrate Chmp1A; however, Chmp1 hasn’t been studied in Drosophila. The objective of this study was to characterize Chmp1 in Drosophila using gene knockdown and over-expression. We used an ...


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