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Millimeter-Scale Contact Printing Of Aqueous Solutions Using A Stamp Made Out Of Paper And Tape, Chao-Min Cheng, Aaron D. Mazzeo, Jinlong Gong, Andres W. Martinez, Scott T. Phillips, Nina Jain, George M. Whitesides 2010 Harvard University

Millimeter-Scale Contact Printing Of Aqueous Solutions Using A Stamp Made Out Of Paper And Tape, Chao-Min Cheng, Aaron D. Mazzeo, Jinlong Gong, Andres W. Martinez, Scott T. Phillips, Nina Jain, George M. Whitesides

Chemistry and Biochemistry

This communication describes a simple method for printing aqueous solutions with millimeter-scale patterns on a variety of substrates using an easily fabricated, paper-based microfluidic device (a paper-based ―stamp‖) as a contact printing device. The device is made from inexpensive materials, and it is easily assembled by hand; this method is thus accessible to a wide range of laboratories and budgets. A single device was used to print over 2500 spots in less than three minutes at a density of 16 spots per square centimetre. This method provides a new tool to pattern biochemicals—reagents, antigens, proteins, and DNA—on planar ...


Programmable Diagnostic Devices Made From Paper And Tape, Andres W. Martinez, Scott T. Phillips, Zhihong Nie, Chao-Min Cheng, Emanuel Carrilho, Benjamin J. Wiley, George M. Whitesides 2010 Harvard University

Programmable Diagnostic Devices Made From Paper And Tape, Andres W. Martinez, Scott T. Phillips, Zhihong Nie, Chao-Min Cheng, Emanuel Carrilho, Benjamin J. Wiley, George M. Whitesides

Chemistry and Biochemistry

This paper describes three-dimensional microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (3-D μPADs) that can be programmed (postfabrication) by the user to generate multiple patterns of flow through them. These devices are programmed by pressing single-use ‘on’ buttons, using a stylus or a ballpoint pen. Pressing a button closes a small space (gap) between two vertically aligned microfluidic channels, and allows fluids to wick from one channel to the other. These devices are simple to fabricate, and are made entirely out of paper and double-sided adhesive tape. Programmable devices expand the capabilities of μPADs and provide a simple method for controlling the movement ...


Dielectrophoretic Choking Phenomenon In A Converging-Diverging Microchannel, Ye Ai, Shizhi Qian, Sheng Liu, Sang W. Joo 2010 Old Dominion University

Dielectrophoretic Choking Phenomenon In A Converging-Diverging Microchannel, Ye Ai, Shizhi Qian, Sheng Liu, Sang W. Joo

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications

Experiments show that particles smaller than the throat size of converging-diverging microchannels can sometimes be trapped near the throat. This critical phenomenon is associated with the negative dc dielectrophoresis arising from nonuniform electric fields in the microchannels. A finite-element model, accounting for the particle-fluid-electric field interactions, is employed to investigate the conditions for this dielectrophoretic (DEP) choking in a converging-diverging microchannel for the first time. It is shown quantitatively that the DEP choking occurs for high nonuniformity of electric fields, high ratio of particle size to throat size, and high ratio of particle's zeta potential to that of microchannel ...


Expression Of The Periplaneta Americana's Α-Adrenergic-Like Octopamine Receptor In The Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae: A High-Throughput Screening System In Search Of Biorational Insecticides, Aaron Donald Gross 2010 Iowa State University

Expression Of The Periplaneta Americana's Α-Adrenergic-Like Octopamine Receptor In The Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae: A High-Throughput Screening System In Search Of Biorational Insecticides, Aaron Donald Gross

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The use of conventional synthetic insecticides is facing increased scrutiny due to environmental and mammalian health concerns along with resistance to target insects. This has led to an investigation of alternative control measures to combat both economically and medically important arthropods. Octopamine, a biogenic amine, has significant physiological functions in invertebrates, including insects, and signals through G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Co-evolution of plants with insects has led to plants adapting defensive mechanisms to deter herbivore, microbial, or viral attack. This is sometimes accomplished via the production of essential oils that are composed of a variety of compounds, in particular monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids ...


Role Of Muscle C-Jun Nh2-Terminal Kinase 1 In Obesity-Induced Insulin Resistance, Guadalupe Sabio, Norman J. Kennedy, Julie Cavanagh-Kyros, Dae Young Jung, Hwi Jin Ko, Helena Ong, Tamera Barrett, Jason K. Kim, Roger J. Davis 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Role Of Muscle C-Jun Nh2-Terminal Kinase 1 In Obesity-Induced Insulin Resistance, Guadalupe Sabio, Norman J. Kennedy, Julie Cavanagh-Kyros, Dae Young Jung, Hwi Jin Ko, Helena Ong, Tamera Barrett, Jason K. Kim, Roger J. Davis

Davis Lab Publications

Obesity caused by feeding of a high-fat diet (HFD) is associated with an increased activation of c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1). Activated JNK1 is implicated in the mechanism of obesity-induced insulin resistance and the development of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Significantly, Jnk1(-)(/)(-) mice are protected against HFD-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Here we show that an ablation of the Jnk1 gene in skeletal muscle does not influence HFD-induced obesity. However, muscle-specific JNK1-deficient (M(KO)) mice exhibit improved insulin sensitivity compared with control wild-type (M(WT)) mice. Thus, insulin-stimulated AKT activation is suppressed in muscle, liver, and ...


Functional Cooperation Of The Proapoptotic Bcl2 Family Proteins Bmf And Bim In Vivo, Anette Hubner, Julie Cavanagh-Kyros, Mercedes Rincon, Richard Flavell, Roger J. Davis 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Functional Cooperation Of The Proapoptotic Bcl2 Family Proteins Bmf And Bim In Vivo, Anette Hubner, Julie Cavanagh-Kyros, Mercedes Rincon, Richard Flavell, Roger J. Davis

Davis Lab Publications

Bcl2-modifying factor (Bmf) is a member of the BH3-only group of proapoptotic proteins. To test the role of Bmf in vivo, we constructed mice with a series of mutated Bmf alleles that disrupt Bmf expression, prevent Bmf phosphorylation by the c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) on Ser(74), or mimic Bmf phosphorylation on Ser(74). We report that the loss of Bmf causes defects in uterovaginal development, including an imperforate vagina and hydrometrocolpos. We also show that the phosphorylation of Bmf on Ser(74) can contribute to a moderate increase in levels of Bmf activity. Studies of compound mutants ...


The Roles Of Rhle And Hfq In Srna-Dependent Gene Regulation, Abeykoon Jayalath Iresha Sandeepanie Rathnayake 2010 Wayne State University

The Roles Of Rhle And Hfq In Srna-Dependent Gene Regulation, Abeykoon Jayalath Iresha Sandeepanie Rathnayake

Wayne State University Theses

THE ROLES OF RHLE AND HFQ IN SRNA-DEPENDENT GENE REGULATION

by

ABEYKOON JAYALATH IRESHA SANDEEPANIE RATHNAYAKE

DECEMBER 2010

Advisor: Dr. Andrew Feig

Major: Chemistry

Degree: Master of Science

Bacteria are adapted to live in diverse environmental conditions. Thus, they show excellent tolerance and response to extreme environmental conditions caused by low or high temperatures, high salinity, reactive oxygen species or high nutrient concentrations. sRNAs have been identified and characterized as cis-acting or trans-acting post-transcriptional regulators in diverse cellular processes including virulence and adaptation to environmental stress (11,12,14,15). Interactions of sRNAs and target mRNAs result in translational repression ...


Enzymology And Medicinal Chemistry Of N5-Carboxyaminoimidazole Ribonucleotide Synthetase : A Novel Antibacterial Target, Hanumantharao Paritala 2010 Wayne State University

Enzymology And Medicinal Chemistry Of N5-Carboxyaminoimidazole Ribonucleotide Synthetase : A Novel Antibacterial Target, Hanumantharao Paritala

Wayne State University Dissertations

N5-Carboxyaminoimidazole ribonucleotide synthetase (N5-CAIR synthetase), a key enzyme in microbial de novo purine biosynthesis, catalyzes the conversion of aminoimidazole ribonucleotide (AIR) to N5-CAIR. To date, this enzyme has been observed only in microorganisms, and thus, it represents an ideal target for antimicrobial drug development. Here we report structural and functional studies on the Aspergillus clavatus N5-CAIR synthetase and identification of inhibitors for the enzyme. In collaboration with Dr. Hazel Holden of the University of Wisconsin, the three-dimensional structure of Aspergillus clavatus N5-CAIR synthetase was solved in the presence of either Mg2ATP or MgADP and AIR. These structures, determined to 2 ...


The 1.9 Å Structure Of Human Α-N-Acetylgalactosaminidase The Molecular Basis Of Schindler And Kanzaki Diseases, Nathaniel E. Clark, Scott Garman 2010 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

The 1.9 Å Structure Of Human Α-N-Acetylgalactosaminidase The Molecular Basis Of Schindler And Kanzaki Diseases, Nathaniel E. Clark, Scott Garman

Scott Garman

alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (alpha-NAGAL; E.C. 3.2.1.49) is a lysosomal exoglycosidase that cleaves terminal alpha-N-acetylgalactosamine residues from glycopeptides and glycolipids. In humans, a deficiency of alpha-NAGAL activity results in the lysosomal storage disorders Schindler disease and Kanzaki disease. To better understand the molecular defects in the diseases, we determined the crystal structure of human alpha-NAGAL after expressing wild-type and glycosylation-deficient glycoproteins in recombinant insect cell expression systems. We measured the enzymatic parameters of our purified wild-type and mutant enzymes, establishing their enzymatic equivalence. To investigate the binding specificity and catalytic mechanism of the human alpha-NAGAL enzyme, we determined three ...


Anti-Diabetic Potentials Of Phenolic Enriched Chilean Potato And Select Herbs Of Apiaceae And Lamiaceae Families, Fahad Saleem 2010 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Anti-Diabetic Potentials Of Phenolic Enriched Chilean Potato And Select Herbs Of Apiaceae And Lamiaceae Families, Fahad Saleem

Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014

The incidence of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases is increasing at a worrisome rate globally. Diabetes mellitus is known to occur due to high blood glucose levels, caused by defects in insulin levels. Adult on-set type II diabetes, which is closely associated with obesity, is reported to be 90-95% of all diabetic cases and linked to diet and lifestyle factors. A large population of the developed and developing countries is now being effected by this epidemic. Natural sources of phenolic antioxidants and inhibitors of digestive enzymes from food sources have potential for low cost dietary management of type II diabetes ...


In Vivo Labeling Of A Model Β-Clam Protein With A Fluorescent Amino Acid, Mangayarkarasi Periasamy 2010 University of Massachusetts Amherst

In Vivo Labeling Of A Model Β-Clam Protein With A Fluorescent Amino Acid, Mangayarkarasi Periasamy

Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014

Proteins can be labeled with different tags to enable their structural and functional investigations. In addition, labeling proteins at specific sites helps in studying the conformational dynamics of these molecules. A plethora of methods is available to facilitate labeling, choice of which largely depends on the requirements and the anticipated end results. In general, the various labeling methods can be classified into four different classes based on the stage at which labeling is performed, namely post translational labeling, non-ribosomal synthesis, in vitro translation and in vivo translation. Interestingly all these techniques use different unnatural amino acids for this purpose.

Protein ...


Amino Acid Transport In Thermophiles: Characterization Of An Arginine-Binding Protein In Thermotoga Maritima. 2. Molecular Organization And Structural Stability, Andrea Scirè, Anna Marabotti, Maria Staiano, Luisa Iozzion, Matthew S. Luchansky, Bryan S. Der, Jonathan D. Dattelbaum, Fabio Tanfani, Sabato D'Auria 2010 University of Richmond

Amino Acid Transport In Thermophiles: Characterization Of An Arginine-Binding Protein In Thermotoga Maritima. 2. Molecular Organization And Structural Stability, Andrea Scirè, Anna Marabotti, Maria Staiano, Luisa Iozzion, Matthew S. Luchansky, Bryan S. Der, Jonathan D. Dattelbaum, Fabio Tanfani, Sabato D'Auria

Chemistry Faculty Publications

ABC transport systems provide selective passage of metabolites across cell membranes and typically require the presence of a soluble binding protein with high specificity to a specific ligand. In addition to their primary role in nutrient gathering, the binding proteins associated with bacterial transport systems have been studied for their potential to serve as design scaffolds for the development of fluorescent protein biosensors. In this work, we used Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the physicochemical properties of a hyperthermophilic binding protein from Thermotoga maritima. We demonstrated preferential binding for the polar amino acid arginine and ...


Plasticity Of Acquired Secondary Metabolites In Clathria Prolifera (Demospongia: Poecilosclerida): Putative Photoprotective Role Of Carotenoids In A Temperate Intertidal Sponge, Jonathan D. Dattelbaum, Drew Sieg, Malcolm Hill, Chris M. Manieri, Giles Thomson 2010 University of Richmond

Plasticity Of Acquired Secondary Metabolites In Clathria Prolifera (Demospongia: Poecilosclerida): Putative Photoprotective Role Of Carotenoids In A Temperate Intertidal Sponge, Jonathan D. Dattelbaum, Drew Sieg, Malcolm Hill, Chris M. Manieri, Giles Thomson

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Several marine sponges sequester high concentrations of carotenoids in their tissues. The diversity of carotenoid compounds has been described in detail for a handful of species, but to date, little attention has been paid to natural variability in the concentration and constituency of carotenoid pools. Also lacking are experimental tests of some of the proposed adaptive benefits of carotenoids to the sponge. To address some of these deficits in our understanding of sponge ecology, we used a combination of analytic chemistry, field surveys, and manipulative experiments to determine what function these compounds might play. Attention was focused on the common ...


Explorations In Homeoviscous Adaptation And Mass Spectral Analysis Of Membrane Lipids, Michael Douglas Timmons 2010 University of Kentucky

Explorations In Homeoviscous Adaptation And Mass Spectral Analysis Of Membrane Lipids, Michael Douglas Timmons

University of Kentucky Doctoral Dissertations

The focus of this dissertation is centered on the mass spectral analysis of lipids and changes occurring in keeping with the concept of homeoviscous adaptation [1]. Homeoviscous adaptation is the process of modification of membrane lipids in response to environmental stimuli [1]. Dissertation investigations applied this concept to prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, and expanded the perception of environmental factors from exogenous organic solvents to intracellular environment.

The field of lipidomics deals with the analysis of phospholipid and fatty acid components of membranes the changes that occur due to environmental stimuli and their biological significance [2-6]. The high sensitivity of mass ...


Ethylene Receptors Function As Components Of High-Molecular-Mass Protein Complexes In Arabidopsis, Yi-Feng Chen, Zhiyong Gao, Robert J. Kerriss III, Wuyi Wang, Brad M. Binder, G. Eric Schaller 2010 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Ethylene Receptors Function As Components Of High-Molecular-Mass Protein Complexes In Arabidopsis, Yi-Feng Chen, Zhiyong Gao, Robert J. Kerriss Iii, Wuyi Wang, Brad M. Binder, G. Eric Schaller

Faculty Publications and Other Works -- Biochemistry, Cellular and Molecular Biology

The gaseous plant hormone ethylene is perceived in Arabidopsis thaliana by a five-member receptor family composed of ETR1, ERS1, ETR2, ERS2, and EIN4. Methodology/Principal Findings

Gel-filtration analysis of ethylene receptors solubilized from Arabidopsis membranes demonstrates that the receptors exist as components of high-molecular-mass protein complexes. The ERS1 protein complex exhibits an ethylene-induced change in size consistent with ligand-mediated nucleation of protein-protein interactions. Deletion analysis supports the participation of multiple domains from ETR1 in formation of the protein complex, and also demonstrates that targeting to and retention of ETR1 at the endoplasmic reticulum only requires the first 147 amino acids ...


Characterization Of Arsd: An Arsenic Chaperone For The Arsab As(Iii)-Translocating Atpase, Jianbo Yang 2010 Wayne State University

Characterization Of Arsd: An Arsenic Chaperone For The Arsab As(Iii)-Translocating Atpase, Jianbo Yang

Wayne State University Dissertations

Arsenic is a metalloid toxicant that is widely distributed throughout the earth's crust and causes a variety of health and environment problems. As an adaptation to arsenic-contaminated environments, organisms have developed resistance systems. In bacteria and archaea various ars operons encode ArsAB ATPases that pump the trivalent metalloids As(III) or Sb(III) out of cells. In these operons, an arsD gene is almost always adjacent to the arsA gene, suggesting a related function. ArsA is the catalytic subunit of the pump that hydrolyzes ATP in the presence of arsenite or antimonite. ArsB is a membrane protein which containing ...


Trace Gas And Particle Emissions From Domestic And Industrial Biofuel Use And Garbage Burning In Central Mexico, Ted J. Christian, Robert Yokelson, B. Cardenas, L. T. Molina, G. Engling, S. C. Hsu 2010 University of Montana - Missoula

Trace Gas And Particle Emissions From Domestic And Industrial Biofuel Use And Garbage Burning In Central Mexico, Ted J. Christian, Robert Yokelson, B. Cardenas, L. T. Molina, G. Engling, S. C. Hsu

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

In central Mexico during the spring of 2007 we measured the initial emissions of 12 gases and the aerosol speciation for elemental and organic carbon (EC, OC), anhydrosugars, Cl(-), NO(3)(-), and 20 metals from 10 cooking fires, four garbage fires, three brick making kilns, three charcoal making kilns, and two crop residue fires. Global biofuel use has been estimated at over 2600 Tg/y. With several simple case studies we show that cooking fires can be a major, or the major, source of several gases and fine particles in developing countries. Insulated cook stoves with chimneys were earlier shown ...


Nip/Duoxa Is Essential For Drosophila Embryonic Development And Regulates Oxidative Stress Response., Xiaojun Xie, Jack Hu, Xiping Liu, Hanjuan Qin, Anthony Percival-Smith, Yong Rao, Shawn S C Li 2010 Western University

Nip/Duoxa Is Essential For Drosophila Embryonic Development And Regulates Oxidative Stress Response., Xiaojun Xie, Jack Hu, Xiping Liu, Hanjuan Qin, Anthony Percival-Smith, Yong Rao, Shawn S C Li

Biochemistry Publications

NIP/DuoxA, originally cloned as a protein capable of binding to the cell fate determinant Numb in Drosophila, was recently identified as a modulator of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in mammalian systems. Despite biochemical and cellular studies that link NIP/DuoxA to the generation of ROS through the dual oxidase (Duox) enzyme, the in vivo function of NIP/DuoxA has not been characterized to date. Here we report a genetic and functional characterization of nip in Drosophila melanogaster. We show that nip is essential for Drosophila development as nip null mutants die at the 1(st) larval instar. Expression ...


Morphological Changes And Immunohistochemical Expression Of Rage And Its Ligands In The Sciatic Nerve Of Hyperglycemic Pig (Sus Scrofa), Judyta K. Juranek, Alexey Aleshin, Eileen M. Rattigan, Lynne Johnson, Wu Qu, Fei Song, Radha Ananthakrishnan, Nosirudeen Quadri, Shi Du Yan, Ravichandran Ramasamy, Ann Marie Schmidt, Matthew S. Geddis 2010 Columbia University

Morphological Changes And Immunohistochemical Expression Of Rage And Its Ligands In The Sciatic Nerve Of Hyperglycemic Pig (Sus Scrofa), Judyta K. Juranek, Alexey Aleshin, Eileen M. Rattigan, Lynne Johnson, Wu Qu, Fei Song, Radha Ananthakrishnan, Nosirudeen Quadri, Shi Du Yan, Ravichandran Ramasamy, Ann Marie Schmidt, Matthew S. Geddis

Publications and Research

The aim of our project was to study the effect of streptozotocin (STZ)—induced hyperglycemia on sciatic nerve morphology, blood plasma markers and immunohistochemical expression of RAGE (the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-products), and its ligands—S100B and Carboxymethyl Lysine (CML)-advanced glycation endproduct (AGE) in the laboratory pig. Six months after STZ—injections, blood plasma measurements, morphometric analysis of sciatic nerve fiber density, immunofluorescent distribution of potential molecular neuropathy contributors, ELISA measurement of plasma AGE level and HPLC analysis of sciatic nerve levels of one of the pre-AGE and the glycolysis intermediate products—methyl-glyoxal (MG) were performed. The results ...


Ganglioside-Cytokine Interaction In The Induction Of Primary Brain Cell Death, John Charles Gorbet 2010 University of Texas at El Paso

Ganglioside-Cytokine Interaction In The Induction Of Primary Brain Cell Death, John Charles Gorbet

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Gangliosides have been implicated in multiple pathologies affecting the central nervous system (CNS) and recent research has implicated them in playing an active role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. Empirical studies and theoretical considerations have suggested the possibility of interactions between gangliosides, like GD3, and pro-inflammatory cytokines present in the nervous system. This study sought to investigate the possibility that either individual gangliosides acting alone or complexed with other species interact with the known immune response factor TNF&alpha to initiate or facilitate cell death in the CNS. I examined the cellular viability and gene expression in primary brain ...


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