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The Globin Gene Family Of The Cephalochordate Amphioxus: Implications For Chordate Globin Evolution, Bettina Ebner, Georgia Panopoulou, Serge N. Vinogradov, Laurent Kiger, Michael C. Marden, Thorsten Burmester, Thomas Hankeln 2010 Institute of Molecular Genetics, Johannes Gutenberg-University

The Globin Gene Family Of The Cephalochordate Amphioxus: Implications For Chordate Globin Evolution, Bettina Ebner, Georgia Panopoulou, Serge N. Vinogradov, Laurent Kiger, Michael C. Marden, Thorsten Burmester, Thomas Hankeln

Wayne State University Associated BioMed Central Scholarship

Abstract

Background

The lancelet amphioxus (Cephalochordata) is a close relative of vertebrates and thus may enhance our understanding of vertebrate gene and genome evolution. In this context, the globins are one of the best studied models for gene family evolution. Previous biochemical studies have demonstrated the presence of an intracellular globin in notochord tissue and myotome of amphioxus, but the corresponding gene has not yet been identified. Genomic resources of Branchiostoma floridae now facilitate the identification, experimental confirmation and molecular evolutionary analysis of its globin gene repertoire.

Results

We show that B. floridae harbors at least fifteen paralogous globin genes ...


Quantitative Comparison Of Genomic-Wide Protein Domain Distributions, Arli A. Parikesit, Peter F. Stadler, Sonja J. Prohaska 2010 University of Indonesia

Quantitative Comparison Of Genomic-Wide Protein Domain Distributions, Arli A. Parikesit, Peter F. Stadler, Sonja J. Prohaska

Arli A Parikesit

Investigations into the origins and evolution of regulatory mechanisms require quantitative estimates of the abundance and co-occurrence of functional protein domains among distantly related genomes. Currently available databases, such as the SUPERFAMILY, are not designed for quantitative comparisons since they are built upon transcript and protein annotations provided by the various different genome annotation projects. Large biases are introduced by the differences in genome annotation protocols, which strongly depend on the availability of transcript information and well-annotated closely related organisms. Here we show that the combination of de novo gene predictors and subsequent HMM-based annotation of SCOP domains in the ...


Spermine Oxidase (Smo) Activity In Breast Tumor Tissues And Biochemical Analysis Of The Anticancer Spermine Analogues Benspm And Cpenspm, Manuela Cervelli, Gabriella Bellavia, Emiliano Fratini, Roberto Amendola, Fabio Polticelli, Marco Barba, Rodolfo Federico, Fabrizio Signore, Giacomo Gucciardo, Rosalba Grillo, Patrick M. Woster, Robert A. Casero Jr, Paolo Mariottini 2010 Dipartimento di Biologia, Università Roma Tre

Spermine Oxidase (Smo) Activity In Breast Tumor Tissues And Biochemical Analysis Of The Anticancer Spermine Analogues Benspm And Cpenspm, Manuela Cervelli, Gabriella Bellavia, Emiliano Fratini, Roberto Amendola, Fabio Polticelli, Marco Barba, Rodolfo Federico, Fabrizio Signore, Giacomo Gucciardo, Rosalba Grillo, Patrick M. Woster, Robert A. Casero Jr, Paolo Mariottini

Wayne State University Associated BioMed Central Scholarship

Abstract

Background

Polyamine metabolism has a critical role in cell death and proliferation representing a potential target for intervention in breast cancer (BC). This study investigates the expression of spermine oxidase (SMO) and its prognostic significance in BC. Biochemical analysis of Spm analogues BENSpm and CPENSpm, utilized in anticancer therapy, was also carried out to test their property in silico and in vitro on the recombinant SMO enzyme.

Methods

BC tissue samples were analyzed for SMO transcript level and SMO activity. Student's t test was applied to evaluate the significance of the differences in value observed in T and ...


Determining The Rate Of Transcription Of T7 Rna Polymerase Using Single Molecule Fluorescence Imaging, Dawn Renee Nichola 2010 Marshall University

Determining The Rate Of Transcription Of T7 Rna Polymerase Using Single Molecule Fluorescence Imaging, Dawn Renee Nichola

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

It is important to understand the many factors impacting the rate at which an RNA polymerase incorporates nucleotides. The transcription rate of T7 RNA polymerase has been determined using single molecule fluorescence microscopy. A Cy3 labeled circular 45nt ssDNA molecule was used to monitor the transcription process. T7 RNA polymerase was used because it is a single subunit polymerase that does not need any cofactors and will transcribe single-stranded DNA circles that do not contain a promoter. The transcription was monitored by measuring the quasi-periodic change in intensity associated with the transit of the probe through the polymerase as the ...


15N Solid-State Nmr Detection Of Flavin Perturbation By H-Bonding In Models And Enzyme Active Sites, Dongtao Cui 2010 University of Kentucky

15N Solid-State Nmr Detection Of Flavin Perturbation By H-Bonding In Models And Enzyme Active Sites, Dongtao Cui

University of Kentucky Doctoral Dissertations

Massey and Hemmerich proposed that the different reactivities displayed by different flavoenzymes could be achieved as a result of dominance of different flavin ring resonance structures in different binding sites. Thus, the FMN cofactor would engage in different reactions when it had different electronic structures. To test this proposal and understand how different protein sites could produce different flavin electronic structures, we are developing solid-state NMR as a means of characterizing the electronic state of the flavin ring, via the 15N chemical shift tensors of the ring N atoms. These provide information on the frontier orbitals. We propose that ...


In Vivo Oxidative Stress In Alzheimer Disease Brain And A Mouse Model Thereof: Effects Of Lipid Asymmetry And The Single Methionine Residue Of Amyloid-Β Peptide, Miranda Lu Bader Lange 2010 University of Kentucky

In Vivo Oxidative Stress In Alzheimer Disease Brain And A Mouse Model Thereof: Effects Of Lipid Asymmetry And The Single Methionine Residue Of Amyloid-Β Peptide, Miranda Lu Bader Lange

University of Kentucky Doctoral Dissertations

Studies presented in this dissertation were conducted to gain more insight into the role of phospholipid asymmetry and amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced oxidative stress in brain of subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD). AD is a largely sporadic, age-associated neurodegenerative disorder clinically characterized by the vast, progressive loss of memory and cognition commonly in populations over the age of ~65 years, with the exception of those with familial AD, which develop AD symptoms as early as ~30 years-old. Neuropathologically, both AD and FAD can be characterized by synapse and neuronal cell loss in conjunction with accumulation ...


Expression, Purification, And Analysis Of Unknown Translation Factors From Escherichia Coli: A Synthesis Approach, Justin D. Walter, Peter Littlefield, Scott P. Delbecq, Gerry Prody, P. Clint Spiegel 2010 Western Washington University

Expression, Purification, And Analysis Of Unknown Translation Factors From Escherichia Coli: A Synthesis Approach, Justin D. Walter, Peter Littlefield, Scott P. Delbecq, Gerry Prody, P. Clint Spiegel

Chemistry Faculty and Staff Publications

New approaches are currently being developed to expose biochemistry and molecular biology undergraduates to a more interactive learning environment. Here, we propose a unique project-based laboratory module, which incorporates exposure to biophysical chemistry approaches to address problems in protein chemistry. Each of the experiments described herein contributes to the stepwise process of isolating, identifying, and analyzing a protein involved in a central biological process, prokaryotic translation. Students are provided with expression plasmids that harbor an unknown translation factor, and it is their charge to complete a series of experiments that will allow them to develop hypotheses for discovering the identity ...


Structure-Function Relationship Studies Of The Udp-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase From Escherichia Coli, Agnieszka Maria Orlof 2010 Loyola University Chicago

Structure-Function Relationship Studies Of The Udp-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase From Escherichia Coli, Agnieszka Maria Orlof

Master's Theses

UDP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase (UDP-Glc PPase) is a key enzyme of the carbohydrate metabolic pathway widely used among prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In plants, UDP-Glc PPase is necessary for sucrose synthesis while mammals utilize this enzyme for the production of glycogen. A bacterium such as Escherichia coli uses UDP-Glc PPase for biosynthesis of the lipopolysscharide core which forms a cell wall.

This study focused on UDP-Glc PPase from Escherichia coli which is encoded by both galU and galF genes. The first part of this project investigated amino acids that could play an important role in the function of UDP Glc PPase (GalU). Based ...


New Cyclophanes As Supramolecular Scaffolds: The Synthesis Of Tribenzo-1,4,7-Triazacyclononatriene., Andria M. Panagopoulos 2010 Loyola University Chicago

New Cyclophanes As Supramolecular Scaffolds: The Synthesis Of Tribenzo-1,4,7-Triazacyclononatriene., Andria M. Panagopoulos

Dissertations

Supramolecular chemistry involves the formation of complex molecular entities that have the capacity to participate in specific molecular recognition of guest molecules. A commonly employed scaffold in supramolecular chemistry is the trimeric crown-shaped molecule cyclotriveratrylene (CTV). CTV has been studied extensively for its capability of binding a number of smaller organic and organometallic guests within its bowl-shaped cleft and has been used as a building block enabling the construction of more complex cryptophanes. The goal of this research is the synthesis and characterization of a novel cyclophane, tribenzo-1,4,7-triazacyclononene and derivatives thereof. These new cyclophanes should have greater versatility ...


Computer Aided Drug Design Methods & Quantitative Structure-Activity/Property Relationships, Suman Sirimulla 2010 University of Texas at El Paso

Computer Aided Drug Design Methods & Quantitative Structure-Activity/Property Relationships, Suman Sirimulla

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The first part of dissertation consists of development of a QSAR model for 229 mutagenic aromatic amines and a QSPR model of partial molar volumes of amino acids. A common procedure for QSAR analysis consist of data selection (generally sets of homologous series of compounds and their corresponding biological activities), tabulation of trial physicochemical or molecular structural descriptors, followed by a multilinear statistical analysis to derive a statistically valid QSAR correlation of the activity data making use of a subset of the trial descriptors. A final important step is cross-validation to assess the putative predictive (rather than just correlative) capabilities ...


Polyomavirus Enhancer Activator 3 (Pea3), A Member Of The Ets Family Of Transcription Factors, Is A Transcriptional Activator Of Notch-1 And Notch-4 In Breast Cancer: An Opportunity For Novel Combinational Therapy, Anthony George Clementz 2010 Loyola University Chicago

Polyomavirus Enhancer Activator 3 (Pea3), A Member Of The Ets Family Of Transcription Factors, Is A Transcriptional Activator Of Notch-1 And Notch-4 In Breast Cancer: An Opportunity For Novel Combinational Therapy, Anthony George Clementz

Dissertations

Women diagnosed with triple-negative breast cancer have the worst overall prognosis and frequently present with metastatic tumors. To date, there are no targeted therapies available to combat this aggressive form of breast cancer due to the lack of expression of well-known targets such as ER-alpha, PR, or HER2/neu. Therefore, there is an immediate need to identify novel targets that are responsible for the proliferation, survival, and invasive phenotype. Notch-1 and Notch-4, both potent breast oncogenes, are overexpressed in triple-negative breast cancers-associated with the poorest overall survival. PEA3 (polyomavirus enhancer activator 3), a member of the Ets family of transcription ...


Phosphorylation Of The Glycine Transporter 1, Javier Vargas Medrano 2010 University of Texas at El Paso

Phosphorylation Of The Glycine Transporter 1, Javier Vargas Medrano

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The extracellular levels of the neurotransmitter glycine in the brain are tightly regulated by the high-affinity glycine transporter 1 (GlyT1) and the clearance of glycine depends on its rate of transport and the levels of cell surface GlyT1. Over the past years, it has been shown that PKC activation diminishes the activity and promoted phosphorylation of several neurotransmitter transporters including the dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine transporters however, its role is unknown for the glycine transporter. To get insights into the role of PKC activation on GlyT1 regulation, we used three N-terminus GlyT1 isoforms stably expressed in porcine aortic endothelial (PAE ...


Structural Investigation Of Atp-Utilizing Enzymes: Structures Involved In H+ Homeostasis And The Proliferation Of Hormone-Dependent Cancers, Zacariah Louis Hildenbrand 2010 University of Texas at El Paso

Structural Investigation Of Atp-Utilizing Enzymes: Structures Involved In H+ Homeostasis And The Proliferation Of Hormone-Dependent Cancers, Zacariah Louis Hildenbrand

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

ATP is a multifunctional nucleotide considered to be the "molecular unit of currency" of intracellular energy transfer. ATP is utilized ubiquitously for the transport of chemical energy within the cell in addition to acting as a substrate in the regulation of many metabolic and signaling transduction pathways such as kinase-mediated signaling cascades. Interestingly, the functional mechanisms of many enzymes require the binding of ATP to trigger key structural and conformational changes that ultimately result in enzyme-directed catalysis. Two of the most omnipresent ATPases within the cell include the V-ATPase rotary proton pump and the Hsp90 protein-folding chaperone. Structural and biochemical ...


Biochemical Characterization Of Human Mismatch Recognition Proteins Mutsα And Mutsβ, Lei Tian 2010 University of Kentucky

Biochemical Characterization Of Human Mismatch Recognition Proteins Mutsα And Mutsβ, Lei Tian

University of Kentucky Doctoral Dissertations

The integrity of an organism's genome depends on the fidelity of DNA replication and the efficiency of DNA repair. The DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system, which is highly conserved from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, plays an important role in maintaining genome stability by correcting base-base mismatches and insertion/deletion (ID) mispairs generated during DNA replication and other DNA transactions. Mismatch recognition is a critical step in MMR. Two mismatch recognition proteins, MutSα (MSH2-MSH6 heterodimer) and MutSβ (MSH2-MSH3 heterodimer), have been identified in eukaryotic cells. MutSα and MutSβ have partially overlapping functions, with MutSα recognizing primarily base-base mismatches and 1-2 nt ...


Laboratory Measurements Of Trace Gas Emissions From Biomass Burning Of Fuel Types From The Southeastern And Southwestern United States, I. R. Burling, Robert J. Yokelson, David W. T. Griffith, T. J. Johnson, P. Veres, J. M. Roberts, C. Warneke, S. P. Urbanski, J. Reardon, D. R. Weise, Wei Min Hao, J. de Gouw 2010 University of Montana - Missoula

Laboratory Measurements Of Trace Gas Emissions From Biomass Burning Of Fuel Types From The Southeastern And Southwestern United States, I. R. Burling, Robert J. Yokelson, David W. T. Griffith, T. J. Johnson, P. Veres, J. M. Roberts, C. Warneke, S. P. Urbanski, J. Reardon, D. R. Weise, Wei Min Hao, J. De Gouw

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Vegetation commonly managed by prescribed burning was collected from five southeastern and southwestern US military bases and burned under controlled conditions at the US Forest Service Fire Sciences Laboratory in Missoula, Montana. The smoke emissions were measured with a large suite of state-of-the-art instrumentation including an open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectrometer for measurement of gas-phase species. The OP-FTIR detected and quantified 19 gas-phase species in these fires: CO2, CO, CH4, C2H2, C2H4, C3H6, HCHO, HCOOH, CH3OH, CH3COOH, furan, H2O, NO, NO2, HONO, NH3, HCN, HCl, and SO2. Emission factors for these species are presented for each vegetation type burned ...


Evolution Of Trace Gases And Particles Emitted By A Chaparral Fire In California, S. K. Akagi, J. S. Craven, J. W. Taylor, G. R. McMeeking, Robert J. Yokelson, I. R. Burling, S. P. Urbanski, C. E. Wold, J. H. Seinfeld, H. Coe, M. J. Alvarado, D. R. Weise 2010 University of Montana - Missoula

Evolution Of Trace Gases And Particles Emitted By A Chaparral Fire In California, S. K. Akagi, J. S. Craven, J. W. Taylor, G. R. Mcmeeking, Robert J. Yokelson, I. R. Burling, S. P. Urbanski, C. E. Wold, J. H. Seinfeld, H. Coe, M. J. Alvarado, D. R. Weise

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Biomass burning (BB) is a major global source of trace gases and particles. Accurately representing the production and evolution of these emissions is an important goal for atmospheric chemical transport models. We measured a suite of gases and aerosols emitted from an 81 hectare prescribed fire in chaparral fuels on the central coast of California, US on 17 November 2009. We also measured physical and chemical changes that occurred in the isolated down-wind plume in the first similar to 4 h after emission. The measurements were carried out onboard a Twin Otter aircraft outfitted with an airborne Fourier transform infrared ...


Electrochemical Sensing In Paper-Based Microfluidic Devices, Zhihong Nie, Christian A. Nijhuis, Jinlong Gong, Xin Chen, Alexander Kumachev, Andres W. Martinez, Max Narovlyansky, George M. Whitesides 2010 Harvard University

Electrochemical Sensing In Paper-Based Microfluidic Devices, Zhihong Nie, Christian A. Nijhuis, Jinlong Gong, Xin Chen, Alexander Kumachev, Andres W. Martinez, Max Narovlyansky, George M. Whitesides

Chemistry and Biochemistry

This paper describes the fabrication and the performance of microfluidic paper-based electrochemical sensing devices (we call the microfluidic paper-based electrochemical devices, μPEDs). The μPEDs comprise paper-based microfluidic channels patterned by photolithography or wax printing, and electrodes screen-printed from conducting inks (e.g., carbon or Ag/AgCl). We demonstrated that the μPEDs are capable of quantifying the concentrations of various analytes (e.g., heavy-metal ions and glucose) in aqueous solutions. This low-cost analytical device should be useful for applications in public health, environmental monitoring, and the developing world.


Millimeter-Scale Contact Printing Of Aqueous Solutions Using A Stamp Made Out Of Paper And Tape, Chao-Min Cheng, Aaron D. Mazzeo, Jinlong Gong, Andres W. Martinez, Scott T. Phillips, Nina Jain, George M. Whitesides 2010 Harvard University

Millimeter-Scale Contact Printing Of Aqueous Solutions Using A Stamp Made Out Of Paper And Tape, Chao-Min Cheng, Aaron D. Mazzeo, Jinlong Gong, Andres W. Martinez, Scott T. Phillips, Nina Jain, George M. Whitesides

Chemistry and Biochemistry

This communication describes a simple method for printing aqueous solutions with millimeter-scale patterns on a variety of substrates using an easily fabricated, paper-based microfluidic device (a paper-based ―stamp‖) as a contact printing device. The device is made from inexpensive materials, and it is easily assembled by hand; this method is thus accessible to a wide range of laboratories and budgets. A single device was used to print over 2500 spots in less than three minutes at a density of 16 spots per square centimetre. This method provides a new tool to pattern biochemicals—reagents, antigens, proteins, and DNA—on planar ...


Programmable Diagnostic Devices Made From Paper And Tape, Andres W. Martinez, Scott T. Phillips, Zhihong Nie, Chao-Min Cheng, Emanuel Carrilho, Benjamin J. Wiley, George M. Whitesides 2010 Harvard University

Programmable Diagnostic Devices Made From Paper And Tape, Andres W. Martinez, Scott T. Phillips, Zhihong Nie, Chao-Min Cheng, Emanuel Carrilho, Benjamin J. Wiley, George M. Whitesides

Chemistry and Biochemistry

This paper describes three-dimensional microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (3-D μPADs) that can be programmed (postfabrication) by the user to generate multiple patterns of flow through them. These devices are programmed by pressing single-use ‘on’ buttons, using a stylus or a ballpoint pen. Pressing a button closes a small space (gap) between two vertically aligned microfluidic channels, and allows fluids to wick from one channel to the other. These devices are simple to fabricate, and are made entirely out of paper and double-sided adhesive tape. Programmable devices expand the capabilities of μPADs and provide a simple method for controlling the movement ...


Dielectrophoretic Choking Phenomenon In A Converging-Diverging Microchannel, Ye Ai, Shizhi Qian, Sheng Liu, Sang W. Joo 2010 Old Dominion University

Dielectrophoretic Choking Phenomenon In A Converging-Diverging Microchannel, Ye Ai, Shizhi Qian, Sheng Liu, Sang W. Joo

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications

Experiments show that particles smaller than the throat size of converging-diverging microchannels can sometimes be trapped near the throat. This critical phenomenon is associated with the negative dc dielectrophoresis arising from nonuniform electric fields in the microchannels. A finite-element model, accounting for the particle-fluid-electric field interactions, is employed to investigate the conditions for this dielectrophoretic (DEP) choking in a converging-diverging microchannel for the first time. It is shown quantitatively that the DEP choking occurs for high nonuniformity of electric fields, high ratio of particle size to throat size, and high ratio of particle's zeta potential to that of microchannel ...


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