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The Ubiquitin Ligase Ube4b Is Required For Efficient Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Degradation, Natalie Sirisaengtaksin 2010 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

The Ubiquitin Ligase Ube4b Is Required For Efficient Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Degradation, Natalie Sirisaengtaksin

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The length of time that integral membrane proteins reside on the plasma membrane is regulated by endocytosis, a process that can inactivate these proteins by removing them from the membrane and may ultimately result in their degradation. Proteins are internalized and pass through multiple distinct intracellular compartments where targeting decisions determine their fate. Membrane proteins initially enter early endosomes, and subsequently late endosomes/multivesicular bodies (MVBs), before being degraded in the lysosome. The MVB is a subset of late endosomes characterized by the appearance of small vesicles in its luminal compartment. These vesicles contain cargo proteins sorted from the limiting ...


Glycopeptidome Of A Heavily N-Glycosylated Cell Surface Glycoprotein Of Dictyostelium Implicated In Cell Adhesion, Christa L. Feasley, Jennifer M. Johnson, Christopher M. West, Catherine P. Chia 2010 University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center

Glycopeptidome Of A Heavily N-Glycosylated Cell Surface Glycoprotein Of Dictyostelium Implicated In Cell Adhesion, Christa L. Feasley, Jennifer M. Johnson, Christopher M. West, Catherine P. Chia

Faculty Publications in the Biological Sciences

Genetic analysis has implicated the cell surface glycoprotein gp130 in cell interactions of the social amoeba Dictyostelium, and information about the utilization of the 18 N-glycosylation sequons present in gp130 is needed to identify critical molecular determinants of its activity. Various glycomics strategies, including mass spectrometry of native and derivatized glycans, monosaccharide analysis, exoglycosidase digestion, and antibody binding, were applied to characterize a nonanchored version secreted from Dictyostelium. s-gp130 is modified by a predominant Man8GlcNAc4 species containing bisecting and intersecting GlcNAc residues and additional high-mannose N-glycans substituted with sulfate, methyl-phosphate, and/or core R3-fucose. Site mapping confirmed the occupancy of ...


Alteration Of Nucleotide Excision Repair By Estrogens: Implications For Carcinogenesis, Emily Glynn Notch 2010 The University of Maine

Alteration Of Nucleotide Excision Repair By Estrogens: Implications For Carcinogenesis, Emily Glynn Notch

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Estrogens and estrogen mimics represent a wide range of aquatic contaminants that elicit deleterious effects on exposed organisms. Despite well-characterized reproductive effects of environmental estrogens, less is known about non-reproductive impacts of exogenous estrogen exposure. Additionally, estrogens are known carcinogens, implicated in multiple human cancers. Little or no research has examined the effects of xenoestrogens on DNA repair despite being known carcinogens. The goal of this research was to test the hypothesis that aquatic estrogens enhance the effects of environmental mutagens by altering DNA repair. Of particular interest is nucleotide excision repair (NER), the only repair pathway to remove structurally ...


Physiological And Evolutionary Implications Of The Pattern Of Expression Of Oxygen-Binding Hemoproteins In Antarctic Notothenioid Fishes, Kimberly Borley 2010 The University of Maine

Physiological And Evolutionary Implications Of The Pattern Of Expression Of Oxygen-Binding Hemoproteins In Antarctic Notothenioid Fishes, Kimberly Borley

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Antarctic icefish do not express hemoglobin (Hb). Icefishes possess cardiovascular modifications including increased densities of blood vessels, larger ventricles and increased blood volume compared to red-blooded relatives. In addition to delivering oxygen to tissues, Hb degrades nitric oxide (NO), a small signaling molecule. To investigate the mechanism driving development of icefish cardiovascular characteristics, I present and test the hypothesis that loss of Hb results in increased steady-state levels of NO, triggering downstream signaling pathways such as angiogenesis. I measured NO breakdown products, as a proxy for NO, and found that icefish have higher steady-state levels of NO metabolites in their ...


Transesterification And Recovery Of Intracellular Lipids Using A Single Step Reactive Extraction, Daniel R. Nelson 2010 Utah State University

Transesterification And Recovery Of Intracellular Lipids Using A Single Step Reactive Extraction, Daniel R. Nelson

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A single-step, extractive reaction for extraction of lipids such as biodiesel components, omega-3 fatty acids, or other triglycerides from microbial cells was examined. Conventional methods for lipid extraction use toxic solvents, and require multiple steps and long processing times. When the goal is to produce fatty acid methyl esters or FAMEs, the extracted lipids are subjected to a separate transesterification reaction with simple alcohols in the presence of an acid or base catalyst. A simplified, single-step reactive extraction method can be applied that combines the sequential extraction followed by transesterification using acidified alcohols - a process known as in situ transesterification ...


Development Of Novel Methods And Their Utilization In The Analysis Of The Effect Of The N-Terminus Of Human Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 1 Variant 1 On Enzymatic Activity, Protein-Protein Interactions, And Substrate Specificity, Brenda Bienka Suh-Lailam 2010 Utah State University

Development Of Novel Methods And Their Utilization In The Analysis Of The Effect Of The N-Terminus Of Human Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 1 Variant 1 On Enzymatic Activity, Protein-Protein Interactions, And Substrate Specificity, Brenda Bienka Suh-Lailam

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) are enzymes that catalyze the methylation of protein arginine residues, resulting in the formation of monomethylarginine, and/or asymmetric or symmetric dimethylarginines. Although understanding of the PRMTs has grown rapidly over the last few years, several challenges still remain in the PRMT field. Here, we describe the development of two techniques that will be very useful in investigating PRMT regulation, small molecule inhibition, oligomerization, protein-protein interaction, and substrate specificity, which will ultimately lead to the advancement of the PRMT field. Studies have shown that having an N-terminal tag can influence enzyme activity and substrate specificity. The ...


Microtubule Stabilization By Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor-Mediated Scaffolding Of C-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Promotes Dendrite Formation, Monika Podkowa, Xin Zhao, Chi-Wing Chow, Eleanor T. Coffey, Roger J. Davis, Liliana Attisano 2010 University of Toronto

Microtubule Stabilization By Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor-Mediated Scaffolding Of C-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Promotes Dendrite Formation, Monika Podkowa, Xin Zhao, Chi-Wing Chow, Eleanor T. Coffey, Roger J. Davis, Liliana Attisano

Davis Lab Publications

Neuronal outgrowth occurs via coordinated remodeling of the cytoskeleton involving both actin and microtubules. Microtubule stabilization drives the extending neurite, yet little is known of the molecular mechanisms whereby extracellular cues regulate microtubule dynamics. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play an important role in neuronal differentiation and morphogenesis, and BMP7 in particular induces the formation of dendrites. Here, we show that BMP7 induces stabilization of microtubules in both a MAP2-dependent neuronal cell culture model and in dendrites of primary cortical neurons. BMP7 rapidly activates c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs), known regulators of microtubule dynamics, and we show that JNKs associate with the ...


Protein Evolution Via Amino Acid And Codon Elimination, Lise Goltermann, Marie Sofie Yoo Larsen, Ranat Banerjee, Andreas C. Joerger, Michael Ibba, Thomas Bentin 2010 University of Copenhagen

Protein Evolution Via Amino Acid And Codon Elimination, Lise Goltermann, Marie Sofie Yoo Larsen, Ranat Banerjee, Andreas C. Joerger, Michael Ibba, Thomas Bentin

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Background
Global residue-specific amino acid mutagenesis can provide important biological insight and generate proteins with altered properties, but at the risk of protein misfolding. Further, targeted libraries are usually restricted to a handful of amino acids because there is an exponential correlation between the number of residues randomized and the size of the resulting ensemble. Using GFP as the model protein, we present a strategy, termed protein evolution via amino acid and codon elimination, through which simplified, native-like polypeptides encoded by a reduced genetic code were obtained via screening of reduced-size ensembles.

Methodology/Principal Findings
The strategy involves combining a ...


Determinants For Stop-Transfer And Post-Import Pathways For Protein Targeting To The Chloroplast Inner Envelope Membrane, Antonio A. B. Viana, Ming Li, Danny Schnell 2010 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

Determinants For Stop-Transfer And Post-Import Pathways For Protein Targeting To The Chloroplast Inner Envelope Membrane, Antonio A. B. Viana, Ming Li, Danny Schnell

Danny Schnell

he inner envelope membrane (IEM) of the chloroplast plays key roles in controlling metabolite transport between the organelle and cytoplasm and is a major site of lipid and membrane synthesis within the organelle. IEM biogenesis requires the import and integration of nucleus-encoded membrane proteins. Previous reports have led to the conclusion that membrane proteins are inserted into the IEM during protein import from the cytoplasm via a stop-transfer mechanism or are completely imported into the stroma and then inserted into the IEM in a post-import mechanism. In this study, we examined the determinants for each pathway by comparing the targeting ...


Oxidation Of Methane By A Biological Dicopper Centre, Ramakrishnan Balasubramanian, Stephen M. Smith, Swati Rawat, Liliya A. Yatsunyk, Timothy L. Stemmler, Amy C. Rosenzweig 2010 Northwestern University

Oxidation Of Methane By A Biological Dicopper Centre, Ramakrishnan Balasubramanian, Stephen M. Smith, Swati Rawat, Liliya A. Yatsunyk, Timothy L. Stemmler, Amy C. Rosenzweig

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Publications

Vast world reserves of methane gas are underutilized as a feedstock for the production of liquid fuels and chemicals owing to the lack of economical and sustainable strategies for the selective oxidation of methane to methanol1. Current processes to activate the strong C–H bond (104 kcal mol−1) in methane require high temperatures, are costly and inefficient, and produce waste2. In nature, methanotrophic bacteria perform this reaction under ambient conditions using metalloenzymes called methane monooxygenases (MMOs). MMOs thus provide the optimal model for an efficient, environmentally sound catalyst3. There are two types of MMO. Soluble MMO (sMMO),expressed by ...


How The Sequence Of A Gene Can Tune Its Translation, Kurt Fredrick, Michael Ibba 2010 The Ohio State University

How The Sequence Of A Gene Can Tune Its Translation, Kurt Fredrick, Michael Ibba

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Sixty-one codons specify 20 amino acids, offering cells many options for encoding a polypeptide sequence. Two new studies (Cannarrozzi et al., 2010, Tuller et al., 2010) now foster the idea that patterns of codon usage can control ribosome speed, fine-tuning translation to increase the efficiency of protein synthesis.


Ribosomal Rna Mutations That Inhibit The Activity Of Transfer-Messenger Rna Of Stalled Ribosomes, Jacob N. Crandall 2010 Brigham Young University - Provo

Ribosomal Rna Mutations That Inhibit The Activity Of Transfer-Messenger Rna Of Stalled Ribosomes, Jacob N. Crandall

Theses and Dissertations

In eubacteria, stalled ribosomes are rescued by a conserved quality-control mechanism involving transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA) and its protein partner SmpB. Mimicking a tRNA, tmRNA enters stalled ribosomes, adds Ala to the nascent polypeptide, and serves as a template to encode a short peptide that tags the nascent protein for destruction. To further characterize the tagging process, we developed two genetic selections that link tmRNA activity to cell death. These negative selections can be used to identify inhibitors of tagging or to identify mutations in key residues essential for ribosome rescue. Little is known about which ribosomal elements are specifically required ...


Dynamics On Multiple Timescales In The Rna-Directed Rna Polymerase From The Cystovirus Φ6, Zhen Ren, Hsin Wang, Ranajeet Ghose 2010 CUNY City College

Dynamics On Multiple Timescales In The Rna-Directed Rna Polymerase From The Cystovirus Φ6, Zhen Ren, Hsin Wang, Ranajeet Ghose

Publications and Research

The de novoinitiating RNA-directed RNA polymerase (RdRP), P2, forms the central machinery in the infection cycle of the bacteriophage ϕ6 by performing the dual tasks of replication and transcription of the double-stranded RNA genome in the host cell. By measurement and quantitative analysis of multiple-quantum spin-relaxation data for the δ1 positions of Ile residues that are distributed over the 3D-fold of P2, we find that the enzyme is dynamic both on the fast (ps–ns) and slow (µs–ms) timescales. The characteristics of several motional modes including those that coincide with the catalytic timescale (500–800/s) are altered ...


Aspergillus Fumigatus Stimulates The Nlrp3 Inflammasome Through A Pathway Requiring Ros Production And The Syk Tyrosine Kinase, Najwane Saïd-Sadier, Eduardo V. Padilla, Gordon Langsley, David M. Ojcius 2010 University of California, Merced

Aspergillus Fumigatus Stimulates The Nlrp3 Inflammasome Through A Pathway Requiring Ros Production And The Syk Tyrosine Kinase, Najwane Saïd-Sadier, Eduardo V. Padilla, Gordon Langsley, David M. Ojcius

Dugoni School of Dentistry Faculty Articles

Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a life-threatening disease that occurs in immunodepressed patients when infected with Aspergillus fumigatus. This fungus is the second most-common causative agent of fungal disease after Candida albicans. Nevertheless, much remains to be learned about the mechanisms by which A. fulmigatus activates the innate immune system. We investigated the inflammatory response to conidia and hyphae of A. fumigatus and specifically, their capacity to trigger activation of an inflammasome. Our results show that in contrast to conidia, hyphal fragments induce NLRP3 inflammasome assembly, caspase-1 activation and IL-1β release from a human monocyte cell line. The ability of Aspergillus ...


The Genomics Education Partnership: Successful Integration Of Research Into Laboratory Classes At A Diverse Group Of Undergraduate Institutions, Christopher D. Shaffer, Consuelo Alvarez, Cheryl Bailey, Daron Barnard, Satish Bhalla, Chitra Chandrasekaran, Vidya Chandrasekaran, Hui-Min Chung, Douglas R. Dorer, Chunguang Du, Todd T. Eckdahl, Jeff L. Poet, Donald Frohlich, Anya L. Goodman, Yuying Gossner, Charles Hauser, Laura L.M. Hoopes, Diana Johnson, Christopher J. Jones, Marian Kaehler, Nighat Kokan, Olga R. Kopp, Gary A. Kuleck, Gerard McNeil, Robert Moss, Jennifer L. Myka, Alexis Nagengast, Robert Morris, Paul J. Overvoorde, Elizabeth Shoop, Susan Parrish, Kelynne Reed, E. Gloria Regisford, Dennis Revie, Anne G. Rosenwald, Ken Saville, Stephanie Schroeder, Mary Shaw, Gary Skuse, Christopher Smith, Mary Smith, Eric P. Spana, Mary Spratt, Joyce Stamm, Jeff S. Thompson, Matthew Wawersik, Barbara A. Wilson, Jim Youngblom, Wilson Leung, Jeremy Buhler, Elaine R. Mardis, David Lopatto, Sarah C.R. Elgin 2010 Washington University in St. Louis

The Genomics Education Partnership: Successful Integration Of Research Into Laboratory Classes At A Diverse Group Of Undergraduate Institutions, Christopher D. Shaffer, Consuelo Alvarez, Cheryl Bailey, Daron Barnard, Satish Bhalla, Chitra Chandrasekaran, Vidya Chandrasekaran, Hui-Min Chung, Douglas R. Dorer, Chunguang Du, Todd T. Eckdahl, Jeff L. Poet, Donald Frohlich, Anya L. Goodman, Yuying Gossner, Charles Hauser, Laura L.M. Hoopes, Diana Johnson, Christopher J. Jones, Marian Kaehler, Nighat Kokan, Olga R. Kopp, Gary A. Kuleck, Gerard Mcneil, Robert Moss, Jennifer L. Myka, Alexis Nagengast, Robert Morris, Paul J. Overvoorde, Elizabeth Shoop, Susan Parrish, Kelynne Reed, E. Gloria Regisford, Dennis Revie, Anne G. Rosenwald, Ken Saville, Stephanie Schroeder, Mary Shaw, Gary Skuse, Christopher Smith, Mary Smith, Eric P. Spana, Mary Spratt, Joyce Stamm, Jeff S. Thompson, Matthew Wawersik, Barbara A. Wilson, Jim Youngblom, Wilson Leung, Jeremy Buhler, Elaine R. Mardis, David Lopatto, Sarah C.R. Elgin

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Genomics is not only essential for students to understand biology but also provides unprecedented opportunities for undergraduate research. The goal of the Genomics Education Partnership (GEP), a collaboration between a growing number of colleges and universities around the country and the Department of Biology and Genome Center of Washington University in St. Louis, is to provide such research opportunities. Using a versatile curriculum that has been adapted to many different class settings, GEP undergraduates undertake projects to bring draft-quality genomic sequence up to high quality and/or participate in the annotation of these sequences. GEP undergraduates have improved more than ...


Computational Protein Design: Advances In The Design And Redesign Of Biomolecular Nanostructures, Jeffery G. Saven 2010 University of Pennsylvania

Computational Protein Design: Advances In The Design And Redesign Of Biomolecular Nanostructures, Jeffery G. Saven

Departmental Papers (Chemistry)

Computational protein design facilitates the continued development of methods for the design of biomolecular structure, sequence and function. Recent applications include the design of novel protein sequences and structures, proteins incorporating nonbiological components, protein assemblies, soluble variants of membrane proteins, and proteins that modulate membrane function.


Characterization Of Glycation Sites On Human Serum Albumin Using Mass Spectrometry, Omar S. Barnaby 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Characterization Of Glycation Sites On Human Serum Albumin Using Mass Spectrometry, Omar S. Barnaby

Student Research Projects, Dissertations, and Theses - Chemistry Department

The modification of proteins by reducing sugars is a process that occurs naturally in the body. This process, which is known as glycation, has been linked to many of the chronic complications encountered during diabetes. Glycation has also been linked to changes in the binding of human serum albumin (HSA) to several drugs and small solutes in the body. While these effects are known, there is little information that explains why these changes in binding occur. The goal of this project was to obtain qualitative and quantitative information about glycation that occurs on HSA. The first section of this dissertation ...


Conformational Change And Topological Stability Of Proteins, Jeffrey Andrew Tibbitt 2010 Old Dominion University

Conformational Change And Topological Stability Of Proteins, Jeffrey Andrew Tibbitt

Chemistry & Biochemistry Theses & Dissertations

The conformation and topology of a protein changes when stabilizing forces are absent, but the mechanisms by which these changes occur remains elusive. This dissertation aims to broaden the understandings. On the conformational level, the M20 loop conformers of E. coli dihydrofolate reductase are interrogated to identify factors responsible for their stability as well as to determine how one conformer might change into another. Molecular dynamics is used to simulate the open, closed and occluded conformers (observed in X-ray crystal structures) under a series of different single ligand conditions. Analysis shows that all open conformers move to a similar new ...


A Comparison Of Three Computer-Based Methods Used To Determine Emg Signal Amplitude, Doug Renshaw 2010 University of Texas of the Permian Basin

A Comparison Of Three Computer-Based Methods Used To Determine Emg Signal Amplitude, Doug Renshaw

Doug Renshaw

No abstract provided.


Systematic Discovery Of Regulatory Motifs In Fusarium Graminearum By Comparing Four Fusarium Genomes, Lokesh Kumar, Andrew Breakspear, Corby Kistler, Li-Jun Ma, Xiaohui Xie 2010 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

Systematic Discovery Of Regulatory Motifs In Fusarium Graminearum By Comparing Four Fusarium Genomes, Lokesh Kumar, Andrew Breakspear, Corby Kistler, Li-Jun Ma, Xiaohui Xie

Li-Jun Ma

Background

Fusarium graminearum (Fg), a major fungal pathogen of cultivated cereals, is responsible for billions of dollars in agriculture losses. There is a growing interest in understanding the transcriptional regulation of this organism, especially the regulation of genes underlying its pathogenicity. The generation of whole genome sequence assemblies for Fg and three closely related Fusarium species provides a unique opportunity for such a study.

Results

Applying comparative genomics approaches, we developed a computational pipeline to systematically discover evolutionarily conserved regulatory motifs in the promoter, downstream and the intronic regions of Fg genes, based on the multiple alignments of sequenced Fusarium ...


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