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Site-Directed Mutagenesis And Pban Activation Of The Helicoverpa Zea Pban-Receptor, Man-Yeon Choi, Russell A. Jurenka 2010 United States Department of Agriculture

Site-Directed Mutagenesis And Pban Activation Of The Helicoverpa Zea Pban-Receptor, Man-Yeon Choi, Russell A. Jurenka

Entomology Publications

Pheromone biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide (PBAN) and pyrokinins belong to a family of insect peptide hormones that have a common FXPRLamide C-terminal ending. The G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) for this peptide family were first identified from a moth and Drosophila with sequence similarity to neuromedin U receptors from vertebrates. We have characterized the PBAN-receptor (PBAN-R or PR) active binding domains using chimeric GPCRs and proposed that extracellular loop 3 is critical for ligand selection. Here, we characterized the 3rd extracellular domain of PBAN-R through site-directed point mutations. Results are discussed in context of the structural features required for receptor activation using receptor activation ...


Development And Validation Of A Rapid Method For The Detection Of Latrunculol A In Plasma., Jiajiu Shaw, Frederick A. Valeriote, Joseph Media, Tyler A. Johnson, Taro Amagata, Karen Tenney, Phillip Crews 2010 Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan, USA

Development And Validation Of A Rapid Method For The Detection Of Latrunculol A In Plasma., Jiajiu Shaw, Frederick A. Valeriote, Joseph Media, Tyler A. Johnson, Taro Amagata, Karen Tenney, Phillip Crews

Natural Sciences and Mathematics | Faculty Scholarship

Latrunculol A is a recently discovered 6,7-dihydroxy analog of the potent actin inhibitor latrunculin A. Latrunculol A has exhibited greater cytotoxicity than latrunculin A against both murine and human colon tumor cell lines in vitro. Currently, there are no reports regarding the bioavailability of latrunculol A in vivo. This study was undertaken as a prelude to pharmacokinetic assessments and it is the first work where bioavailability of latrunculol A was studied. In the present work, a simple plasma preparation and a rapid HPLC method have been developed. Mouse plasma containing latrunculol A was first treated by acetonitrile and then ...


The Heat Capacity And Thermodynamic Properties Of The Iron Oxides And Their Relation To The Mineral Core Of The Iron Storage Protein Ferritin, Claine Lindsey Morton Snow 2010 Brigham Young University - Provo

The Heat Capacity And Thermodynamic Properties Of The Iron Oxides And Their Relation To The Mineral Core Of The Iron Storage Protein Ferritin, Claine Lindsey Morton Snow

Theses and Dissertations

The iron oxides are a group of materials with geological, biological, and technological importance. A thermodynamic understanding of these materials is important because it provides information about their relative stabilities, chemical reactivity, and transformations. This study provides the heat capacity of a nanocrystalline magnetite (Fe3O4) sample, bulk hematite (α-Fe2O3), nanocrystalline hematite, akaganéite (β-FeOOH), and lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH) at temperatures as low as 0.5 K. These measurements were fit to theoretical functions at temperatures lower than 15 K, and the respective thermophysical properties of these materials are discussed. Also the molar entropies of bulk hematite and hydrous nanocrystalline hematite as well ...


A Natural Missing Link Between Activated And Downhill Protein Folding Scenarios, Feng Liu, Caroline Maynard, Gregory E. Scott, Artem Melnykov, Kathleen B. Hall, Martin Gruebele 2010 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

A Natural Missing Link Between Activated And Downhill Protein Folding Scenarios, Feng Liu, Caroline Maynard, Gregory E. Scott, Artem Melnykov, Kathleen B. Hall, Martin Gruebele

Chemistry and Biochemistry

We propose protein PTB1:4W as a good candidate for engineering into a downhill folder. PTB1:4W has a probe-dependent thermal unfolding curve and sub-millisecond T-jump relaxation kinetics on more than one time scale. Its refolding rate in denaturant is a non-linear function of denaturant concentration (curved chevron plot). Yet at high denaturant concentration its unfolding is probe-independent, and the folding kinetics can be fitted to a single exponential decay. The domain appears to fold via a mechanism between downhill folding and activated folding over several small barriers, and when denaturant is added, one of these barriers greatly increases and ...


Role Of The Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis In Metabolic Regulation By Jnk1, Guadalupe Sabio, Julie Cavanagh-Kyros, Tamera Barrett, Dae Young Jung, Hwi Jin Ko, Helena Ong, Caroline Morel, Alfonso Mora, Judith Reilly, Jason K. Kim, Roger J. Davis 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Role Of The Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis In Metabolic Regulation By Jnk1, Guadalupe Sabio, Julie Cavanagh-Kyros, Tamera Barrett, Dae Young Jung, Hwi Jin Ko, Helena Ong, Caroline Morel, Alfonso Mora, Judith Reilly, Jason K. Kim, Roger J. Davis

Davis Lab Publications

The cJun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) is implicated in diet-induced obesity. Indeed, germline ablation of the murine Jnk1 gene prevents diet-induced obesity. Here we demonstrate that selective deficiency of JNK1 in the murine nervous system is sufficient to suppress diet-induced obesity. The failure to increase body mass is mediated, in part, by increased energy expenditure that is associated with activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Disruption of thyroid hormone function prevents the effects of nervous system JNK1 deficiency on body mass. These data demonstrate that the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis represents an important target of metabolic signaling by JNK1.


Large Scale Reverse Genetics In Arabidopsis: Case Studies From The Chloroplast 2010 Project, Imad Ajjawi, Yan Lu, Linda Savage, Shannon Bell, Robert Last 2010 Western Michigan University

Large Scale Reverse Genetics In Arabidopsis: Case Studies From The Chloroplast 2010 Project, Imad Ajjawi, Yan Lu, Linda Savage, Shannon Bell, Robert Last

Yan Lu

No abstract provided.


Nmr Assignments Of A Stable Processing Intermediate Of Human Frataxin, Kalyan C. Kondapalli, Krisztina Z. Bencze, Eric Dizin, James A. Cowan, Timothy L. Stemmler 2010 Wayne State University

Nmr Assignments Of A Stable Processing Intermediate Of Human Frataxin, Kalyan C. Kondapalli, Krisztina Z. Bencze, Eric Dizin, James A. Cowan, Timothy L. Stemmler

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Publications

Frataxin, a nuclear encoded protein targeted to the mitochondrial matrix, has recently been implicated as an iron chaperone that delivers ferrous iron to the iron-sulfur assembly enzyme IscU. During transport across the mitochondrial membrane, the N-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence of frataxin is cleaved in a two-step process to produce the mature protein found in the matrix, however N-terminal extended forms of the protein have also been observed in vivo. The recent structural characterization studies of the human frataxin ortholog were performed on a truncated variant of the protein. Here we report the NMR spectral assignment of an extended form of ...


Antispasmodic And Vasodilator Activities Of Morinda Citrifolia Root Extract Are Mediated Through Blockade Of Voltage Dependent Calcium Channels, Anwarul Hassan Gilani, Saf-ur-Rehman Mandukhail, Javeid Iqbal, Masoom Yasinzai, Nauman Aziz, Aslam Khan, Najeeb-ur-Rehman 2010 Aga Khan University

Antispasmodic And Vasodilator Activities Of Morinda Citrifolia Root Extract Are Mediated Through Blockade Of Voltage Dependent Calcium Channels, Anwarul Hassan Gilani, Saf-Ur-Rehman Mandukhail, Javeid Iqbal, Masoom Yasinzai, Nauman Aziz, Aslam Khan, Najeeb-Ur-Rehman

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

Background: Morinda citrifolia (Noni) is an edible plant with wide range of medicinal uses. It occurs exclusively in tropical climate zone from India through Southeast Asia and Australia to Eastern Polynesia and Hawaii. The objective of this study was to explore the possible mode(s) of action for its antispasmodic, vasodilator and cardio-suppressant effects to rationalize its medicinal use in gut and cardiovascular disorders. Methods: Isolated tissue preparations such as, rabbit jejunum, rat and rabbit aorta and guinea pig atria were used to test the antispasmodic and cardiovascular relaxant effects and the possible mode of action(s) of the 70 ...


Quantitative Comparison Of Genomic-Wide Protein Domain Distributions, Arli A. Parikesit, Peter F. Stadler, Sonja J. Prohaska 2010 University of Indonesia

Quantitative Comparison Of Genomic-Wide Protein Domain Distributions, Arli A. Parikesit, Peter F. Stadler, Sonja J. Prohaska

Arli A Parikesit

Investigations into the origins and evolution of regulatory mechanisms require quantitative estimates of the abundance and co-occurrence of functional protein domains among distantly related genomes. Currently available databases, such as the SUPERFAMILY, are not designed for quantitative comparisons since they are built upon transcript and protein annotations provided by the various different genome annotation projects. Large biases are introduced by the differences in genome annotation protocols, which strongly depend on the availability of transcript information and well-annotated closely related organisms. Here we show that the combination of de novo gene predictors and subsequent HMM-based annotation of SCOP domains in the ...


Determining The Rate Of Transcription Of T7 Rna Polymerase Using Single Molecule Fluorescence Imaging, Dawn Renee Nichola 2010 Marshall University

Determining The Rate Of Transcription Of T7 Rna Polymerase Using Single Molecule Fluorescence Imaging, Dawn Renee Nichola

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

It is important to understand the many factors impacting the rate at which an RNA polymerase incorporates nucleotides. The transcription rate of T7 RNA polymerase has been determined using single molecule fluorescence microscopy. A Cy3 labeled circular 45nt ssDNA molecule was used to monitor the transcription process. T7 RNA polymerase was used because it is a single subunit polymerase that does not need any cofactors and will transcribe single-stranded DNA circles that do not contain a promoter. The transcription was monitored by measuring the quasi-periodic change in intensity associated with the transit of the probe through the polymerase as the ...


15N Solid-State Nmr Detection Of Flavin Perturbation By H-Bonding In Models And Enzyme Active Sites, Dongtao Cui 2010 University of Kentucky

15N Solid-State Nmr Detection Of Flavin Perturbation By H-Bonding In Models And Enzyme Active Sites, Dongtao Cui

University of Kentucky Doctoral Dissertations

Massey and Hemmerich proposed that the different reactivities displayed by different flavoenzymes could be achieved as a result of dominance of different flavin ring resonance structures in different binding sites. Thus, the FMN cofactor would engage in different reactions when it had different electronic structures. To test this proposal and understand how different protein sites could produce different flavin electronic structures, we are developing solid-state NMR as a means of characterizing the electronic state of the flavin ring, via the 15N chemical shift tensors of the ring N atoms. These provide information on the frontier orbitals. We propose that ...


In Vivo Oxidative Stress In Alzheimer Disease Brain And A Mouse Model Thereof: Effects Of Lipid Asymmetry And The Single Methionine Residue Of Amyloid-Β Peptide, Miranda Lu Bader Lange 2010 University of Kentucky

In Vivo Oxidative Stress In Alzheimer Disease Brain And A Mouse Model Thereof: Effects Of Lipid Asymmetry And The Single Methionine Residue Of Amyloid-Β Peptide, Miranda Lu Bader Lange

University of Kentucky Doctoral Dissertations

Studies presented in this dissertation were conducted to gain more insight into the role of phospholipid asymmetry and amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced oxidative stress in brain of subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD). AD is a largely sporadic, age-associated neurodegenerative disorder clinically characterized by the vast, progressive loss of memory and cognition commonly in populations over the age of ~65 years, with the exception of those with familial AD, which develop AD symptoms as early as ~30 years-old. Neuropathologically, both AD and FAD can be characterized by synapse and neuronal cell loss in conjunction with accumulation ...


Expression, Purification, And Analysis Of Unknown Translation Factors From Escherichia Coli: A Synthesis Approach, Justin D. Walter, Peter Littlefield, Scott P. Delbecq, Gerry Prody, P. Clint Spiegel 2010 Western Washington University

Expression, Purification, And Analysis Of Unknown Translation Factors From Escherichia Coli: A Synthesis Approach, Justin D. Walter, Peter Littlefield, Scott P. Delbecq, Gerry Prody, P. Clint Spiegel

Chemistry Faculty and Staff Publications

New approaches are currently being developed to expose biochemistry and molecular biology undergraduates to a more interactive learning environment. Here, we propose a unique project-based laboratory module, which incorporates exposure to biophysical chemistry approaches to address problems in protein chemistry. Each of the experiments described herein contributes to the stepwise process of isolating, identifying, and analyzing a protein involved in a central biological process, prokaryotic translation. Students are provided with expression plasmids that harbor an unknown translation factor, and it is their charge to complete a series of experiments that will allow them to develop hypotheses for discovering the identity ...


Structure-Function Relationship Studies Of The Udp-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase From Escherichia Coli, Agnieszka Maria Orlof 2010 Loyola University Chicago

Structure-Function Relationship Studies Of The Udp-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase From Escherichia Coli, Agnieszka Maria Orlof

Master's Theses

UDP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase (UDP-Glc PPase) is a key enzyme of the carbohydrate metabolic pathway widely used among prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In plants, UDP-Glc PPase is necessary for sucrose synthesis while mammals utilize this enzyme for the production of glycogen. A bacterium such as Escherichia coli uses UDP-Glc PPase for biosynthesis of the lipopolysscharide core which forms a cell wall.

This study focused on UDP-Glc PPase from Escherichia coli which is encoded by both galU and galF genes. The first part of this project investigated amino acids that could play an important role in the function of UDP Glc PPase (GalU). Based ...


New Cyclophanes As Supramolecular Scaffolds: The Synthesis Of Tribenzo-1,4,7-Triazacyclononatriene., Andria M. Panagopoulos 2010 Loyola University Chicago

New Cyclophanes As Supramolecular Scaffolds: The Synthesis Of Tribenzo-1,4,7-Triazacyclononatriene., Andria M. Panagopoulos

Dissertations

Supramolecular chemistry involves the formation of complex molecular entities that have the capacity to participate in specific molecular recognition of guest molecules. A commonly employed scaffold in supramolecular chemistry is the trimeric crown-shaped molecule cyclotriveratrylene (CTV). CTV has been studied extensively for its capability of binding a number of smaller organic and organometallic guests within its bowl-shaped cleft and has been used as a building block enabling the construction of more complex cryptophanes. The goal of this research is the synthesis and characterization of a novel cyclophane, tribenzo-1,4,7-triazacyclononene and derivatives thereof. These new cyclophanes should have greater versatility ...


Computer Aided Drug Design Methods & Quantitative Structure-Activity/Property Relationships, Suman Sirimulla 2010 University of Texas at El Paso

Computer Aided Drug Design Methods & Quantitative Structure-Activity/Property Relationships, Suman Sirimulla

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The first part of dissertation consists of development of a QSAR model for 229 mutagenic aromatic amines and a QSPR model of partial molar volumes of amino acids. A common procedure for QSAR analysis consist of data selection (generally sets of homologous series of compounds and their corresponding biological activities), tabulation of trial physicochemical or molecular structural descriptors, followed by a multilinear statistical analysis to derive a statistically valid QSAR correlation of the activity data making use of a subset of the trial descriptors. A final important step is cross-validation to assess the putative predictive (rather than just correlative) capabilities ...


Polyomavirus Enhancer Activator 3 (Pea3), A Member Of The Ets Family Of Transcription Factors, Is A Transcriptional Activator Of Notch-1 And Notch-4 In Breast Cancer: An Opportunity For Novel Combinational Therapy, Anthony George Clementz 2010 Loyola University Chicago

Polyomavirus Enhancer Activator 3 (Pea3), A Member Of The Ets Family Of Transcription Factors, Is A Transcriptional Activator Of Notch-1 And Notch-4 In Breast Cancer: An Opportunity For Novel Combinational Therapy, Anthony George Clementz

Dissertations

Women diagnosed with triple-negative breast cancer have the worst overall prognosis and frequently present with metastatic tumors. To date, there are no targeted therapies available to combat this aggressive form of breast cancer due to the lack of expression of well-known targets such as ER-alpha, PR, or HER2/neu. Therefore, there is an immediate need to identify novel targets that are responsible for the proliferation, survival, and invasive phenotype. Notch-1 and Notch-4, both potent breast oncogenes, are overexpressed in triple-negative breast cancers-associated with the poorest overall survival. PEA3 (polyomavirus enhancer activator 3), a member of the Ets family of transcription ...


Phosphorylation Of The Glycine Transporter 1, Javier Vargas Medrano 2010 University of Texas at El Paso

Phosphorylation Of The Glycine Transporter 1, Javier Vargas Medrano

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The extracellular levels of the neurotransmitter glycine in the brain are tightly regulated by the high-affinity glycine transporter 1 (GlyT1) and the clearance of glycine depends on its rate of transport and the levels of cell surface GlyT1. Over the past years, it has been shown that PKC activation diminishes the activity and promoted phosphorylation of several neurotransmitter transporters including the dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine transporters however, its role is unknown for the glycine transporter. To get insights into the role of PKC activation on GlyT1 regulation, we used three N-terminus GlyT1 isoforms stably expressed in porcine aortic endothelial (PAE ...


Structural Investigation Of Atp-Utilizing Enzymes: Structures Involved In H+ Homeostasis And The Proliferation Of Hormone-Dependent Cancers, Zacariah Louis Hildenbrand 2010 University of Texas at El Paso

Structural Investigation Of Atp-Utilizing Enzymes: Structures Involved In H+ Homeostasis And The Proliferation Of Hormone-Dependent Cancers, Zacariah Louis Hildenbrand

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

ATP is a multifunctional nucleotide considered to be the "molecular unit of currency" of intracellular energy transfer. ATP is utilized ubiquitously for the transport of chemical energy within the cell in addition to acting as a substrate in the regulation of many metabolic and signaling transduction pathways such as kinase-mediated signaling cascades. Interestingly, the functional mechanisms of many enzymes require the binding of ATP to trigger key structural and conformational changes that ultimately result in enzyme-directed catalysis. Two of the most omnipresent ATPases within the cell include the V-ATPase rotary proton pump and the Hsp90 protein-folding chaperone. Structural and biochemical ...


Biochemical Characterization Of Human Mismatch Recognition Proteins Mutsα And Mutsβ, Lei Tian 2010 University of Kentucky

Biochemical Characterization Of Human Mismatch Recognition Proteins Mutsα And Mutsβ, Lei Tian

University of Kentucky Doctoral Dissertations

The integrity of an organism's genome depends on the fidelity of DNA replication and the efficiency of DNA repair. The DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system, which is highly conserved from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, plays an important role in maintaining genome stability by correcting base-base mismatches and insertion/deletion (ID) mispairs generated during DNA replication and other DNA transactions. Mismatch recognition is a critical step in MMR. Two mismatch recognition proteins, MutSα (MSH2-MSH6 heterodimer) and MutSβ (MSH2-MSH3 heterodimer), have been identified in eukaryotic cells. MutSα and MutSβ have partially overlapping functions, with MutSα recognizing primarily base-base mismatches and 1-2 nt ...


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