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7,167 full-text articles. Page 246 of 254.

Measurement Of Hono, Hnco, And Other Inorganic Acids By Negative-Ion Proton-Transfer Chemical-Ionization Mass Spectrometry (Ni-Pt-Cims): Application To Biomass Burning Emissions, J. M. Roberts, P. Veres, C. Warneke, J. A. Neuman, R. A. Washenfelder, S. S. Brown, M. Baasandorj, J. B. Burkholder, I. R. Burling, T. J. Johnson, Robert J. Yokelson, J. de Gouw 2010 University of Colorado at Boulder

Measurement Of Hono, Hnco, And Other Inorganic Acids By Negative-Ion Proton-Transfer Chemical-Ionization Mass Spectrometry (Ni-Pt-Cims): Application To Biomass Burning Emissions, J. M. Roberts, P. Veres, C. Warneke, J. A. Neuman, R. A. Washenfelder, S. S. Brown, M. Baasandorj, J. B. Burkholder, I. R. Burling, T. J. Johnson, Robert J. Yokelson, J. De Gouw

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

A negative-ion proton-transfer chemical ionization mass spectrometric technique (NI-PT-CIMS), using acetate as the reagent ion, was applied to the measurement of volatile inorganic acids of atmospheric interest: hydrochloric (HCl), nitrous (HONO), nitric (HNO(3)), and isocyanic (HNCO) acids. Gas phase calibrations through the sampling inlet showed the method to be intrinsically sensitive (6-16 cts/pptv), but prone to inlet effects for HNO(3) and HCl. The ion chemistry was found to be insensitive to water vapor concentrations, in agreement with previous studies of carboxylic acids. The inlet equilibration times for HNCO and HONO were 2 to 4s, allowing for measurement ...


Erythrocyte Aggregation And Neutrophil Function In An Aging Population, Rhys Christy, Oguz Baskurt, Gregory Gass, A. Gray, Sonya Marshall-Gradisnik 2010 Bond University

Erythrocyte Aggregation And Neutrophil Function In An Aging Population, Rhys Christy, Oguz Baskurt, Gregory Gass, A. Gray, Sonya Marshall-Gradisnik

Sonya Marshall-Gradisnik

There are limited investigations which have examined the relationship between neutrophil activation and erythrocyte aggregation in older persons. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between neutrophil activation and erythrocyte aggregation (EA) in an aging population. Twenty-eight male and female subjects were allocated into one of four groups with 7 participants in each group (group 1, 20–29 years; group 2, 30–39 years; group 3, 40–49 years; group 4, 50–59 years). EA was determined using the Myrenne aggregometer. Neutrophil function (respiratory burst and phagocytic activity) was assessed using flow cytometry. EA was found ...


2,4,6-Triphenyl­Aniline, Onome Ugono, Stephanie Cowin, Alicia Beatty 2010 University of Missouri–St. Louis

2,4,6-Triphenyl­Aniline, Onome Ugono, Stephanie Cowin, Alicia Beatty

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Works

Individual mol­ecules of the title compound, C24H19N, do not participate in hydrogen-bonding inter­actions due to the steric bulk of the phenyl rings ortho to the amine. The dihedral angles between the central ring and the pendant rings are 68.26 (10), 55.28 (10) and 30.61 (11)°.


2,4,6-Triphenyl­Aniline, Onome Ugono, Stephanie Cowin, Alicia M. Beatty 2010 University of Missouri–St. Louis

2,4,6-Triphenyl­Aniline, Onome Ugono, Stephanie Cowin, Alicia M. Beatty

Alicia Beatty

Individual mol­ecules of the title compound, C24H19N, do not participate in hydrogen-bonding inter­actions due to the steric bulk of the phenyl rings ortho to the amine. The dihedral angles between the central ring and the pendant rings are 68.26 (10), 55.28 (10) and 30.61 (11)°.


Synthesis Of Glycolipids And Evaluation Of Their Nkt Cell Stimulatory Properties, Yang Liu 2010 Brigham Young University - Provo

Synthesis Of Glycolipids And Evaluation Of Their Nkt Cell Stimulatory Properties, Yang Liu

Theses and Dissertations

Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a subset of T cells that modify a variety of immune responses. NKT cells recognize glycolipid antigen presented by a molecule called CD1d, a nonclassical antigen-presenting molecule. The best known subset of CD1d-dependent NKT cells expresses an invariant T cell receptor Vα (TCR-α) chain. These are referred to as type I or invariant NKT (iNKT) cells. When stimulated by a glycolipid, NKT cells rapidly release large amounts of cytokines. Cytokines released by NKT cells can induce either Th1 or Th2 responses. Th1 cytokines are effective in regulating bacterial, parasitic, and viral infections. But Th1 ...


Striatal Microrna Controls Cocaine Intake Through Creb Signalling, Jonathan A. Hollander, Heh-In Im, Antonio L. Amelio, Jannet Kocerha, Purva Bali, Qun Lu, David Willoughby, Claes Wahlestedt, Michael D. Conkright, Paul J. Kenny 2010 The Scripps Research Institute

Striatal Microrna Controls Cocaine Intake Through Creb Signalling, Jonathan A. Hollander, Heh-In Im, Antonio L. Amelio, Jannet Kocerha, Purva Bali, Qun Lu, David Willoughby, Claes Wahlestedt, Michael D. Conkright, Paul J. Kenny

Jannet Kocerha

Cocaine addiction is characterized by a gradual loss of control over drug use, but the molecular mechanisms regulating vulnerability to this process remain unclear. Here we report that microRNA-212 (miR-212) is upregulated in the dorsal striatum of rats with a history of extended access to cocaine. Striatal miR-212 decreases responsiveness to the motivational properties of cocaine by markedly amplifying the stimulatory effects of the drug on cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) signalling. This action occurs through miR-212-enhanced Raf1 activity, resulting in adenylyl cyclase sensitization and increased expression of the essential CREB co-activator TORC (transducer of regulated CREB; also known ...


A Single Residue Switch For Mg2+-Dependent Inhibition Characterizes Plant Class Ii Diterpene Cyclases From Primary And Secondary Metabolism, Francis M. Mann, Sladjana Prisic, Emily K. Davenport, Mara K. Determan, Robert M. Coates, Reuben J. Peters 2010 Iowa State University

A Single Residue Switch For Mg2+-Dependent Inhibition Characterizes Plant Class Ii Diterpene Cyclases From Primary And Secondary Metabolism, Francis M. Mann, Sladjana Prisic, Emily K. Davenport, Mara K. Determan, Robert M. Coates, Reuben J. Peters

Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Publications

Class II diterpene cyclases mediate the acid-initiated cycloisomerization reaction that serves as the committed step in biosynthesis of the large class of labdane-related diterpenoid natural products, which includes the important gibberellin plant hormones. Intriguingly, these enzymes are differentially susceptible to inhibition by their Mg2+ cofactor, with those involved in gibberellin biosynthesis being more sensitive to such inhibition than those devoted to secondary metabolism, which presumably limits flux toward the potent gibberellin phytohormones. Such inhibition has been suggested to arise from intrasteric Mg2+ binding to the DXDD motif that cooperatively acts as the catalytic acid, whose affinity ...


The P38 Mapk Pathway Is Essential For Skeletogenesis And Bone Homeostasis In Mice, Matthew B. Greenblatt, Jae-Hyuck Shim, Weiguo Zou, Despina Sitara, Michelle Schweitzer, Dorothy Hu, Sutada Lotinun, Yasuyo Sano, Roland Baron, Jin Mo Park, Simon Arthur, Min Xie, Michael D. Schneider, Bo Zhai, Steven Gygi, Roger J. Davis, Laurie H. Glimcher 2010 Harvard Medical School

The P38 Mapk Pathway Is Essential For Skeletogenesis And Bone Homeostasis In Mice, Matthew B. Greenblatt, Jae-Hyuck Shim, Weiguo Zou, Despina Sitara, Michelle Schweitzer, Dorothy Hu, Sutada Lotinun, Yasuyo Sano, Roland Baron, Jin Mo Park, Simon Arthur, Min Xie, Michael D. Schneider, Bo Zhai, Steven Gygi, Roger J. Davis, Laurie H. Glimcher

Davis Lab Publications

Nearly every extracellular ligand that has been found to play a role in regulating bone biology acts, at least in part, through MAPK pathways. Nevertheless, much remains to be learned about the contribution of MAPKs to osteoblast biology in vivo. Here we report that the p38 MAPK pathway is required for normal skeletogenesis in mice, as mice with deletion of any of the MAPK pathway member-encoding genes MAPK kinase 3 (Mkk3), Mkk6, p38a, or p38b displayed profoundly reduced bone mass secondary to defective osteoblast differentiation. Among the MAPK kinase kinase (MAP3K) family, we identified TGF-beta-activated kinase 1 (TAK1; also known ...


Short-Chain Carboxylic Acids From Gray Catbird (Dumetella Carolinensis) Uropygial Secretions Vary With Testosterone Levels And Photoperiod, Rebecca J. Whelan, Tera C. Levin, Mary C. Garvin 2010 Oberlin College

Short-Chain Carboxylic Acids From Gray Catbird (Dumetella Carolinensis) Uropygial Secretions Vary With Testosterone Levels And Photoperiod, Rebecca J. Whelan, Tera C. Levin, Mary C. Garvin

Faculty & Staff Scholarship

The uropygial gland of birds produces secretions that are important in maintaining the health and structural integrity of feathers. Non-volatile components of uropygial secretions are believed to serve a number of functions including waterproofing and conditioning the feathers. Volatile components have been characterized in fewer species, but are particularly interesting because of their potential importance in olfactory interactions within and across species. We used solid-phase microextraction headspace sampling with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to detect and identify volatiles in uropygial secretions of gray catbirds (Dumetella carolinensis), a North American migratory bird. We consistently detected the following carboxylic acids: acetic, propanoic, 2-methylpropanoic ...


Release Of Hmgb1 In Response To Pro-Apoptotic Glioma Killing Strategies: Efficacy And Neurotoxicity, Marianela Candolfi, Kader Yagiz, David Foulad, Gabrielle Alzadeh, Matthew Tesarfreund, AKM Ghulam Muhammad, Mariana Puntel, Kurt Kroeger, Chunyan Liu, Sharon Lee, James Curtin, Gwendalyn D. King, Jonathan Lerner, Katsuaki Sato, Yohei Mineharu, Weidong Xiong, Pedro R. Lowenstein, Maria Castro 2010 Cedars-Sinai Medical Center

Release Of Hmgb1 In Response To Pro-Apoptotic Glioma Killing Strategies: Efficacy And Neurotoxicity, Marianela Candolfi, Kader Yagiz, David Foulad, Gabrielle Alzadeh, Matthew Tesarfreund, Akm Ghulam Muhammad, Mariana Puntel, Kurt Kroeger, Chunyan Liu, Sharon Lee, James Curtin, Gwendalyn D. King, Jonathan Lerner, Katsuaki Sato, Yohei Mineharu, Weidong Xiong, Pedro R. Lowenstein, Maria Castro

Articles

Purpose In preparation for a Phase I clinical trial utilizing a combined cytotoxic/immunotherapeutic strategy using adenoviruses expressing Flt3L (Ad-Flt3L) and thymidine kinase (Ad-TK) to treat glioblastoma (GBM), we tested the hypothesis that Ad-TK+GCV would be the optimal tumor killing agent in relation to efficacy and safety when compared to other pro-apoptotic approaches. Experimental Design and Results The efficacy and neurotoxicity of Ad-TK+GCV was compared with Ads encoding the pro-apoptotic cytokines (TNF-α, TRAIL, FasL), alone or in combination with Ad-Flt3L. In rats bearing small GBMs (day 4), only Ad-TK+GCV or Ad-FasL improved survival. In rats bearing large ...


Thermodynamic And Structural Determinants Of Calcium-Independent Interactions Of Calmodulin, Michael Dennis Feldkamp 2010 University of Iowa

Thermodynamic And Structural Determinants Of Calcium-Independent Interactions Of Calmodulin, Michael Dennis Feldkamp

Theses and Dissertations

Calmodulin (CaM) is an essential protein found in all eukaryotes ranging from vertebrates to unicellular organisms such as Paramecia. CaM is a calcium sensor protein composed of two domains (N and C) responsible for the regulation of numerous calcium-mediated signaling pathways. Four calcium ions bind to CaM, changing its conformation and determining how it recognizes and regulates its cellular targets. Since the discovery of CaM, most studies have focused on the role of its calcium-saturated form.

However, an increasing number of target proteins have been discovered that preferentially bind apo (calcium-depleted) CaM. My study focused on understanding how apo CaM ...


Insights Into Interactions Between Poly(Ethylene Glycol) And Proteins From Molecular Dynamics Simulations, Eli Dylan Musselman 2010 University of Iowa

Insights Into Interactions Between Poly(Ethylene Glycol) And Proteins From Molecular Dynamics Simulations, Eli Dylan Musselman

Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Studies Of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen And Its Role In Translesion Synthesis, Bret D Freudenthal 2010 University of Iowa

Studies Of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen And Its Role In Translesion Synthesis, Bret D Freudenthal

Theses and Dissertations

One major pathway to overcome DNA damage induced replication blocks is translesion DNA synthesis, which is the replicative bypass of DNA damage by non-classical polymerases. For the cell to utilize translesion synthesis the non-classical DNA polymerase is recruited to sites of DNA damage, and a polymerase switch occurs between the stalled classical polymerase and the incoming non-classical polymerase. This process requires the replication accessory factor proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and its monoubiquitination at Lys-164.

To better understand the role of PCNA during translesion synthesis, I biochemically and structural characterized two PCNA mutant proteins, G178S and E113G PCNA, which are ...


Central Role For Liver X Receptor In Insulin-Mediated Activation Of Srebp-1c Transcription And Stimulation Of Fatty Acid Synthesis In Liver., Guoxun Chen 2010 University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas

Central Role For Liver X Receptor In Insulin-Mediated Activation Of Srebp-1c Transcription And Stimulation Of Fatty Acid Synthesis In Liver., Guoxun Chen

Guoxun Chen

Transcription of the gene encoding sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) is known to be activated by insulin in the liver. The resultant SREBP-1c protein activates transcription of the genes required for fatty acid synthesis. Here, we use SREBP-1c promoter reporter constructs to dissect the mechanism of insulin activation in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. The data show that a complete insulin response (increase of 6- to 11-fold) requires two binding sites for liver X receptors (LXRs), which are nuclear receptors that are activated by oxygenated sterols. Disruption of these binding sites did not lower basal transcription but severely reduced the ...


Enzymatic Reduction Of Oxysterols Impairs Lxr Signaling In Cultured Cells And The Livers Of Mice., Guoxun Chen 2010 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Enzymatic Reduction Of Oxysterols Impairs Lxr Signaling In Cultured Cells And The Livers Of Mice., Guoxun Chen

Guoxun Chen

Liver X receptors (LXRs) are nuclear receptors that play crucial roles in lipid metabolism in vivo and are activated by oxysterol ligands in vitro. The identity of the ligand that activates LXRs in vivo is uncertain. Here we provide two lines of evidence that oxysterols are LXR ligands in vitro and in vivo. First, overexpression of an oxysterol catabolic enzyme, cholesterol sulfotransferase, inactivates LXR signaling in several cultured mammalian cell lines but does not alter receptor response to the nonsterol agonist T0901317. Adenovirus-mediated expression of the enzyme in mice prevents dietary induction of hepatic LXR target genes by cholesterol but ...


Targeting Complex Cyclic Peptides For Synthesis: The Celogentin And Theonellamide Families, Joshua Wayne Robinson 2010 Brigham Young University - Provo

Targeting Complex Cyclic Peptides For Synthesis: The Celogentin And Theonellamide Families, Joshua Wayne Robinson

Theses and Dissertations

Celogentin C and theonellamide F are a class of natural products that have potential antimitotic behavior. They both contain interesting bicyclic structures with unusual linkages within a central moiety. Celogentin C's highly functionalized tryptophan moiety has two unusual linkages, a β-substituted Leu connection to the C6 of the indole structure that makes up the left-hand ring, and a τ-N connection of the imidazole to the C2 of the indole constructing the right-hand ring. This right-hand ring connection was solved via a novel oxidative coupling procedure developed in our group and the left-hand ring was initially constructed via a radical ...


Redox Status Affects The Catalytic Activity Of Glutamyl-Trna Synthetase, Assaf Katz, Ranat Banerjee, Merly de Armas, Michael Ibba, Omar Orellana 2010 Universidad de Chile

Redox Status Affects The Catalytic Activity Of Glutamyl-Trna Synthetase, Assaf Katz, Ranat Banerjee, Merly De Armas, Michael Ibba, Omar Orellana

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Glutamyl-tRNA synthetases (GluRS) provide Glu-tRNA for different processes including protein synthesis, glutamine transamidation and tetrapyrrole biosynthesis. Many organisms contain multiple GluRSs, but whether these duplications solely broaden tRNA specificity or also play additional roles in tetrapyrrole biosynthesis is not known. Previous studies have shown that GluRS1, one of two GluRSs from the extremophile Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, is inactivated when intracellular heme is elevated suggesting a specific role for GluRS1 in the regulation of tetrapyrrole biosynthesis. We now show that, in vitro, GluRS1 activity is reversibly inactivated upon oxidation by hemin and hydrogen peroxide. The targets for oxidation-based inhibition were found to ...


Distinct Roles Of C-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Isoforms In Neurite Initiation And Elongation During Axonal Regeneration, Monia Barnat, Herve Enslen, Friedrich Propst, Roger J. Davis, Sylvia Soares, Fatiha Nothias 2010 Université Pierre et Marie Curie

Distinct Roles Of C-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Isoforms In Neurite Initiation And Elongation During Axonal Regeneration, Monia Barnat, Herve Enslen, Friedrich Propst, Roger J. Davis, Sylvia Soares, Fatiha Nothias

Davis Lab Publications

c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) (comprising JNK1-3 isoforms) are members of the MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) family, activated in response to various stimuli including growth factors and inflammatory cytokines. Their activation is facilitated by scaffold proteins, notably JNK-interacting protein-1 (JIP1). Originally considered to be mediators of neuronal degeneration in response to stress and injury, recent studies support a role of JNKs in early stages of neurite outgrowth, including adult axonal regeneration. However, the function of individual JNK isoforms, and their potential effector molecules, remained unknown. Here, we analyzed the role of JNK signaling during axonal regeneration from adult mouse dorsal root ...


Celogentin C And Thioviridamide: Synthetic And Structural Studies, Dmitry Nikolayevich Litvinov 2010 Brigham Young University - Provo

Celogentin C And Thioviridamide: Synthetic And Structural Studies, Dmitry Nikolayevich Litvinov

Theses and Dissertations

Project I Celogentin C, isolated by Kobayashi from the seeds of Celosia argentea in 2001 exhibits strong inhibitory behavior towards polymerization of tubulin – globular protein, which plays crucial role during the cell division cycle. We have attempted synthesis of the left-hand ring of celogentin C via the intramolecular alkylation and the Knoevenagel condensation strategies. Utilizing synthetic methodologies in the field of nitroacetyl chemistry, developed by Kornblum and Rajappa we have successfully prepared the intermolecular Knoevenagel condensation product – the late-stage precursor to the left-hand ring of celogentin C. Synthesis of this key intermediate subsequently led to the preparation of the left-hand ...


Poisonous Rangeland Plants In San Luis Obispo County, Sara Litten, Amanda Ou 2010 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Poisonous Rangeland Plants In San Luis Obispo County, Sara Litten, Amanda Ou

Animal Science

Poisonous Rangeland Plants in San Luis Obispo County is a comprehensive educational guide to rangeland plants that are toxic to domestic livestock. This guide begins with an exploration of how the biological systems are affected by the poisonous plant toxins. The biochemistry behind these toxins is included in the discussion. Next, reference material for fourteen plants that inhabit San Luis Obispo County is provided. This information includes specific toxins found in poisonous plants, affected animals, symptoms of poisoning, stages of growth, lethal dose, and distribution of the plant in California. This section of the guide is filled with helpful photos ...


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