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Treatment With The Immunocontraceptive Vaccine, Gonacon, Induces Temporary Fertility Control In Free-Ranging Prairie Dog Populations In Colorado, Usa, Aaron B. Shiels, Jackson Runte, Emily W. Ruell, Douglas C. Eckery, Gary W. Witmer, Daniel J. Salkeld 2024 USDA APHIS WS NWRC Colorado

Treatment With The Immunocontraceptive Vaccine, Gonacon, Induces Temporary Fertility Control In Free-Ranging Prairie Dog Populations In Colorado, Usa, Aaron B. Shiels, Jackson Runte, Emily W. Ruell, Douglas C. Eckery, Gary W. Witmer, Daniel J. Salkeld

USDA Wildlife Services: Staff Publications

Context

Prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) are rodents enjoyed by some humans; yet, they cause crop and property damage, and carry zoonotic disease. Non-lethal control of prairie dogs is of interest in urban/suburban settings. The injectable immunocontraceptive vaccine GonaCon (active ingredient is gonadotropin-releasing hormone [GnRH]) has been shown to be effective at reducing fertility in equine and deer, and is a US EPA-registered vaccine for use in these ungulate species.

Aims

To conduct a replicated field study to test efficacy of GonaCon in black-tailed prairie dogs (C. ludovicianus), and if found to be efficacious, to help facilitate …


Comparison Of Ketamine-Xylazine, Butorphanol-Azaperone-Medetomidine, And Nalbuphine-Medetomidine-Azaperone For Raccoon (Procyon Lotor) Immobilization, Shylo R. Johnson, Christine K. Ellis, Chad Wickham, Molly R. Selleck, Amy T. Gilbert 2024 USDA APHIS WS NWRC Colorado

Comparison Of Ketamine-Xylazine, Butorphanol-Azaperone-Medetomidine, And Nalbuphine-Medetomidine-Azaperone For Raccoon (Procyon Lotor) Immobilization, Shylo R. Johnson, Christine K. Ellis, Chad Wickham, Molly R. Selleck, Amy T. Gilbert

USDA Wildlife Services: Staff Publications

Raccoons (Procyon lotor) are frequently handled using chemical immobilization in North America for management and research. In a controlled environment, we compared three drug combinations: ketamine-xylazine (KX), butorphanol-azaperone-medetomidine (BAM), and nalbuphinemedetomidine- azaperone (NalMed-A) for raccoon immobilization. In crossover comparisons, raccoons received a mean of the following: 8.66 mg/kg ketamine and 1.74 mg/kg xylazine (0.104 mL/kg KX); 0.464 mg/kg butorphanol, 0.155 mg/kg azaperone, and 0.185 mg/kg medetomidine (0.017 mL/kg BAM); and 0.800 mg/kg nalbuphine, 0.200 mg/kg azaperone, and 0.200 mg/kg medetomidine (0.020 mL/kg NalMed-A). Induction time was shortest with KX (mean6SE, 10.060.7 min) and longest with NalMed-A (13.061.3 min). …


Oral Rabies Vaccination Of Raccoons (Procyon Lotor) Across A Development Intensity Gradient In Burlington, Vermont, Usa, 2015–2017, Emily M. Beasley, Kathleen M. Nelson, Dennis Slate, Amy T. Gilbert, Frederick E. Pogmore, Richard B. Chipman, Amy J. Davis 2024 Université de Montréal

Oral Rabies Vaccination Of Raccoons (Procyon Lotor) Across A Development Intensity Gradient In Burlington, Vermont, Usa, 2015–2017, Emily M. Beasley, Kathleen M. Nelson, Dennis Slate, Amy T. Gilbert, Frederick E. Pogmore, Richard B. Chipman, Amy J. Davis

USDA Wildlife Services: Staff Publications

Management of the raccoon rabies virus variant in North America is conducted primarily using oral rabies vaccination (ORV). When a sufficient proportion of the population is vaccinated (60%), rabies transmission can be eliminated. To date, ORV programs have successfully controlled and eliminated raccoon rabies in rural areas, but there has been less success in urban areas. We studied the proportions of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (RVNA) in a raccoon (Procyon lotor) population during a 3-year ORV trial in developed areas of Burlington, Vermont, United States. We used a modified N-mixture model to estimate raccoon abundance, RVNA seroprevalence, and …


Recent Beak Evolution In North American Starlings After Invasion, Julia M. Zichello, Shelagh T. DeLiberto, Paul Shrewsbury, Agnieszka A. Pierwola, Scott J. Werner 2024 CUNY Hunter College

Recent Beak Evolution In North American Starlings After Invasion, Julia M. Zichello, Shelagh T. Deliberto, Paul Shrewsbury, Agnieszka A. Pierwola, Scott J. Werner

USDA Wildlife Services: Staff Publications

European starlings are one of the most abundant and problematic avian invaders in the world. From their native range across Eurasia and North Africa, they have been introduced to every continent except Antarctica. In 160 years, starlings have expanded into different environments throughout the world, making them a powerful model for understanding rapid evolutionary change and adaptive plasticity. Here, we investigate their spatiotemporal morphological variation in North America and the native range. Our dataset includes 1,217 specimens; a combination of historical museum skins and modern birds. Beak length in the native range has remained unchanged during the past 206 years, …


Characterization Of Recent Wild Pig‑Vehicle Collisions In Georgia, Usa, Jeremiah L. Psiropoulos, Emily Howe, John J. Mayer, Sophie C. McKee 2024 USDA FS Colorado

Characterization Of Recent Wild Pig‑Vehicle Collisions In Georgia, Usa, Jeremiah L. Psiropoulos, Emily Howe, John J. Mayer, Sophie C. Mckee

USDA Wildlife Services: Staff Publications

Vehicle collisions with wild pigs (Sus scrofa) are reported almost everywhere this species is found. However, this is one of the least studied and characterized forms of damage that these invasive animals cause in the United States (US). We analyzed 518 wild pig-vehicle collisions (WPVCs) that took place statewide in Georgia between 2015 and 2021. From that dataset, we analyzed several parameters in order to better understand and characterize these accidents on a scale that had previously not been done in the US. Wild pig-vehicle collisions were reported from 105 out of the 159 counties in Georgia, increasing …


Assessing The Efficiency Of Local Rabies Vaccination Strategies For Raccoons (Procyon Lotor) In An Urban Setting, Guillaume Bastille-Rousseau, Nicole T. Gorman, Katherine M. McClure, Larissa Nituch, Tore Buchanan, Richard B. Chipman, Amy T. Gilbert, Kim M. Pepin 2024 Southern Illinois University Carbondale

Assessing The Efficiency Of Local Rabies Vaccination Strategies For Raccoons (Procyon Lotor) In An Urban Setting, Guillaume Bastille-Rousseau, Nicole T. Gorman, Katherine M. Mcclure, Larissa Nituch, Tore Buchanan, Richard B. Chipman, Amy T. Gilbert, Kim M. Pepin

USDA Wildlife Services: Staff Publications

Raccoon rabies virus (RRV) has been managed using multiple vaccination strategies, including oral rabies vaccination and trap-vaccinate-release (TVR). Identifying a rabies vaccination strategy for an area is a nontrivial task. Vaccination strategies differ in the amount of effort and monetary costs required to achieve a particular level of vaccine seroprevalence (efficiency). Simulating host movement relative to different vaccination strategies in silico can provide a useful tool for exploring the efficiency of different vaccination strategies. We refined a previously developed individual-based model of raccoon movement to evaluate vaccination strategies for urban Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. We combined different oral rabies vaccination baiting …


Distribution And Prevalence Of Antibodies To Trichinella Spp. And Toxoplasma Gondii In Wild Pigs (Sus Scrofa) In The United States, Christopher A. Cleveland, Ellen Haynes, Katherine C. Callaghan, Alinde Fojtik, Sarah Coker, Emily Doub, Vienna R. Brown, Ania A. Majewska, Michael J. Yabsley 2024 University of Georgia

Distribution And Prevalence Of Antibodies To Trichinella Spp. And Toxoplasma Gondii In Wild Pigs (Sus Scrofa) In The United States, Christopher A. Cleveland, Ellen Haynes, Katherine C. Callaghan, Alinde Fojtik, Sarah Coker, Emily Doub, Vienna R. Brown, Ania A. Majewska, Michael J. Yabsley

USDA Wildlife Services: Staff Publications

Invasive wild pigs (Sus scrofa) are a reservoir for over 100 viral, bacterial, and parasitic pathogens that are transmissible to humans, livestock, domestic animals, and wildlife in North America. Numerous historical local surveys and results from a nation-wide survey (2006–2010) indicated that wild pigs in the United States act as reservoirs for Trichinella spp. and Toxoplasma gondii, two zoonotic pathogens of importance for human and animal health. Since that time, wild pig populations have expanded and increased in density in many areas. Population expansion of wild pigs creates opportunities for the introduction of pathogens to new areas …


Description Of Neoperla Philippinensis Sp. Nov. Confirmed Using Integrative Taxonomy And Some Notes On Neoperla Oculata Banks, 1924 (Plecoptera: Perlidae), Arthien Lovell P. Pelingen 2024 Ateneo de Manila University

Description Of Neoperla Philippinensis Sp. Nov. Confirmed Using Integrative Taxonomy And Some Notes On Neoperla Oculata Banks, 1924 (Plecoptera: Perlidae), Arthien Lovell P. Pelingen

Biology Faculty Publications

I re-examine the assumed phenotypic variable Neoperla oculata Banks, 1924 (Plecoptera, Perlidae) and describe Neoperla philippinensis sp. nov. All material examined herein are collections from the Mindanao region, of which supplementary information were provided including COI mtDNA accessions, female adult associations, and egg morphology characterization.


Capfish Project Report : Phase 1 Outcomes And Summer Academy For The Mediterranean, World Maritime University 2024 World Maritime University

Capfish Project Report : Phase 1 Outcomes And Summer Academy For The Mediterranean, World Maritime University

Reports

Illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing is a complex and multifaceted problem, with disastrous consequences for aquatic ecosystems, coastal communities, fishers and fish workers, and economic and national security. Over the past three years, the CAPFISH Project has strengthened capacity to fight IUU fishing by providing training and educational materials to developing country administrations around the world, most recently with a two-week regional Summer Academy for the Mediterranean. The Academy ran for two weeks and targeted delegates from fisheries administrations in developing countries in North Africa, the Middle East, and Southeast Europe, as a way to promote inter-regional learning and …


Changes In Milk Protein Functionality At Low Temperatures And Rennet Concentrations, Mahmoud E. A. Hamouda, Prafulla Salunke 2024 South Dakota State University

Changes In Milk Protein Functionality At Low Temperatures And Rennet Concentrations, Mahmoud E. A. Hamouda, Prafulla Salunke

Dairy Science and Food Science Faculty Publications: 2022 to Present

This study aimed to evaluate the influence of low-concentration rennet on the chemical, rheological characteristics, and protein fractions of skim milk (SM) at 4 ± 1 °C. Skimmed milk (SM) was divided into four lots of 500 mL, and diluted rennet (1:10,000) was added at different levels at 4 ± 1 °C. The treatments included control (no rennet), T1 (0.001 mL/rennet), T2 (0.01 mL rennet), and T3 (0.1 mL rennet) treatments, which were incubated for 24 h. The sampling was performed at 0, 1, 2, 6, 12, and 24 h, and the SM after incubation time was heated to 73 …


Do Nest Box Temperatures Affect Nest Success And Nestlings Growth For Eastern Bluebirds?, Mathew Gordon, Katie Stumpf 2024 Georgia College & State University

Do Nest Box Temperatures Affect Nest Success And Nestlings Growth For Eastern Bluebirds?, Mathew Gordon, Katie Stumpf

Graduate Research Showcase

Rising global temperatures due to climate change have caused declines in many species. For birds, temperature is a primary factor in nest site selection and nest success, so successful management will require temperature mitigation techniques. Secondary cavity nesting birds such as the Eastern Bluebird are particularly vulnerable as common occupants of nest boxes, which are often warmer inside than the outside ambient temperature. Temperatures exceeding 42°C can have numerous negative consequences for Bluebirds, including reducing hatching success and nestling growth. We monitored 50 Eastern Bluebird nest boxes (25 are painted white and 25 are unpainted) at Panola Mountain State Park …


How Does A Global Climate Cycle Affect The Reproductive Output Of A Neotropical Migratory Bird?, Abby K. Bressette, Emma Cummings, Daniel Albrecht-Mallinger, Lesley Bulluck 2024 Virginia Commonwealth University

How Does A Global Climate Cycle Affect The Reproductive Output Of A Neotropical Migratory Bird?, Abby K. Bressette, Emma Cummings, Daniel Albrecht-Mallinger, Lesley Bulluck

Undergraduate Research Posters

El-Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) causes regional changes in climate and has been found to have varying effects on the survival, fecundity, and recruitment of migratory songbirds. This study seeks to better understand the effect of ENSO on the fecundity of Virginia-breeding Prothonotary warbler (Protonotaria citrea; PROW), a neotropical migratory songbird. PROW breed in the Eastern United States and spend the non-breeding season primarily in Panama and Colombia. Ongoing research in Virginia has found a positive relationship between spring precipitation and predicted number of PROW fledgelings during La Niña, but the opposite during El Niño. To better understand this relationship, we …


Strategic Nutritional Interventions With Probiotics And Their Relationship To Performance, Feeding Behavior, And Reticulorumen Environment In Cows And Calves Under Subacute Ruminal Acidosis Risk, Gustavo Mazon Correa Alves 2024 University of Kentucky

Strategic Nutritional Interventions With Probiotics And Their Relationship To Performance, Feeding Behavior, And Reticulorumen Environment In Cows And Calves Under Subacute Ruminal Acidosis Risk, Gustavo Mazon Correa Alves

Theses and Dissertations--Animal and Food Sciences

Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is a digestive disorder in ruminants characterized by extended periods of low reticulorumen pH. This digestive disorder is commonly observed in ruminants fed diets with elevated proportions of non-fibrous carbohydrates. This disorder has been vastly studied in adult dairy cattle and has been associated with losses in milk production, changes in feeding behavior, damage to the gastrointestinal tract, and premature culling. Although vastly studied in adult cattle, there is limited research on the effects of SARA in calves. SARA might be prevented by modifying the reticulorumen environment with probiotic supplements containing lactateutilizing bacteria such as Megasphaera …


Evaluation Of Striped Bass Stocks In Virginia: Monitoring And Tagging Studies, 2023 Progress Report, Robert J. Latour, Christopher F. Bonzek, Gina M. Ralph, James Gartland 2024 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Evaluation Of Striped Bass Stocks In Virginia: Monitoring And Tagging Studies, 2023 Progress Report, Robert J. Latour, Christopher F. Bonzek, Gina M. Ralph, James Gartland

Reports

This report presents the results of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) tagging and monitoring activities in Virginia during the period 1 December 2022 through 30 November 2023. It includes an assessment of the biological characteristics of striped bass taken from the 2023 spring spawning run and estimates of annual survival and fishing mortality based on annual spring tagging. The information contained in this report is required by the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission and is used to implement a coordinated management plan for striped bass in Virginia, and along the eastern seaboard.


Seasonal Abundance Of The Nudibranch Dondice Jupiteriensis On The Colonial Hydroid Eudendrium Carneum, Erika Molina, Daniela Gutierrez-Andrade, Samantha Schlegel, Julia Piper, Louis J. Ambrosio, Michael L. Middlebrooks 2024 University of Tampa

Seasonal Abundance Of The Nudibranch Dondice Jupiteriensis On The Colonial Hydroid Eudendrium Carneum, Erika Molina, Daniela Gutierrez-Andrade, Samantha Schlegel, Julia Piper, Louis J. Ambrosio, Michael L. Middlebrooks

Gulf and Caribbean Research

Benthic colonial hydroids often serve as a host to a large variety of invertebrate taxa. The colonial hydroid Eudendrium carneum Clarke, 1882 is host to a variety of epifauna, including the recently described nudibranch Dondice jupiteriensis García—Méndez & Valdés, 2022. Like many species of heterobranch sea slugs, little is known about the natural history and population biology of D. jupiteriensis. Here we describe a year—long study recording the population density and size structure of D. jupiteriensis on E. carneum colonies in Tampa Bay, FL USA. We found that the D. jupiteriensis population persists year—round but is the densest during …


Descriptive Study Of Adult Male Acheta Domesticus Phonotaxis, Dana Husana 2024 Andrews University

Descriptive Study Of Adult Male Acheta Domesticus Phonotaxis, Dana Husana

Master's Theses

The phonotactic behavior of male Acheta domesticus has not been described at length. The present study evaluates the phonotactic responses of male A. domesticus in relation to age. Male crickets of different ages (young and old) were exposed to calls with attractive and non-attractive syllable periods for this species. Both age groups exhibited phonotaxis but did not show a preference towards the attractive call over the non-attractive ones. No significant relationship was found between age and phonotactic response. Additionally, no significant differences were observed between age and preferred syllable period. Acoustic responses were also observed in some of the older …


Limitations Of Invasive Snake Control Tools In The Context Of A New Invasion On An Island With Abundant Prey, Shane R. Siers, Melia G. Nafus, Jereid E. Calaor, Rachel M. Volsteadt, Matthew S. Grassi, Megan Volsteadt, Aaron F. Collins, Patrick D. Barnhart, Logan T. Huse, Amy A. Yackel Adams, Diane L. Vice 2024 USDA APHIS WS NWRC Guam

Limitations Of Invasive Snake Control Tools In The Context Of A New Invasion On An Island With Abundant Prey, Shane R. Siers, Melia G. Nafus, Jereid E. Calaor, Rachel M. Volsteadt, Matthew S. Grassi, Megan Volsteadt, Aaron F. Collins, Patrick D. Barnhart, Logan T. Huse, Amy A. Yackel Adams, Diane L. Vice

USDA Wildlife Services: Staff Publications

In October 2020, a new population of invasive brown treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) was discovered on the 33-ha Cocos Island, 2.5 km off the south coast of Guam, United States. Cocos Island is a unique conservation resource, providing refuge for many lizards and birds, including endangered species, which were extirpated from mainland Guam by invasive predators including brown treesnakes. We sought to evaluate the usefulness of toxic baiting with acetaminophen-treated carrion baits and cage trapping, common tools for the control of brown treesnakes on mainland Guam, as potential eradication tools on Cocos Island. We evaluated multiple bait types and …


Comparing Ionoregulation And Modes Of Nitrogen Excretion Across The Life Cycle Of Parasitic And Non-Parasitic Lamprey Species, Shannon Davidson 2024 Wilfrid Laurier University

Comparing Ionoregulation And Modes Of Nitrogen Excretion Across The Life Cycle Of Parasitic And Non-Parasitic Lamprey Species, Shannon Davidson

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Abstract

Ionoregulation and nitrogenous waste (N-waste) metabolism in fishes has been extensively documented in teleosts and elasmobranchs, but less so in lampreys (Petromizontiformes). All lamprey species undergo metamorphosis which drastically changes their physiology and modes of feeding. However, differences in ionoregulatory mechanisms due to anadromous versus non anadromous life history strategies emerge following metamorphosis in different lamprey species. Furthermore, some species, such as anadromous juvenile sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), are parasitic and migrate to seawater (SW) to ingest blood protein from host fishes, while juveniles of freshwater (FW), non-parasitic species, such as the American brook lamprey …


The Effect Of Soluble Soybean Polysaccharide Addition To Permeate Concentrate On Lactose Crystallisation, Growth And Recovery During Lactose Manufacturing, Venkateswarlu Sunkesula, Prafulla Salunke, Lloyd E. Metzger 2024 South Dakota State University

The Effect Of Soluble Soybean Polysaccharide Addition To Permeate Concentrate On Lactose Crystallisation, Growth And Recovery During Lactose Manufacturing, Venkateswarlu Sunkesula, Prafulla Salunke, Lloyd E. Metzger

Dairy Science and Food Science Faculty Publications: 2022 to Present

Lactose is manufactured from permeates of cheese whey, milk protein concentrate and a mix of both using a crystallisation process. Several factors, such as solute supersaturation, cooling rate and impurities, influence lactose crystallisation. This study focussed on the effect of soluble soybean polysaccharides (SSPS) on crystallisation during lactose manufacture from concentrated permeate solutions by evaluating lactose crystal growth and recovery with and without SSPS addition. Adding 0.1% (w/w) SSPS resulted in a significant difference (P > 0.05) in lactose crystal size and yield. The results suggest that using SSPS during lactose manufacturing from permeate concentrates could influence lactose crystallisation and recovery


Effects Of Dietary Rumen-Protected Choline Supplementation To Periparturient Dairy Cattle On Inflammation And Metabolism In Mammary And Liver Tissue During An Intramammary Lipopolysaccharide Challenge, Turner H. Swartz, Barry Bradford, Laman Mamedova, Kari Estes 2024 South Dakota State University

Effects Of Dietary Rumen-Protected Choline Supplementation To Periparturient Dairy Cattle On Inflammation And Metabolism In Mammary And Liver Tissue During An Intramammary Lipopolysaccharide Challenge, Turner H. Swartz, Barry Bradford, Laman Mamedova, Kari Estes

Dairy Science and Food Science Faculty Publications: 2022 to Present

The objective of this experiment was to examine the effects of supplementation and dose of rumenprotected choline (RPC) on markers of inflammation and metabolism in liver and mammary tissue during an intramammary lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Parous Holstein cows were blocked by calving month and randomly assigned within block to receive 45 g/d of RPC (20.4 g/d of choline ions; CHOL45), 30 g/d of RPC (13.6 g/d of choline ions; CHOL30), or no RPC (CON) as a top-dress starting 24 d before expected calving until 21 d postpartum. Cows were alternately assigned within treatment group to either receive an intramammary LPS …


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