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Articles 1 - 30 of 40123

Full-Text Articles in Animal Sciences

Forages And Technology Management In Growing And Finishing Beef Cattle Systems, Kelton Adair Dec 2023

Forages And Technology Management In Growing And Finishing Beef Cattle Systems, Kelton Adair

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

A systems study evaluated the effects of an implant [25.7 mg estradiol (Compudose; Elanco Animal Health)] at two rates of gain (LOW: 0.45 kg/d and HIGH: 0.9 kg/d) applied during the winter backgrounding phase in drylot and winter grazing systems and its effects on subsequent phases of production. HIGH supplementation with an implant during the winter backgrounding phase in the drylot system yielded the greatest ending body weight (EBW) during the summer backgrounding phase (P = 0.04). LOW supplementation, without an implant, improved summer backgrounding average daily gain (ADG; P = 0.05) while achieving similar carcass adjusted final body …


Pharmacokinetics Of Cbd Supplementation In Horses: Single Dose Vs. Long-Term Feeding, Madilyn Adamchik May 2023

Pharmacokinetics Of Cbd Supplementation In Horses: Single Dose Vs. Long-Term Feeding, Madilyn Adamchik

Honors College Theses

Research about supplemental feeding of cannabidiol (CBD) to horses is still in its early stages, but many horse owners are feeding CBD supplements for supposed benefits, including behavior and pain management. Cannabinoids work through the endocannabinoid system to modulate nervous and hormonal actions in the body, working to maintain a healthy homeostatic balance. Safety and efficacy have been tested for dosages of up to 500 mg of CBD per day for horses, but further research about the pharmacokinetics based on dosage amount and form of CBD are still needed. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of …


Establishment Of A Transgenic Human Angiotensin Converting Enzyme-2 Hamster Infection Model For The Evaluation Of Therapeutics Against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2, Scott A. Gibson May 2023

Establishment Of A Transgenic Human Angiotensin Converting Enzyme-2 Hamster Infection Model For The Evaluation Of Therapeutics Against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2, Scott A. Gibson

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The virus SARS-CoV-2 emerged in late 2019 and has gone on to spread throughout the global population. The virus is still the cause of a healthcare crisis two years after being identified. Viral infection in humans leads to the development of the disease COVID-19. A complex disease that can result in a wide variety of outcomes for infected individuals. In the majority of individuals, COVID-19 will manifest as either an asymptomatic disease state or a mild to moderate disease state that is resolved in approximately one week. In some infected patients COVID-19 will manifest with the rapid onset of severe …


Pharmacokinetics Of Single Feeding Of Cannabidiol In Cattle: A Pilot Study, Haley Cornette Apr 2023

Pharmacokinetics Of Single Feeding Of Cannabidiol In Cattle: A Pilot Study, Haley Cornette

Honors College Theses

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a substance that has been used in complementary medicine for many years. However, modern medicine has little knowledge of how this substance is utilized and metabolized in ruminant animals. Regulations on quality assurance and use in animals are lacking, and CBD supplementation in livestock is not approved. If CBD supplements can be shown to be safe and effective, detection in the animal will be important for determining regulation of use. A withdrawal period can then be established to allow time for deterioration of product to safe levels before livestock products enter human markets. This study sought to …


Dynamic Fecal Microbiota Transfer From Mice With Western Diet-Induced Severe Colitis And Colon Tumorigenesis Did Not Exacerbate Colitis Symptoms Or Colon Tumorigenesis In Recipient Mice Fed Either The Ain93g Diet Or The Total Western Diet, Abby D. Benninghoff Jan 2023

Dynamic Fecal Microbiota Transfer From Mice With Western Diet-Induced Severe Colitis And Colon Tumorigenesis Did Not Exacerbate Colitis Symptoms Or Colon Tumorigenesis In Recipient Mice Fed Either The Ain93g Diet Or The Total Western Diet, Abby D. Benninghoff

Browse all Datasets

Consumption of the total Western diet (TWD) in mice has been shown to increase gut inflammation, promote colon tumorigenesis, and alter the fecal microbiome composition in mice as com-pared to mice fed a healthy diet, AIN93G (AIN). However, it is unclear whether the gut micro-biome contributes directly to colitis-associated CRC in this model. The objective of this study was to determine whether dynamic fecal microbiota transfer (FMT) from host mice fed either AIN or TWD basal diets would alter colitis symptoms or colitis-associated CRC in recipient mice, which were fed either AIN or TWD directly using a 2x2 factorial experiment …


Non-Aggressive Competition Between Males Of Srilankametrus Yaleensis (Kovařík Et Al., 2019) (Scorpionidae), And Other Types Of Agonistic Behavior Observed In Scorpions, Victoria Tang Jan 2023

Non-Aggressive Competition Between Males Of Srilankametrus Yaleensis (Kovařík Et Al., 2019) (Scorpionidae), And Other Types Of Agonistic Behavior Observed In Scorpions, Victoria Tang

Euscorpius

A peculiar intraspecific agonistic behavior involving a non-aggressive physical combat is reported between the adult males of Srilankametrus yaleensis (Kovařík et al., 2019) (Scorpionidae: Heterometrinae). The adult males were observed to resort to a ritualized and relatively gentle way for strength demonstration. The combat is characterized by lateral spreading of pedipalps, chelicerae-to-chelicerae collision, and entanglement of metasomal segments. This behavior is hereby considered a form of an intrasexual combat defined as the “arm-span competition”. It is hypothesized to be beneficial for solving territorial and/ or sexual competitions while avoiding unnecessary mortality which could pose adverse impact to the natural populations. …


Burmese Pythons In Florida: A Synthesis Of Biology, Impacts, And Management Tools, Jacquelyn C. Guzy, Bryan G. Falk, Brian J. Smith, Johnd David Willson, Robert N. Reed, Nicholas G. Aumen, Michael L. Avery, Ian A. Bartoszek, Earl Campbell, Michael S. Cherkiss, Natalie M. Claunch, Andrea F. Currylow, Tylan Dean, Jeremy Dixon, Richard Engeman, Sarah Funck, Rebekah Gibble, Kodiak C. Hengstebeck, John S. Humphrey, Margaret E. Hunter, Jillian M. Josimovich, Jennifer Ketterlin, Michael Kirkland, Frank J. Mazzotti, Robert Mccleery, Melissa A. Miller, Matthew Mccollister, M. Rockwell Parker, Shannon E. Pittman, Michael Rochford, Christina Romagosa, Art Roybal, Ray W. Snow, Mckayla M. Spencer, J. Hardin Waddle, Any A. Yackel Adams, Kristen M. Hart Jan 2023

Burmese Pythons In Florida: A Synthesis Of Biology, Impacts, And Management Tools, Jacquelyn C. Guzy, Bryan G. Falk, Brian J. Smith, Johnd David Willson, Robert N. Reed, Nicholas G. Aumen, Michael L. Avery, Ian A. Bartoszek, Earl Campbell, Michael S. Cherkiss, Natalie M. Claunch, Andrea F. Currylow, Tylan Dean, Jeremy Dixon, Richard Engeman, Sarah Funck, Rebekah Gibble, Kodiak C. Hengstebeck, John S. Humphrey, Margaret E. Hunter, Jillian M. Josimovich, Jennifer Ketterlin, Michael Kirkland, Frank J. Mazzotti, Robert Mccleery, Melissa A. Miller, Matthew Mccollister, M. Rockwell Parker, Shannon E. Pittman, Michael Rochford, Christina Romagosa, Art Roybal, Ray W. Snow, Mckayla M. Spencer, J. Hardin Waddle, Any A. Yackel Adams, Kristen M. Hart

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

Burmese pythons (Python molurus bivittatus) are native to southeastern Asia, however, there is an established invasive population inhabiting much of southern Florida throughout the Greater Everglades Ecosystem. Pythons have severely impacted native species and ecosystems in Florida and represent one of the most intractable invasive-species management issues across the globe. The difficulty stems from a unique combination of inaccessible habitat and the cryptic and resilient nature of pythons that thrive in the subtropical environment of southern Florida, rendering them extremely challenging to detect. Here we provide a comprehensive review and synthesis of the science relevant to managing invasive …


Methylene Blue Inhibits Cromakalim-Activated K+ Currents In Follicle-Enclosed Oocytes, Dmytro Isaev, Keun-Hang Susan Yang, Georg Petroianu, Dietrich Ernst Lorke, Murat Oz Jan 2023

Methylene Blue Inhibits Cromakalim-Activated K+ Currents In Follicle-Enclosed Oocytes, Dmytro Isaev, Keun-Hang Susan Yang, Georg Petroianu, Dietrich Ernst Lorke, Murat Oz

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

The effects of methylene blue (MB) on cromakalim-induced K+ currents were investigated in follicle-enclosed Xenopus oocytes. In concentrations ranging from 3–300 μM, MB inhibited K+ currents (IC50: 22.4 μM) activated by cromakalim, which activates KATP channels. MB inhibited cromakalim-activated K+ currents in a noncompetitive and voltage-independent manner. The respective EC50 and slope values for cromakalim-activation of K+ currents were 194 ± 21 µM and 0.91 for controls, and 206 ± 24 µM and 0.87 in the presence of 30 μM MB. The inhibition of cromakalim-induced K+ currents by MB was not …


Detection Of Toxins And Harmful Algal Bloom Cells In Shellfish Hatcheries And Efforts Toward Removal, Marta P. Sanderson, Karen Hudson, Lauren Gregg, Amanda Chesler-Poole, Ja M. Small, Kimberly S. Reece, Ryan Carnegie, Juliette L. Smith Jan 2023

Detection Of Toxins And Harmful Algal Bloom Cells In Shellfish Hatcheries And Efforts Toward Removal, Marta P. Sanderson, Karen Hudson, Lauren Gregg, Amanda Chesler-Poole, Ja M. Small, Kimberly S. Reece, Ryan Carnegie, Juliette L. Smith

VIMS Articles

As the start of the supply chain for the aquaculture industry, hatcheries are a crucial component in the success of oyster and northern quahog (hard clam) aquaculture on the East Coast of the US. Intermittent failures in hatchery production slow industry growth and reduce profits. To begin investigations into the possible role of algal toxins in hatchery production failure, post-treatment hatchery water from one research and four commercial hatcheries in lower Chesapeake Bay, USA, was sampled for (1) toxin presence and (2) harmful algal bloom (HAB) cell enumeration. Overall, seven toxin classes, likely produced by six different HAB species, were …


Oregon State Rank Assessment For Pacific Brook Lamprey (Lampetra Pacifica), Eleanor P. Gaines Jan 2023

Oregon State Rank Assessment For Pacific Brook Lamprey (Lampetra Pacifica), Eleanor P. Gaines

Institute for Natural Resources Publications

Oregon state conservation status assessment for Pacific Brook Lamprey (Lampetra pacifica) using NatureServe methodology, 2023.


Lychas Jakli Sp. N. (Scorpiones: Buthidae) From Indonesia, František Kovařík Jan 2023

Lychas Jakli Sp. N. (Scorpiones: Buthidae) From Indonesia, František Kovařík

Euscorpius

A new species Lychas jakli sp. n. (Scorpiones: Buthidae) is described from Indonesia, fully illustrated with color photos showing its morphology and habitus. A new synonymy is proposed: Lychas kotao Lourenço, 2020 = Lychas mucronatus (Fabricius, 1798), syn. n.


Effects Of Late Gestation Episodic Heat Stress In The Northeastern United States On Holstein Dams And Their Calves, Emily Fread Jan 2023

Effects Of Late Gestation Episodic Heat Stress In The Northeastern United States On Holstein Dams And Their Calves, Emily Fread

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

Heat stress negatively impacts dry dairy cows in subtropical climates, but impacts in moderate climates are unknown. The objective of this thesis was to determine if dry cows and their calves in Northern NY and VT are impacted by episodic heat stress and varying levels of heat exposure. Another aim of this study was to determine farmers' knowledge of heat stress, heat abatement use, and the need for future research.Chapter 2 describes a study conducted on a Northern NY farm, where dry cows were housed in moderate heat abatement, meaning fans over a bedded pack or free stalls. Surprisingly, cows …


Ecological Risk Assessment For The Western Australian Silverlip Pearl Oyster (Pinctada Maxima) Resource, K. A. Smith, S. Brown, A. M. Hart, A. Bissell Jan 2023

Ecological Risk Assessment For The Western Australian Silverlip Pearl Oyster (Pinctada Maxima) Resource, K. A. Smith, S. Brown, A. M. Hart, A. Bissell

Fisheries research reports

In August 2022, the Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development (DPIRD) convened an ecological risk assessment (ERA) of the fishery and aquaculture operations that access the Western Australian (WA) Silverlip Pearl Oyster (Pinctada maxima) resource (Resource).

The ERA considered the potential ecological impacts of the WA commercial Silverlip Pearl Oyster Fishery and related aquaculture activities including hatchery and seeding operations. The assessment evaluated the impact of each activity on all relevant retained and discarded species; threatened, endangered and protected species; habitats and the broader environment. Risks associated with aquaculture activities were also considered, including genetic impacts on …


Range-Wide Sources Of Variation In Reproductive Rates Of Northern Spotted Owls, Jeremy T. Rockweit, Julianna M. Jenkins, James E. Hines, James D. Nichols, Katie M. Dugger, Alan B. Franklin, Peter C. Carlson, William L. Kendall, Damon B. Lesmeister, Christopher Mccafferty, Steven H. Ackers, L. Steven Andrews, Larissa L. Bailey, Jesse Burgher, Kenneth P. Burnham, Tara Chestnut, Mary M. Conner, Raymond J. Davis, Krista E. Dilione, Eric D. Forsman, Elizabeth M. Glenn, Scott A. Gremel, Keith A. Hamm, Dale R. Herter, J. Mark Higley, Rob B. Horn, David W. Lamphear, Trent L. Mcdonald, Janice A. Reid, Carl J. Schwarz, David C. Simon, Stan G. Sovern, James K. Swingle, J. David Wiens, Heather Wise, Charles B. Yackulic Jan 2023

Range-Wide Sources Of Variation In Reproductive Rates Of Northern Spotted Owls, Jeremy T. Rockweit, Julianna M. Jenkins, James E. Hines, James D. Nichols, Katie M. Dugger, Alan B. Franklin, Peter C. Carlson, William L. Kendall, Damon B. Lesmeister, Christopher Mccafferty, Steven H. Ackers, L. Steven Andrews, Larissa L. Bailey, Jesse Burgher, Kenneth P. Burnham, Tara Chestnut, Mary M. Conner, Raymond J. Davis, Krista E. Dilione, Eric D. Forsman, Elizabeth M. Glenn, Scott A. Gremel, Keith A. Hamm, Dale R. Herter, J. Mark Higley, Rob B. Horn, David W. Lamphear, Trent L. Mcdonald, Janice A. Reid, Carl J. Schwarz, David C. Simon, Stan G. Sovern, James K. Swingle, J. David Wiens, Heather Wise, Charles B. Yackulic

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

We conducted a range-wide investigation of the dynamics of site-level reproductive rate of northern spotted owls using survey data from 11 study areas across the subspecies geographic range collected during 1993–2018. Our analytical approach accounted for imperfect detection of owl pairs and misclassification of successful reproduction (i.e., at least one young fledged) and contributed further insights into northern spotted owl population ecology and dynamics. Both nondetection and state misclassification were important, especially because factors affecting these sources of error also affected focal ecological parameters. Annual probabilities of site occupancy were greatest at sites with successful reproduction in the previous year …


Movements And Resource Selection Of Wild Pigs Associated With Growth Stages Of Corn, Bethany A. Friesenhahn, Randall W. Deyoung, Michael J. Cherry, Humberto L. Perotto-Baldivieso, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Nathan P. Snow Jan 2023

Movements And Resource Selection Of Wild Pigs Associated With Growth Stages Of Corn, Bethany A. Friesenhahn, Randall W. Deyoung, Michael J. Cherry, Humberto L. Perotto-Baldivieso, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Nathan P. Snow

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

Wild pigs (Sus scrofa) are one of the most successful invasive species globally and are often implicated in agricultural damage. This damage is expected to increase as ranges of wild pigs expand, impacting the human food supply and increasing costs of food production. Our objective was to evaluate movement behaviors of wild pigs relative to resource availability and landscape features in an agriculture-dominated landscape, with a goal of informing management practices for reducing damage to corn. We monitored hourly movements of adult wild pigs relative to corn crops using GPS collars during the 2019 and 2020 growing seasons (Feb–Sept) in …


Ecological Factors Influencing The Breeding Performance Of Great Tits (Parus Major) In Artificial Nest Boxes, Dong-Ho Lee, Jae-Kang Lee, Tae-Kyung Eom, Ho-Kyoung Bae, Hyeongyu Ko, Shin-Jae Rhim Jan 2023

Ecological Factors Influencing The Breeding Performance Of Great Tits (Parus Major) In Artificial Nest Boxes, Dong-Ho Lee, Jae-Kang Lee, Tae-Kyung Eom, Ho-Kyoung Bae, Hyeongyu Ko, Shin-Jae Rhim

Turkish Journal of Zoology

Installing an artificial nest box has a positive effect on the cavity nesters such as great tit (Parus major). Beyond the process of installing an artificial nest box, a study on the effect of ecological factors on breeding performance is necessary. This study was conducted to evaluate the ecological factors influencing breeding performance of great tits (Parus major) in artificial nest boxes in temperate mixed forests. In this study, the first egg-laying date and percentage of shrub were closely related among ecological factors. Variable influencing clutch size was date of first egg-laying date. Percentage of shrub …


The Red-Footed Falcon Falco Vespertinus Population In The Danube Delta And Its Habitat Selection For Breeding, Lucian-Eugen Bolboaca, Alexandru-Catalin Dorosencu, Mihai Marinov, Marta Peraita, Maxym Yakovliev, Vasile Alexe Jan 2023

The Red-Footed Falcon Falco Vespertinus Population In The Danube Delta And Its Habitat Selection For Breeding, Lucian-Eugen Bolboaca, Alexandru-Catalin Dorosencu, Mihai Marinov, Marta Peraita, Maxym Yakovliev, Vasile Alexe

Turkish Journal of Zoology

The Danube Delta is an atypical and complex ecosystem on the border of the slowly shrinking breeding distribution of Falco vespertinus. In this paper, we study the population that breeds in this area and intend to understand its relationship with the environment in these circumstances. We registered 231 breeding pairs (bp), with a local density of 0.034 bp/km$^{2}$. We made a Nearest Neighbour Analysis which confirmed the natural condition of the facultative colonial nesting character of this species. In addition, in order to study its habitat preferences for nesting we did a binary logistic regression model and complemented its …


Redescription Of A Little-Known Species, Cryptocephalus Surdus Rapilly, 1980 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cryptocephalinae), With Notes On New Distribution Localities And Habitat Preference In Türkiye, Ali̇ Gök, Abdullah Hasbenli̇, İsmai̇l Şen Jan 2023

Redescription Of A Little-Known Species, Cryptocephalus Surdus Rapilly, 1980 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cryptocephalinae), With Notes On New Distribution Localities And Habitat Preference In Türkiye, Ali̇ Gök, Abdullah Hasbenli̇, İsmai̇l Şen

Turkish Journal of Zoology

Cryptocephalus surdus Rapilly, 1980 is a little-known species which was described based on specimens collected from Iran. Due to the fact that the species was described very briefly in its original description, the taxonomic features of the species are redescribed in here. In addition, information about additional taxonomic characters, habitats and distribution in Türkiye of this little-known species are given for the first time in this study. Habitus and genital features of the species are photographed. Habitat preference and a map showing the previous and new distribution localities of the species are provided.


Skeletochronology In Long Tubular Bones Of The Javan Water Monitor Lizard, Varanus Salvator Bivittatus In The Juvenile Stage (Lacertilia: Varanidae), Hellen Kurniati, Ni Luh Putu Rischa Phadmacanty, Gono Semiadi Jan 2023

Skeletochronology In Long Tubular Bones Of The Javan Water Monitor Lizard, Varanus Salvator Bivittatus In The Juvenile Stage (Lacertilia: Varanidae), Hellen Kurniati, Ni Luh Putu Rischa Phadmacanty, Gono Semiadi

Turkish Journal of Zoology

Age estimation of the juvenile stage of Varanus salvator bivittatus using limb bones, namely the big long tubular bones (femur, tibia, humerus) and the small long tubular bones (fibula, radius, ulna, phalanx), was performed using the skeletochronological method. Samples were from Java Island, Indonesia and provided by the pet exporters. Lines of arrested growth (LAG) were present and the first growth mark was visible on a female with a snout-vent length (SVL) of 18.8 cm, and a male with SVL of 19.3 cm. The process of resorption begins in the juvenile stage, and resorption occurs in all long tubular bones. …


The Impact Of Wheat Resistance And Bio-Rational Insecticides Toxicity Against Cherry-Oat Aphid, Rhopalosiphum Padi L. (Hemiptera: Aphididae), Anisa Haq, Waheed Murad, Sarir Ahmad Jan 2023

The Impact Of Wheat Resistance And Bio-Rational Insecticides Toxicity Against Cherry-Oat Aphid, Rhopalosiphum Padi L. (Hemiptera: Aphididae), Anisa Haq, Waheed Murad, Sarir Ahmad

Turkish Journal of Zoology

Aphids cause substantial damage to the wheat crop. In order to determine how host plant resistance and insecticides manage the Rhopalosiphum padi L. Current experiments were carried out to find the influence of host plant resistance and bio-rational insecticides against aphids in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crop. Field experiments were carried out for two growing years (2017/18 and 2018/19) to access the resistance of wheat against the aphids. The field resistance of wheat is highly expressed in Pirsabak-08 variety (infestation range = 1-2.5) while the most susceptible variety is Faisalabad-08 (infestation range > 10). The varietal preference experiment results revealed …


Population Abundance And Growth Parameters Of An Exotic Bivalve Species, Anadara Kagoshimensis, In The Southwestern Black Sea, Murat Dağteki̇n, Göktuğ Dalgiç, Murat Erbay, İlkay Özcan Akpinar, Mehmet Aydin, Süleyman Özdemi̇r, Ayşe Cebeci̇, Sedat Karayücel Jan 2023

Population Abundance And Growth Parameters Of An Exotic Bivalve Species, Anadara Kagoshimensis, In The Southwestern Black Sea, Murat Dağteki̇n, Göktuğ Dalgiç, Murat Erbay, İlkay Özcan Akpinar, Mehmet Aydin, Süleyman Özdemi̇r, Ayşe Cebeci̇, Sedat Karayücel

Turkish Journal of Zoology

Blood cockle (Anadara kagoshimensis) is an Indo-Pacific species that later entered the Black Sea. The abundance of A. kagoshimensis, which is not subjected to commercial fishing, is important in terms of food competition with other bivalvia species. Baby clam (Chamelea gallina) together with the A. kagoshimensis are dominant bivalve species found in the sandy and muddy areas off the coastal waters of the Black Sea. In this study, specimens of A. kagoshimensis have been recognized by morphological analysis and also confirmed by molecular characterization. Furthermore, the abundance and growth parameters of A. kagoshimensis were investigated in the …


The Black Sea-Eastern Mediterranean Flyway Of The Globally Threatened European Turtle Dove (Streptopelia Turtur), Antonio Bea, Iñaki Olano, Saulius Svazas, Julen Henry, Vadym Yanenko, Gennady Grishanov Jan 2023

The Black Sea-Eastern Mediterranean Flyway Of The Globally Threatened European Turtle Dove (Streptopelia Turtur), Antonio Bea, Iñaki Olano, Saulius Svazas, Julen Henry, Vadym Yanenko, Gennady Grishanov

Turkish Journal of Zoology

The European turtle dove Streptopelia turtur (hereafter turtle dove), is a widespread species in the Palearctic. Due to a large and rapid decline in its abundance, it was classified as "vulnerable" on the International Union for Conservation of Nature's Red List in 2015 and is now regarded as a globally threatened species. The objective of this study was to provide new information on the flyways of this turtle dove population by analyzing available ring recoveries and citizen science sightings data from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility. A new flyway (possibly stretching through the Black and Caspian Seas, Turkey, the Middle …


Genetic Selection For Improved Production Efficiency In The Mature Dairy Herd, Maeve Williams Jan 2023

Genetic Selection For Improved Production Efficiency In The Mature Dairy Herd, Maeve Williams

Theses

Improving dairy cow production efficiency is highly desirable because of its well-documented impact on profitability and sustainability. Long-term gains in dairy cow production efficiency have already been delivered through genetic selection. Nonetheless, achieving further improvements in production efficiency could cement the economic and environmental efficiency of the dairy industry, globally. To date, several components contributing to production efficiency have been overlooked, with many studies focusing on dairy cow production efficiency over short periods rather than lifetime efficiency. Therefore, the objectives of this thesis were to quantify the genetic variance components of complementary dairy cow efficiency metrics; including dry matter intake, …


From Field To Shore: Policy Improvements To Better Protect Ecosystem And Human Health From Poultry Wastes In Virginia, Rachael A. King Jan 2023

From Field To Shore: Policy Improvements To Better Protect Ecosystem And Human Health From Poultry Wastes In Virginia, Rachael A. King

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Commercial poultry production is a large industry with economic importance in Virginia. However, mismanagement of manures and wastes generated from the poultry industry can be a serious threat to ecosystem and human health. Primarily, there is a concern about nutrient pollution related to runoff and infiltration of poultry wastes. High nutrient loading can cause groundwater contamination, eutrophication, and harmful algal blooms (HABs). Additional concerns include metals, antibiotics, and pesticides that can be found in poultry wastes. To determine existing threats to ecosystem and human health from the poultry industry, Virginia policies regulating the industry are reviewed and their strengths and …


Capacity-Building Project To Progress The Implementation Of International Instruments To Combat Iuu Fishing (Capfish) : Workshop 3, 18-21 October 2022, World Maritime University Jan 2023

Capacity-Building Project To Progress The Implementation Of International Instruments To Combat Iuu Fishing (Capfish) : Workshop 3, 18-21 October 2022, World Maritime University

Reports

Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) fishing is a complex and multifaceted problem, with dire consequences for aquatic ecosystems, coastal communities, fishers and fish workers, and economic and national security. It particularly affects developing countries, and is estimated to cost the global economy USD 20 billion each year. This represents foregone taxes, license fees, and revenue from resources that could have been legally exploited. Future opportunities are also lost as fish stocks dwindle and collapse, with knock-on socioeconomic effects. As those involved in IUU fishing seek to cut costs wherever possible, and are often involved in other illegal activities, IUU fishing …


Effect Of The Exogenous Foliar Sprays Of Micro-Doses Of Fructose And Glucose, On Egg-Laying Of Cydia Pomonella L. And Its Oviposition Site Selection In Apple Orchard, Abdelkader Tiffrent, Nadia Lombarkia Dec 2022

Effect Of The Exogenous Foliar Sprays Of Micro-Doses Of Fructose And Glucose, On Egg-Laying Of Cydia Pomonella L. And Its Oviposition Site Selection In Apple Orchard, Abdelkader Tiffrent, Nadia Lombarkia

Journal of Bioresource Management

A better understanding of the new concept of ‘sweet immunity’, represented by the use of sugars to reduce the susceptibility of plants to pests, would help implication of this knowledge within a new apple orchard protection strategy against Cydia pomonella. Behavioral and effect of two sugars, fructose (100 ppm), glucose (100 ppm), and chemical insecticide (deltamethrin) on egg-laying of C. pomonella were evaluated on two varieties (Golden delicious and Royal gala). The spraying of the two sugars, besides the insecticide, during the first, the third flight on the Golden delicious variety and the fourth flight on the …


Livestock In Pakistan: An Insight Into Climate Changes And Impacts, Muhammad Jamil, Iram Shakeel, Habib Ullah, Mukhtar Ahmad, Saeed Ullah, Iffat Rasool, Muhammad Tahir, Jaweria Gull, Norina Jabeen, Mubarik Ali Dec 2022

Livestock In Pakistan: An Insight Into Climate Changes And Impacts, Muhammad Jamil, Iram Shakeel, Habib Ullah, Mukhtar Ahmad, Saeed Ullah, Iffat Rasool, Muhammad Tahir, Jaweria Gull, Norina Jabeen, Mubarik Ali

Journal of Bioresource Management

The global livestock sector is expanding at a faster rate than any other agricultural sub-sector. It employs approximately 1.3 billion people and accounts for approximately 40 % of global agricultural output. This industry is one of the most damaging sectors to the world's increasingly scarce water resources, contributing to water pollution from animal wastes, hormones, antibiotics, chemicals from tanneries, pesticides, and fertilizers used to spray feed crop. Climate change harms livestock productivity by changing ecosystem services i.e. water availability, forage quality and quantity, diseases outbreak, and animals stress due to heat shock and reduction of livestock diversity and breeds. Ecosystem …


Ecological Diagnosis And Diversity Structure Of The Forest Birds Community In Machroha Forest (Souk Ahras – Northeastern Algeria), Abdelhak Boucif, Mouslim Bara, Moussa Houhamdi Dec 2022

Ecological Diagnosis And Diversity Structure Of The Forest Birds Community In Machroha Forest (Souk Ahras – Northeastern Algeria), Abdelhak Boucif, Mouslim Bara, Moussa Houhamdi

Journal of Bioresource Management

Machroha forest is a large hot spot of biodiversity of northeastern region of Algeria. It is dominated by several species of oak tree that can contribute to the conservation of many animals such as birds. Our study was carried out from February 2019 to July 2021, in order to diagnosis the ecological status of forest birds and their dynamics. Our results reported that this forest was including 19.21% of the Algerian avifauna diversity. We recorded 78 species of birds classified in 32 families. The main species were sedentary with an insectivorous trophic categories and terrestrial guild. Three species observed in …


First Case Of Leucism In The House Bunting Emberiza Sahari In Algeria, Abdelwahab Chedad, Djamel Bendjoudi, Brahim Beladis, Omar Guezoul Dec 2022

First Case Of Leucism In The House Bunting Emberiza Sahari In Algeria, Abdelwahab Chedad, Djamel Bendjoudi, Brahim Beladis, Omar Guezoul

Journal of Bioresource Management

Continue to monitor the bioecology of the House bunting in Algeria and mentioned the birds that carry abnormalities and genetic mutation (Albinism and leucism), including passerines species. A male House bunting Emberiza sahari with leucism (partial albinism) was recorded on December 6, 2021, in the city center of the M'Zab Valley at Ghardaïa (Algerian Sahara).


Let Emerging Plant Diseases Be Predictable, Valeria Trivellone Dec 2022

Let Emerging Plant Diseases Be Predictable, Valeria Trivellone

MANTER: Journal of Parasite Biodiversity

A prevalent concept for colonization and evolution among plant pathogens and their hosts stems from a post-Darwinian paradigm rooted in the formalized assumption of “specialized parasitism.” Seminal studies on rust fungi of socioeconomic importance integrated such an evolutionary perspective driven by the assumption of strict coevolution among pathogens and their plant hosts. Following this fundamentally unfalsifiable assumption, theories regarding host-switching for parasites were dismissed. If colonization occurred, this process would depend upon the origin of specific and novel mutations that allow infections of previously unexploited hosts or host groups, the acquisition of a broader host range. After a specific mutation …