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1,358 full-text articles. Page 47 of 50.

The Impact Of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (Bse) On World Protein Supply, Jarrod Kersey 2012 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Impact Of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (Bse) On World Protein Supply, Jarrod Kersey

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

As world population, per capita income and urbanization increase, consumption of meat, poultry, milk and eggs will continue to rise to meet the needs of approximately nine billion people in 2050. Global beef, pig and chicken production and per capita consumption increased between 2000 and 2010, with growth in broiler production and consumption outpacing both beef and swine. The increased production and consumption requires readily available feed ingredients in regions where animal production is rapidly developing. Animal-based protein feed ingredients are often difficult to move from country to country due to real or perceived risk of animal disease. Zoosanitary standards ...


Loading Gantry Versus Traditional Chute For The Finisher Pig: Effect On Welfare At The Time Of Loading And Performance Measures And Transport Losses At The Harvest Facility, Nick L. Berry, Anna K. Johnson, J. Hill, Steven M. Lonergan, Locke A. Karriker, Kenneth J. Stalder 2012 Iowa State University

Loading Gantry Versus Traditional Chute For The Finisher Pig: Effect On Welfare At The Time Of Loading And Performance Measures And Transport Losses At The Harvest Facility, Nick L. Berry, Anna K. Johnson, J. Hill, Steven M. Lonergan, Locke A. Karriker, Kenneth J. Stalder

Animal Science Publications

The objectives of these studies were to evaluate the loading system effects [traditional chute (TC) vs. prototype loading gantry (PLG)] on i) welfare measures at loading and ii) performance measures and transport losses at the harvest facility for the market-weight pig (Sus scrofa). This study compared first pull (FP), which was the first group of pigs, and close out (CO), which was the last group of pigs marketed from a finishing facility. Experiment 1 evaluated 74 loads for welfare measures at loading on the farm, and Exp. 2 evaluated 497 loads for performance measures and transport losses at the harvest ...


Application Of Science, Technology, And Art In Producing Meat: A Recipe For Success, Steven M. Lonergan, Elisabeth J. Huff-Lonergan 2012 Iowa State University

Application Of Science, Technology, And Art In Producing Meat: A Recipe For Success, Steven M. Lonergan, Elisabeth J. Huff-Lonergan

Animal Science Publications

We were pleased to be invited to be guest editors of the first issue ofAnimal Frontiers that is focused on meat production and processing across the globe. There are many important issues in food production and in meat production that relate to efficiency, quality, nutrition, preservation, and food safety. We specifically chose to focus on the connection of meat production in diverse cultures and the advances that will help us continue to improve meat quality and consumer acceptance. We think that the exciting combination of science, technology, and art with an eye toward our cultural heritage is what can ...


Importance Of Cattle Biodiversity And Its Influence On The Nutrient Composition Of Beef, Kimberly K. Barnes, Trisha A. Collins, Sandra Dion, Heidi Reynolds, Samantha M. Riess, Andrew Stanzyk, Anna Wolfe, Steven M. Lonergan, Paul Boettcher, U. R. Charrondiere, Barbara Stadlmayr 2012 Iowa State University

Importance Of Cattle Biodiversity And Its Influence On The Nutrient Composition Of Beef, Kimberly K. Barnes, Trisha A. Collins, Sandra Dion, Heidi Reynolds, Samantha M. Riess, Andrew Stanzyk, Anna Wolfe, Steven M. Lonergan, Paul Boettcher, U. R. Charrondiere, Barbara Stadlmayr

Animal Science Publications

  • Livestock make a substantial contribution to achieving food and nutrition security due to various factors including the high nutritional quality of animal-source foods.

  • Conservation and sustainable use of cattle genetic resources are important due to the multiple benefits provided by local breeds. These benefits include multiple direct uses, additional market value provided by specialty products, social and cultural roles, and adaptations that local breeds have to climate and diseases in harsh environments.

  • Meat composition varies across cattle breeds. Whereas genetics play a role in this variation, management practices, such as diet, and other environmental factors also affect nutrient composition.

  • Compositional ...


The Impact Of Selected Forage Legumes On Cattle Performance, Forage Production, And Soil Quality, And Evaluation Of Legume Persistence Under Grazing, Bradley Edward Briggs 2012 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Impact Of Selected Forage Legumes On Cattle Performance, Forage Production, And Soil Quality, And Evaluation Of Legume Persistence Under Grazing, Bradley Edward Briggs

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Interest in substituting legumes for N fertilizer in beef cattle grazing systems has recently increased with rising fertilizer prices. Legumes are well known for their ability to fix atmospheric N and decrease dependence on input of N fertilizer. However, there are still difficulties associated with legume utilization including establishment and persistence. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate legume performance under herbivory. The objective of Experiment 1 was to compare forage production and beef cattle gains from annual ryegrass [Lolium multiflorum (L.)] and bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] pastures fertilized with N or overseeded with legumes. Gelbvieh × Angus crossbred heifers (n ...


Human Xenografts Are Not Rejected In A Naturally Occurring Immunodeficient Porcine Line: A Human Tumor Model In Pigs, Matthew T. Basel, Sivasai Balivada, Amanda P. Beck, Maureen A. Kerrigan, Maria M. Pyle, Jack C. M. Dekkers, Carol R. Wyatt, Robert R. R. Rowland, David E. Anderson, Stefan H. Bossmann, Deryl L. Troyer 2012 Kansas State University

Human Xenografts Are Not Rejected In A Naturally Occurring Immunodeficient Porcine Line: A Human Tumor Model In Pigs, Matthew T. Basel, Sivasai Balivada, Amanda P. Beck, Maureen A. Kerrigan, Maria M. Pyle, Jack C. M. Dekkers, Carol R. Wyatt, Robert R. R. Rowland, David E. Anderson, Stefan H. Bossmann, Deryl L. Troyer

Animal Science Publications

Animal models for cancer therapy are invaluable for preclinical testing of potential cancer treatments; however, therapies tested in such models often fail to translate into clinical settings. Therefore, a better preclinical model for cancer treatment testing is needed. Here we demonstrate that an immunodeficient line of pigs can host and support the growth of xenografted human tumors and has the potential to be an effective animal model for cancer therapy. Wild-type and immunodeficient pigs were injected subcutaneously in the left ear with human melanoma cells (A375SM cells) and in the right ear with human pancreatic carcinoma cells (PANC-1). All immunodeficient ...


Developmental Programming In Response To Intrauterine Growth Restriction Impairs Myoblast Function And Skeletal Muscle Metabolism, Dustin T. Yates, A.R. Macko, M. Nearing, X. Chen, R.P. Rhoads, Sean W. Limesand 2012 University of Nebraska Lincoln & University of Arizona

Developmental Programming In Response To Intrauterine Growth Restriction Impairs Myoblast Function And Skeletal Muscle Metabolism, Dustin T. Yates, A.R. Macko, M. Nearing, X. Chen, R.P. Rhoads, Sean W. Limesand

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Fetal adaptations to placental insufficiency alter postnatal metabolic homeostasis in skeletal muscle by reducing glucose oxidation rates, impairing insulin action, and lowering the proportion of oxidative fibers. In animal models of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), skeletalmuscle fibers have lessmyonuclei at birth. This means thatmyoblasts, the sole source formyonuclei accumulation in fibers, are compromised. Fetal hypoglycemia and hypoxemia are complications that result from placental insufficiency. Hypoxemia elevates circulating catecholamines, and chronic hypercatecholaminemia has been shown to reduce fetal muscle development and growth. We have found evidence for adaptations in adrenergic receptor expression profiles in myoblasts and skeletal muscle of IUGR sheep ...


A Longitudinal Study Of The Establishment And Proliferation Of Enterococcus On A Dairy Farm, Ginger M. Shipp, James S. Dickson 2012 Iowa State University

A Longitudinal Study Of The Establishment And Proliferation Of Enterococcus On A Dairy Farm, Ginger M. Shipp, James S. Dickson

Animal Science Publications

Enterococci are Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic cocci. They are found in many environments (including milk and dairy products, vegetables, plants, cereals, and meats). Enterococci are considered commensal organisms, but can also be opportunistic pathogens associated with morbidity and mortality of humans and animals. A longitudinal study of antibiotic resistance of Enterococcus to ampicillin, erythromycin, and tetracycline was conducted on an academic teaching farm. Environmental samples were collected by drag swabs at select locations prior to and after the introduction of livestock. All samples were initially processed and screened with specialized media, and then replica plated on tryptic soy agar containing a ...


Endotoxin, Inflammation, And Intestinal Function In Livestock, Venkatesh Mani, Thomas E. Weber, Lance H. Baumgard, Nicholas K. Gabler 2012 Iowa State University

Endotoxin, Inflammation, And Intestinal Function In Livestock, Venkatesh Mani, Thomas E. Weber, Lance H. Baumgard, Nicholas K. Gabler

Animal Science Publications

Endotoxin, also referred to as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), can stimulate localized or systemic inflammation via the activation of pattern recognition receptors. Additionally, endotoxin and inflammation can regulate intestinal epithelial function by altering integrity, nutrient transport, and utilization. The gastrointestinal tract is a large reservoir of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, of which the gram-negative bacteria serve as a source of endotoxin. Luminal endotoxin can enter circulation via two routes: 1) nonspecific paracellular transport through epithelial cell tight junctions, and 2) transcellular transport through lipid raft membrane domains involving receptor-mediated endocytosis. Paracellular transport of endotoxin occurs through dissociation of tight junction protein ...


Effects Of Management Strategies And Molecular Breeding Values On Cattle Performance And Carcass Traits, Benjamin Collins Williamson 2012 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effects Of Management Strategies And Molecular Breeding Values On Cattle Performance And Carcass Traits, Benjamin Collins Williamson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Forty-eight Gelbvieh x Angus steers (265 ¡À 40 kg) were utilized to determine the relationships among molecular breeding values (MBV), steer performance, and carcass traits. Body weight (BW), hip height (HH), hip width (HW), exit velocity (EV; rate at which steers exited the squeeze chute and traversed 1.8 m) and body ultrasound measurements of steers were recorded at d 0, 93 and 154 of grazing mixed stockpiled endophyte-infected and -free tall fescue. Tissue samples were collected for genomic profiling (Igenity, Merial Limited, Duluth, GA). Steers were transported to the Oklahoma State U fed for 159 d, harvested and carcass ...


Growth Promoting Implants And Nutrient Restriction Prior To Feeding: Effect On Carcass Composition, Carcass Quality, And Consumer Acceptability Of Beef, Jessica Ann Robinette 2012 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Growth Promoting Implants And Nutrient Restriction Prior To Feeding: Effect On Carcass Composition, Carcass Quality, And Consumer Acceptability Of Beef, Jessica Ann Robinette

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Implant strategy and nutrient restriction prior to finishing may alter feedlot performance, as well as carcass characteristics and consumer acceptability of beef. The objectives of these studies were to determine the effect of prefinishing implant strategy and plane of nutrition on prefinishing and feedlot performance, carcass characteristics and quality, and consumer acceptability of beef. In 2 experiments, spring-born calves were weaned in the fall (Exp. 1, n =120; and Exp. 2, n = 96) and were either finished as calves (CALF-FED) or placed on a growing program with a target ADG of 0.45 kg/d (RSTR) or 0.91 kg ...


Pork Quality: Ph Decline And Pork Quality, Steven Lonergan 2012 Iowa State University

Pork Quality: Ph Decline And Pork Quality, Steven Lonergan

Animal Science White Papers, Technical Reports, & Fact Sheets

The properties of fresh and processed pork are dependent on factors related to composition of the product such as moisture, lipid and protein content. It is important to recognize, however, that it is not just the amount of these components, but rather the characteristics of protein, lipid and water that are responsible for differences in pork color, texture, water holding capacity and tenderness. In many cases, it is the proteins in pork that are primarily important in the variations that are observed in these traits. The state and nature of proteins are primarily responsible for pork color, pork texture, pork ...


Odor Mitigation With Tree Buffers: Swine Production Case Study, Guillermo Hernandez, Steven Trabue, Thomas J. Sauer, Richard Pfeiffer, John Tyndall 2012 United States Department of Agriculture

Odor Mitigation With Tree Buffers: Swine Production Case Study, Guillermo Hernandez, Steven Trabue, Thomas J. Sauer, Richard Pfeiffer, John Tyndall

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Vegetative environmental buffers (VEB) are a potentially low cost sustainable odor mitigation strategy, but there is little to no data supporting their effectiveness. Wind tunnel experiments and field monitoring were used to determine the effect VEB had on wind flow patterns within a swine facility. Particle and odorous compound concentrations were monitored before and after the VEB. Wind tunnel experiments indicated that building orientation had about the same impact on air flow patterns as the combined buildings and VEB. Field monitoring studies revealed that air flow patterns at a swine facility were dynamic showing intense instability during the heat of ...


Nitrosylation Of Myoglobin And Nitrosation Of Cysteine By Nitrite In A Model System Simulating Meat Curing, Gary A. Sullivan, Joseph G. Sebranek 2012 Iowa State University

Nitrosylation Of Myoglobin And Nitrosation Of Cysteine By Nitrite In A Model System Simulating Meat Curing, Gary A. Sullivan, Joseph G. Sebranek

Animal Science Publications

Demand is growing for meat products cured without the addition of sodium nitrite. Instead of the direct addition of nitrite to meat in formulation, nitrite is supplied by bacterial reduction of natural nitrate often added as vegetable juice/powder. However, the rate of nitrite formation in this process is relatively slow, and the total ingoing nitrite is typically less than in conventional curing processes. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of the rate of addition of nitrite and the amount of nitrite added on nitrosylation/nitrosation reactions in a model meat curing system. Myoglobin was preferentially ...


Vegfa Family Isoforms Regulate Spermatogonial Stem Cell Homeostasis In Vivo, Kyle C. Caires, Jeanene M. Clopton, Andrea S. Cupp, Derek J. McLean 2012 Washington State University

Vegfa Family Isoforms Regulate Spermatogonial Stem Cell Homeostasis In Vivo, Kyle C. Caires, Jeanene M. Clopton, Andrea S. Cupp, Derek J. Mclean

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

The objective of the present study was to investigate vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) isoform regulation of cell fate decisions of spermatogonial stem cells (SSC) in vivo. The expression pattern and cell-specific distribution of VEGF isoforms, receptors, and coreceptors during testis development postnatal d 1–180 suggest a nonvascular function for VEGF regulation of early germ cell homeostasis. Populations of undifferentiated spermatogonia present shortly after birth were positive for VEGF receptor activation as demonstrated by immunohistochemical analysis. Thus, we hypothesized that proangiogenic isoforms of VEGF (VEGFA164) stimulate SSC self-renewal, whereas antiangiogenic isoforms of VEGF (VEGFA165b) induce ...


Meat Products Manufactured With Olive Oil, S. S. Moon, C. Jo, Dong U. Ahn, S. N. Kang, Y. T. Kim, I. S. Kim 2012 Sunjin Meat Research Center

Meat Products Manufactured With Olive Oil, S. S. Moon, C. Jo, Dong U. Ahn, S. N. Kang, Y. T. Kim, I. S. Kim

Animal Science Publications

Consumer perception of processed meat products is a critical issue for the meat industry. In recent years consumers are increasingly conscious about healthy diet. However, most of the processed meat products contain high amounts of fat, which are related to chronic diseases such as obesity and cardiovascular heart diseases. Health organizations have suggested to reduce the intake of total dietary fat, particularly saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, as a mean to prevent cardiovascular heart diseases (NCEP, 1988). Consumers now want low or reduced-animal fat products with high palatability and nutritional quality (Pietrasik & Duda, 2000).


Assessment Of Native Languages For Food Safety Training Programs For Meat Industry Employees, Sherrlyn Sue Olsen, Joseph C. Cordray, Stephen Graham Sapp, Joseph G. Sebranek, Barbara J. Anderson, Matthew K. Wenger 2012 Iowa State University

Assessment Of Native Languages For Food Safety Training Programs For Meat Industry Employees, Sherrlyn Sue Olsen, Joseph C. Cordray, Stephen Graham Sapp, Joseph G. Sebranek, Barbara J. Anderson, Matthew K. Wenger

Animal Science Publications

Challenges arise when teaching food safety to culturally diverse employees working in meatpacking and food manufacturing industries. A food safety training program was developed in English, translated into Spanish, and administered to 1,265 adult learners. Assessments were conducted by comparing scores before and immediately following training. Scores concerning food safety knowledge and food handling behavior improved dramatically when training was conducted in the native language. Impressive gains were noted for Spanish-speaking participants who averaged 96.60% on post-training scores, demonstrating that identical food safety training programs are most successful with both English- and Spanish-speaking individuals when presented in their ...


Murine Gut Microbiota Is Defined By Host Genetics And Modulates Variation Of Metabolic Traits, Autumn M. McKnite, Maria Elisa Perez-Munoz, Lu Lu, Evan G. Williams, Simon Brewer, Penelope A. Andreux, John W. M. Bastiaansen, Xusheng Wang, Stephen D. Kachman, Johan Auwerx, Robert W. Williams, Andrew K. Benson, Daniel A. Peterson, Daniel C. Ciobanu 2012 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Murine Gut Microbiota Is Defined By Host Genetics And Modulates Variation Of Metabolic Traits, Autumn M. Mcknite, Maria Elisa Perez-Munoz, Lu Lu, Evan G. Williams, Simon Brewer, Penelope A. Andreux, John W. M. Bastiaansen, Xusheng Wang, Stephen D. Kachman, Johan Auwerx, Robert W. Williams, Andrew K. Benson, Daniel A. Peterson, Daniel C. Ciobanu

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

The gastrointestinal tract harbors a complex and diverse microbiota that has an important role in host metabolism. Microbial diversity is influenced by a combination of environmental and host genetic factors and is associated with several polygenic diseases. In this study we combined next-generation sequencing, genetic mapping, and a set of physiological traits of the BXD mouse population to explore genetic factors that explain differences in gut microbiota and its impact on metabolic traits. Molecular profiling of the gut microbiota revealed important quantitative differences in microbial composition among BXD strains. These differences in gut microbial composition are influenced by host-genetics, which ...


Case Study: In Situ Determination Of Protein Digestibility Of Dried Distillers Grains Containing 3 Lipid Concentrations Using A Mobile Bag Method, B. E. Meyer, C. L. Bouma, James C. MacDonald 2012 Texas A&M AgriLife Research

Case Study: In Situ Determination Of Protein Digestibility Of Dried Distillers Grains Containing 3 Lipid Concentrations Using A Mobile Bag Method, B. E. Meyer, C. L. Bouma, James C. Macdonald

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Ethanol producers remove lipid from distillers grains (DG) for applications such as biodiesel production. The effects of the lipid removal on ruminal protein degradability and total-tract CP digestibility of DG are not known. Five ruminally and duodenally cannulated Angus-cross steers (BW = 434 ± 15 kg) were used to incubate in situ bags for determination of protein digestibility of low-lipid (5.54%) DG, medium-lipid (8.40%) DG, high-lipid (12.46%) DG, and cottonseed meal. Ingredients were weighed into individual in situ bags and incubated in the ventral sac of the rumen for 16 h. After ruminal incubation and simulated abomasal digestion, bags ...


Dried Distillers Grains As A Substitute For Grazed Forage, L. A. Stalker, T. J. Klopfenstein, Walter H. Schacht, J. D. Volesky 2012 West Central Research and Extension Center, University of Nebraska

Dried Distillers Grains As A Substitute For Grazed Forage, L. A. Stalker, T. J. Klopfenstein, Walter H. Schacht, J. D. Volesky

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

A 2-yr study evaluated effects of feeding dried distillers grains (DDG) to yearlings grazing native range at greaterthan- recommended stocking rates on BW gain, grazed forage quality, and forage disappearance. Thirty-six paddocks were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 treatments: 1) control, stocked at a moderate stocking rate (1.48 animal unit months/ha in yr 1, 1.06 animal unit months/ha in yr 2) with no DDG; 2) double stocked, in which stocking rate was exactly twice the control with no DDG; and 3) double stocked with 2.27 kg/d (DM) of DDG per animal. Six paddocks ...


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