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An Inferentially Robust Look At Two Competing Explanations For The Surge In Unauthorized Migration From Central America, Nick Santos 2021 University of San Diego

An Inferentially Robust Look At Two Competing Explanations For The Surge In Unauthorized Migration From Central America, Nick Santos

Dissertations

The last 8 years have seen a dramatic increase in the flow of Central American apprehensions by the U.S. Border Patrol. Explanations for this surge in apprehensions have been split between two leading hypotheses. Most academic scholars, immigrant advocates, progressive media outlets, and human rights organizations identify poverty and violence (the Poverty and Violence Hypothesis) in Central America as the primary triggers responsible. In contrast, while most government officials, conservative think tanks, and the agencies that work in the immigration and border enforcement realm admit poverty and violence may underlie some decisions to migrate, they instead blame lax U ...


De La Esclavitud A La Libertad: La Historia De Una Esclava Afromexicana, Margaree G. Jackson 2021 University of Mississippi Main Campus

De La Esclavitud A La Libertad: La Historia De Una Esclava Afromexicana, Margaree G. Jackson

Vernacular: New Connections in Language, Literature, & Culture

Resumen: “De la esclavitud a la libertad: La historia de una esclava afromexicana,” es una colección de poemas descolonizados contados desde la perspectiva de una mujer afromexicana ficticia del siglo XVII. La protagonista, Maricela Rivas, es una esclava que nació en la plantación azucarera Nuestra Señora de la Concepción, una plantación verdadera ubicada en Veracruz, México. Su historia se basa en las pocas historias que existen sobre la vida de la mujer afromexicana que formaba parte esencial de la sociedad y cultura mexicana pero que le falta representación y una voz. Estos poemas le dan una voz y perspectiva al ...


Constructing The Panama Canal: A Brief History, Ian E. Phillips 2021 Cleveland State University

Constructing The Panama Canal: A Brief History, Ian E. Phillips

The Downtown Review

Seeking to commemorate the construction of the Panama Canal, an engineering marvel widely considered a contender for the eighth wonder of the world, this article attempts to retell the story of the Canal's construction by synthesizing a narrative centered on the Canal under French and American leadership, worker segregation, and labor conditions at the Isthmus.


Truth Commissions And Reparations: A Framework For Post-Conflict Justice In Argentina, Chile Guatemala, And Peru, Anthony Chen 2021 Student

Truth Commissions And Reparations: A Framework For Post-Conflict Justice In Argentina, Chile Guatemala, And Peru, Anthony Chen

Honors Theses (PPE)

This paper seeks to gauge the effectiveness of truth commissions and their links to creating material reparations programs through two central questions. First, are truth commissions an effective way to achieve justice after periods of conflict marked by mass or systemic human rights abuses by the government or guerilla groups? Second, do truth commissions provide a pathway to material reparations programs for victims of these abuses? It will outline the conceptual basis behind truth commissions, material reparations, and transitional justice. It will then engage in case studies and a comparative analysis of truth commissions and material reparations programs in four ...


How To Build A World Art: The Strategic Universalism Of Colour Reproductions And The Unesco Prize (1953-1968), Chiara Vitali 2021 Ecole Normale Superieure de Paris

How To Build A World Art: The Strategic Universalism Of Colour Reproductions And The Unesco Prize (1953-1968), Chiara Vitali

Artl@s Bulletin

What role did UNESCO play in the art world of the post-war era? This article makes use of published and archival sources in order to clarify the utopia of a “World Art” that shaped UNESCO and led to the “Archives of Colour Reproductions of Works of Art”, a project of worldwide collect and diffusion of images of “masterworks” inspired by Malraux’s “Museum without walls”. This case study focuses on one particular aspect of the project, the “UNESCO Prize”, conceived by the Brazilian art critic and Marxist intellectual Mario Pedrosa for the 1953 São Paulo Biennial.


Central Americans In Las Vegas, Emily Salazar 2021 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Central Americans In Las Vegas, Emily Salazar

Undergraduate Research Symposium Podium Presentations

The Las Vegas Valley has become home to a large Salvadoran and Guatemalan population with no clear understanding of the reason for its growth. Upon arrival to the United States, many Latin American immigrants will often struggle with the language barrier and the lack of resources at their disposal. This study aims to uncover what factors and advantages made the Guatemalan and Salvadoran communities choose to stay in Las Vegas Valley, as well as the contribution these populations have made to this metropolitan area. I will first examine published scholarship that uncovers the reasons on what initiatives made central Americans ...


An Ember Of The Shining Path: A Content And Text Analysis Of The Peru People's Movement's "Sol Rojo" Magazine, Matthew A. Hughes 2021 US Army

An Ember Of The Shining Path: A Content And Text Analysis Of The Peru People's Movement's "Sol Rojo" Magazine, Matthew A. Hughes

International Journal of Security Studies

Far-left terrorism rocked Latin America during the 1980s and 1990s, making that region the epicenter of global terrorism for fourteen years. Now, nearly three decades after the Shining Path collapsed under the Peruvian Government’s counter-insurgency efforts, remnants of the group continue to operate. While the brutality and carnage for which the Shining Path is known have subsided, factions disseminate propaganda calling for the “People’s War” and revolution. One such faction, the Peruvian People’s Movement, has published the magazine Sol Rojo [Red Sun] at a rate of about two editions since around 1994. This study examines content from ...


Dos Epístolas Latinas De Fray Juan De Zumárraga Y Juan Bernal Díaz De Luco Sobre La Evangelización Del Nuevo Mundo, Víctor Lillo Castañ, Laura Camino Plaza 2021 Universität Trier

Dos Epístolas Latinas De Fray Juan De Zumárraga Y Juan Bernal Díaz De Luco Sobre La Evangelización Del Nuevo Mundo, Víctor Lillo Castañ, Laura Camino Plaza

Translat Library

This article presents an edition and the first ever translation into Spanish of two Latin epistles on the evangelization of the New World by Juan de Zumárraga and Juan Bernal Díaz de Luco. These epistles have survived in a one sole copy, currently kept at the Biblioteca Capitular y Colombina de Sevilla, that was probably printed in 1533. The article also offers a succinct historical context for both letters and sketches a circle of reformist Catholics, of which Zumárraga and Luco partook during the 1530s, who were concerned about the wellbeing and the evangelization of the indigenous peoples of the ...


The Jewish Migration To Mexico During Nazi Germany, Gisela A. Argote 2021 University of Texas at El Paso

The Jewish Migration To Mexico During Nazi Germany, Gisela A. Argote

Pathways: A Journal of Humanistic and Social Inquiry

In response to antisemitic persecution from Nazi Germany and allied states, Jews from Central and Eastern Europe sought asylum, emigrated, applied for visas, and faced deportation. Mexico, under the leadership of President Lázaro Cardenas, a vocal opponent of Fascism who allowed tens of thousands of Spanish-Republican exiles to emigrate to the country, was one potential destination for Central and Eastern European Jews. In fact, the Mexican Secretariat of Foreign Affairs, received thousands of applications from asylum seekers. This paper challenges the image of Mexico as a country offering hospitality to European refugees and evaluates the state’s reluctance to accept ...


Full Issue: Volume 2, Issue 1, Editorial Board 2021 Swarthmore College

Full Issue: Volume 2, Issue 1, Editorial Board

Swarthmore Undergraduate History Journal

The first issue in the second volume of the Swarthmore Undergraduate History Journal.


Selection From "Una Iglesia Desaparecida: The End Of An Era For The Chilean Catholic Church", September Porras Payea 2021 Swarthmore College

Selection From "Una Iglesia Desaparecida: The End Of An Era For The Chilean Catholic Church", September Porras Payea

Swarthmore Undergraduate History Journal

This article aims to investigate the changing political alignment of the Chilean Catholic Church following the fall of the dictatorship in the early 1990’s. The author brings together a primary source collection of new articles, photographs, and interviews, as well as a secondary source collection of sociological surveys and historiography, to interrogate the process and outcome of this political transition. The article maintains that desires for hierarchical control and a rejection of past, progressive theology motivated Church leaders to transition the Church away from community based leadership, to clerical control.


Race And Resistance On The Creation Of Mexican American Citizenship And The Chicano Identity, Luiz Francisco Guizzo Gutierrez Osorio 2021 University of North Carolina at Greensboro

Race And Resistance On The Creation Of Mexican American Citizenship And The Chicano Identity, Luiz Francisco Guizzo Gutierrez Osorio

Undergraduate Research

No abstract provided.


Varieties Of Transnational Life: Brazilian Nikkeis’ Changing Cross-Border Ties With Two Homelands, Hiroyuki Shibata 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Varieties Of Transnational Life: Brazilian Nikkeis’ Changing Cross-Border Ties With Two Homelands, Hiroyuki Shibata

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation explores the varieties of Brazilian Nikkei’s – Japanese emigrants to Brazil and their descendants – transnational lives throughout a century of their migration history. I propose an interactive process approach to migrant transnationalism to understand the divergence of Brazilian Nikkeis’ transnational lives between their two homelands, Japan and Brazil. First, I focus on the four macro-institutional contexts: 1) positions and development patterns of sending and receiving states within the international state system; the infrastructural power of states, more concretely 2) the diasporic bureaucracy of sending states and 3) the incorporative power of receiving states; and 4) the mobilizing capacity ...


Us, Abundantly: From Africa To The Americas, Karisma Jay 2021 CUNY Hunter College

Us, Abundantly: From Africa To The Americas, Karisma Jay

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

"Us, AbunDantly," a Live theatrical dance performance and film, delves into the African Diaspora and its influences. An artistic and academic project built upon the amplification of Black excellence and Black pride, this paper contextualizes a work within the oral histories and contemporary dance studies of a powerfully ancestral community.


Donde Las Nubes Se Unen Al Mar = Where The Clouds Meet The Water, Kimberly E. Contag, James A. (Jim) Grabowska 2021 Minnesota State University, Mankato

Donde Las Nubes Se Unen Al Mar = Where The Clouds Meet The Water, Kimberly E. Contag, James A. (Jim) Grabowska

MSU Authors Collection

Donde las nubes se unen al mar (2021) es la traducción de la narrativa histórica Where the Clouds Meet the Water (2004), un libro que explica la saga de Ernesto Contag Ziehe y su familia durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Ernesto y su familia fueron deportados de su patria ecuatoriana a la Alemania de los Nazis en 1942. La narrativa histórica que se lee casi como novela se basa en la investigación en bibliotecas, hemerotecas y archivos en tres continentes y en los documentos originales de los sobrevivientes de este canje político internacional de inocentes.

Donde las nubes se unen ...


The Jewish “Other” In Argentina: Antisemitism, Exclusion, And The Formation Of Argentine Nationalism And Identity In The 20th Century And During Military Rule (1976-1983), Marcus Helble 2021 Bowdoin College

The Jewish “Other” In Argentina: Antisemitism, Exclusion, And The Formation Of Argentine Nationalism And Identity In The 20th Century And During Military Rule (1976-1983), Marcus Helble

Honors Projects

Throughout the 20th century, Argentine leaders and social actors attempted to shape distinct national identities and a sense of nationalism that corresponded to their respective political ideologies. Beginning in the first couple decades of the 20th century, the formation of a Jewish “other” would be central to the construction of both Argentine national identity and nationalism. This thesis argues that the military dictatorship that led the country from 1976 to 1983 built on this othering of the Jewish community as military leaders sought to forge a national identity linked to Catholicism. It focuses first on three separate periods of the ...


Unspoken Whiteness: #Whitexicans And Religious Conservativism In Mexico., Ricardo J. Alvarez-Pimentel 2020 Yale University

Unspoken Whiteness: #Whitexicans And Religious Conservativism In Mexico., Ricardo J. Alvarez-Pimentel

Journal of Hispanic and Lusophone Whiteness Studies (HLWS)

This article explores intersections between religious conservatism, pro-Americanism, and whiteness in Mexican society. Specifically, it examines past and present attempts by white elites and religious conservatives to surveille indigenous women’s bodies and sexuality, to “Americanize” Mexico, and to glorify the nation’s European legacies at the expense of erasing—and even justifying— anti-indigenous violence. This paper analyzes conservative activism as carried out by early-twentiethcentury Catholic activists and contemporary social media users grappling with the present-day “whitexican” phenomenon. It analyzes Mexicans’ unspoken appeals to whiteness as they permeate prevalent discourses of feminine propriety and religious restoration, North American cultural proximity ...


De Opresivo A Benigno: Historia Comparada De La Construcción De La Blancura En Brasil En La Época De La Post-Abolición., Darién Davis 2020 Middlebury College

De Opresivo A Benigno: Historia Comparada De La Construcción De La Blancura En Brasil En La Época De La Post-Abolición., Darién Davis

Journal of Hispanic and Lusophone Whiteness Studies (HLWS)

Este ensayo analiza cómo intelectuales patrióticos brasileños transformaron la blancura opresiva del proyecto colonial portugués a una “blancura benigna.” Después de proporcionar una breve historia del desarrollo de la blancura y mestizaje en América Latina, destaco el patriotismo y el racismo en pensadores como el cubano José Martí, el uruguayo Enrique Rodó y el brasileño Euclides da Cunha. Tras la Primera Guerra Mundial, las élites culturales de Brasil, junto con el estado burgués, promovieron e institucionalizaron la hibridación cultural como único rasgo que une brasileños en una manera superior a los Estados Unidos. Dicho tropo patriótico de la hibridación enmascaró ...


(Preámbulo) De Whiteness A Blanquitud Y Branquitude - (Preface) From Whiteness To Blanquitud And Branquitude., JM. Persánch 2020 Western Oregon University, AfroIberia (CSIC).

(Preámbulo) De Whiteness A Blanquitud Y Branquitude - (Preface) From Whiteness To Blanquitud And Branquitude., Jm. Persánch

Journal of Hispanic and Lusophone Whiteness Studies (HLWS)

Este preámbulo hace un recorrido de la trayectoria desde el estudio de whiteness a los de la blanquitud y la branquitude y presenta el volumen I, HLWS, 2020.

This preface traces the trajectory from the study of whiteness to those of blanquitud and branquitude and introduces Volume I, HLWS, 2020.


Running Scared In The Valley Below: El Salvador's Role In The Creation Of Central American Neoliberalism, Quentin Kanta 2020 Western Oregon University

Running Scared In The Valley Below: El Salvador's Role In The Creation Of Central American Neoliberalism, Quentin Kanta

PURE Insights

When U.S. Representative Ilhan Omar (D-Minnesota) questioned Elliott Abrams about his involvement in the 1981 El Mozote Massacre — in which the Salvadoran Army brutally killed more than 800 civilians execution-style, many of them women and children — in front of the House Subcommittee on Foreign Affairs in February 2019, she awakened a monster that had been sleeping away from the public’s eye for nearly 40 years. The El Mozote Massacre, in which nearly one thousand Salvadorans were callously murdered —women and children included — helped to inaugurate the unprecedented and sadistic counterrevolutionary violence supported materially and ideologically by the Reagan ...


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