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Playing With Fire: The Medieval Judicial Ordeals And Their Downfall, Aaron Larson 2021 Ohio State University - Main Campus

Playing With Fire: The Medieval Judicial Ordeals And Their Downfall, Aaron Larson

Swarthmore Undergraduate History Journal

Trials by ordeal in the Middle Ages prove to be some of the most complex secular trials in all of history. Both trial by fire, and trial by water looked to call God's judgment into play, hoping that He would make the decisions of guilt or innocence. God is all-knowing. He is all-powerful. Therefore He has all of the relevant information to determine the fates of those who go through the ordeals. Despite this, the theologians in the medieval Church looked to lessen clerical involvement in the ordeals. In 1215, the Fourth Lateran Council met, and the ordeals ceased ...


The Patriarchs And Near Eastern Laws And Customs: How The Patriarchs Interacted With Mesopotamian Society, Jessica M. Baird 2021 Liberty University

The Patriarchs And Near Eastern Laws And Customs: How The Patriarchs Interacted With Mesopotamian Society, Jessica M. Baird

Diligence: Journal of the Liberty University Online Religion Capstone in Research and Scholarship

This paper aims to take a deeper look at Near Eastern laws and customs and analyze how the Patriarchs interacted with them. The lives of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and their wives will be thoroughly examined, and the cultural context will be compared to that of neighboring ancient peoples. Ancient texts regarding marriage, names, covenants, inheritance laws, and slavery will be discussed to discover how these documents line up with Genesis' account. These texts include the Mari texts, Execration texts, the Code of Hammurabi, codes of Lipit-Ishtar, and the Code of Ur-Nammu. This paper will conclude that while the Patriarchs do ...


Mes 160: Classical Islamic Literature & Civilization, Kirsten Beck 2021 CUNY Queens College

Mes 160: Classical Islamic Literature & Civilization, Kirsten Beck

Open Educational Resources

This open resource includes a syllabus, class schedule, grading rubrics, and guidelines/examples for digital poetry annotation.

The course website can be found here: http://mes160.social.qwriting.qc.cuny.edu/

In this course, we will take a journey through history, literature, and ideas, traveling through Islamic civilization from 600-1250 CE. We will learn about and contemplate the major events and concerns of Islamic civilization, from the dawn of Islam through the expansions, transformations, and fragmentations of Islamic empires, up until the end of the 13th century. Works of Islamic literature from a variety of genres will fuel our journey ...


Social Reconstruction: American Catholics Radical Response To The Social Gospel Movement And Progressives., Paul Lubienecki, PhD 2021 Boland Center for the Study of Labor and Religion

Social Reconstruction: American Catholics Radical Response To The Social Gospel Movement And Progressives., Paul Lubienecki, Phd

Journal of Catholic Education

At the fin de siècle the Industrial Revolution created egregious physical, emotional and spiritual conditions for American society and especially for the worker but who would come forward to alleviate those conditions? Protestants implemented their Social Gospel Movement as a proposed cure to these problems. Secular Progressives engaged in a more activist role both materially and through legislation. Both of these groups had limited successes with disappointing outcomes. America’s Catholics, more accustomed to living and working in industrialized neighborhoods, eventually developed their own programs and agenda to address social and labor concerns. However some scholars believed that Catholic efforts ...


An Overview Of Life And Works Of Jami & His Perception Of Love, LEYLA HAJIMEHDITAJER 2021 Help University Malaysia

An Overview Of Life And Works Of Jami & His Perception Of Love, Leyla Hajimehditajer

Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Multidisciplinary Studies

Abd al-Rahman Jami (817/1414- 898/1492) is regarded as the last grand classical poet of Persian literature and a great Sufi of his time. Towards the end of his life, he compiled his Divan in which one can trace his life pattern that he has divide into three main phases. These include: 1) the period of his childhood and early phases of education, which is reported in Fātiḥah al-Shabāb; 2) his mid-life phase as elaborated in Wāsiṭah al-‘Aqd; and, 3) the last stage of his life, discussed in Khātimah al-Ḥayāt. In the latter, Jami tends to evaluate his ...


The Space Between Love And Hate: Coexistence During Convivencia, John Franzwa 2021 Western Oregon University

The Space Between Love And Hate: Coexistence During Convivencia, John Franzwa

Phi Alpha Theta

No abstract provided.


Structural Delusion, Religious Anxiety, And A Melodramatic Priest: Exploring Macro And Micro Influences On The CóRdoban Martyrs, Emma K. Friesen 2021 Seattle Pacific University

Structural Delusion, Religious Anxiety, And A Melodramatic Priest: Exploring Macro And Micro Influences On The CóRdoban Martyrs, Emma K. Friesen

Honors Projects

After escaping the assassination of the Umayyad royal family in Damascus, a member of this family, Abd al-Rahman I, fled to the Iberian Peninsula to establish a new Umayyad Empire (756-1492 AD). Famous for its pluralistic polity, unparalleled scholarship, artistic prowess, and more, this empire rightfully established itself as a powerful political force. Many scholars emphasize the unique convivencia, or coexistence, that characterized Islamic Spain during these centuries while others thoroughly question this reality, concerned that it ignores the cultural strain that is inevitable in such a diverse society. In this essay, we find ourselves balancing a middle position, recognizing ...


Historic Foundations For Religious Freedom And Their Inherent Conflicts, Gaylen P. Leverett 2021 Liberty University

Historic Foundations For Religious Freedom And Their Inherent Conflicts, Gaylen P. Leverett

CULTURE & CRISIS: Reconciling Constitutionalism & Federalism in a Time of Crisis

Decades ago, when this essayist and his wife wished to transform their old bedroom into a modern “primary bedroom,” the plan was to build a bathroom right next to it from the ground up. The city inspector required the addition’s foundation to be attached so firmly to the foundation of the original house that it would be impossible for one foundation to shift without causing the same shift in the other. That directions were followed and the addition proved stable. Most people understand the need for the city ordinance which regulates new foundations for “additions.” However, when it comes ...


Religious Mega-Events And Their Assemblages In Devotional Pilgrimages: The Case Of Círio De Nazaré In Belém, Pará State, Brazil, José Rogério Lopes, André Luiz da Silva 2021 College of the Holy Cross

Religious Mega-Events And Their Assemblages In Devotional Pilgrimages: The Case Of Círio De Nazaré In Belém, Pará State, Brazil, José Rogério Lopes, André Luiz Da Silva

Journal of Global Catholicism

The article presents a typological categorization of contemporary mega-events and their characteristics, in order to interpret the assemblages mobilized by sectors of the Catholic Church in traditional devotional pilgrimages in the northern region of Brazil. It uses ethnographic accounts of the Círio de Nazaré feast, in Belém, Pará state, Brazil, considered the largest Catholic procession in the West, in order to analyze how the promotion of this event is organized through institutional and market logics that overlap with the religious phenomenon, evincing a contemporary trend. These assemblages open a field of possibilities for institutional religious reproduction and generate concentric flows ...


Contemporary Brazilian Catholicism And Healing Practices: Notes On Environmentalism And Medicalization, Juliano F. Almeida 2021 College of the Holy Cross

Contemporary Brazilian Catholicism And Healing Practices: Notes On Environmentalism And Medicalization, Juliano F. Almeida

Journal of Global Catholicism

Anthropological studies on Brazilian Catholicism traditionally focused on popular variants of this religious practice and their relationship with the official Catholicism. Encouraged by recent anthropological perspectives, which highlight the relevance of devoting researches not only on the margins, but also on the center of social practices, this paper analyzes contemporary practices of Brazilian Catholic friars and priests on health promotion. The analysis of their publications (books that include practices and tips on health and that became best sellers etc.), as well as interviews, allows us to perceive a process of environmentalization on the contemporary Brazilian Catholicism. This process seems to ...


Strong Church, Weak Catholicism: Transformations In Brazilian Catholicism, Carlos Alberto Steil, Rodrigo Toniol 2021 College of the Holy Cross

Strong Church, Weak Catholicism: Transformations In Brazilian Catholicism, Carlos Alberto Steil, Rodrigo Toniol

Journal of Global Catholicism

In this paper we explore data on Catholicism from the 2010 census in Brazil, as well as other data from the Center for Religious Statistics and Social Investigation. Using these statistics, we question those arguments that explain the reduction in the number of Catholics in Brazilian society as a problem in the institution’s adaptation in response to the challenges of evangelization, or as a lack of ministerial vocations to meet the religious demands of the people. Pursuing an alternative argument, we consider the weakening of the relationship between the Catholic institution and traditional popular Catholicism to be a fundamental ...


Editor's Introduction, Marc Roscoe Loustau 2021 College of the Holy Cross

Editor's Introduction, Marc Roscoe Loustau

Journal of Global Catholicism

No abstract provided.


The Great Awokening, Samuel C. Smith 2021 Liberty University

The Great Awokening, Samuel C. Smith

CULTURE & CRISIS: Reconciling Constitutionalism & Federalism in a Time of Crisis

The Great “Awokening”[1]

“Were you to see him in his most violent agitations, you would be apt to think that he was a madman just broke from his chains.”—Boston Evening Post on James Davenport, Aug. 2, 1742.

“I'm actually not a fan of the word 'woke.' I think the connotation of that means being socially aware, which is a beautiful thing to be. But it does not take into account being self-aware.”—India Arie

Most of my historical research has been on The First Great Awakening, an eighteenth-century revival movement that played a major role ...


Proto-Nationalism In Scandinavia: Swedish State Building In The Middle Ages, Alexander Jacobson 2021 University of Puget Sound

Proto-Nationalism In Scandinavia: Swedish State Building In The Middle Ages, Alexander Jacobson

Honors Program Theses

Nationalism is usually considered a modern socio-political development and a product of the French and Industrial Revolutions. However most scholarship done on nationalism largely overlooks religion, and excludes both its presence in the Middle Ages and its development in Scandinavia--focusing heavily on German, British, French, and Central European variations of nationalism. For Scandinavians in the late Middle Ages and Early Modern era, nationalism did not emerge exactly like their European counterparts. It was the product of early religious, technological, and economic changes over the course of the 15th and 16th Centuries that restructured European politics, society, and identity. Using early ...


Session 2: Panel 1: Presenter 1 (Paper) -- The Struggle Of The Soul Medieval Women Mystics And The Constraints Of The Orthodoxy, Kasaundra A. Bonanno 2021 Saint Marys Academy

Session 2: Panel 1: Presenter 1 (Paper) -- The Struggle Of The Soul Medieval Women Mystics And The Constraints Of The Orthodoxy, Kasaundra A. Bonanno

Young Historians Conference

First Corinthians 14:34 tells us, “let your women keep silence in the churches for it is not permitted unto them to speak.” But what happened when medieval women in the 12-15th centuries did speak, and what techniques did they apply to gain credibility? This paper explores the various methods (along with cultural aspects such as the appearance of piousness) women mystics utilized to gain power within the Church in a time when their voices were silenced, and the factors that allowed individuals such as Catherine of Siena to gain incredible influence where individuals like Joan of Arc were burned ...


John Of Damascus’S Theological Methodology: An Effective Way To Answer Islamic Objections, Sherene N. Khouri 2021 Liberty University

John Of Damascus’S Theological Methodology: An Effective Way To Answer Islamic Objections, Sherene N. Khouri

Eleutheria

John of Damascus, who is considered one of the three pillars of the Eastern Orthodox church, was not known in the West for a long time. Few scholars studied his work in recent years and highlighted some aspects of his Summa, which is considered the first systematic theology work in the history of Christianity. This paper will have three sections: the first section shall discuss the life and the educational background of John. The second section shall discuss and evaluate John’s theological methodology. The third section shall discuss his methodology in answering the Saracen. This paper aims to highlight ...


The Forgotten Disciples: The Faithful Witness Of Women In Early Christianity, Jessica C. Hughes 2021 Liberty University

The Forgotten Disciples: The Faithful Witness Of Women In Early Christianity, Jessica C. Hughes

Eleutheria

At its earliest, Christianity is a religion of respect and dignity for women. This paper examines the experience and contributions of women to Christianity, beginning at the time of Christ and continuing to through to approximately 300 A.D., or shortly before the Nicene Creed was developed. This paper demonstrates the way the church, from the outset, has largely relied on the contributions and gifts of women in order to fulfill its mission. This paper then applies this historic context to the American church in issues of life and gender, concluding that it is the recognition and partnership with women ...


Arabic Christian Theology: A Contemporary Global Evangelical Perspective, Sherene N. Khouri 2021 Liberty University

Arabic Christian Theology: A Contemporary Global Evangelical Perspective, Sherene N. Khouri

Eleutheria

Andrea Zaki Stephanous, Arabic Christian Theology: A Contemporary Global Evangelical Perspective, Zondervan, 2019 (ISBN 978-0-310-32026-5), 493 pp. $34.99.


The Barmen Declaration And The American Church: A Warning And Guidance From History, Johnny Davis 2021 Liberty University

The Barmen Declaration And The American Church: A Warning And Guidance From History, Johnny Davis

CULTURE & CRISIS: Reconciling Constitutionalism & Federalism in a Time of Crisis

The Barmen Declaration serves as a great example that the American Church should heed.[1] The American Church faces a hostile secular culture and a government that is increasingly statist and anti-Christian. The state has become an idol in an American culture that rejects truth and righteousness. A bold stance for truth and Christ is required by scripture and is the key to transforming the culture and saving the American Republic.


The “Age Of Rock” Versus The “Rock Of Ages”: Naturalism, Social Darwinism, And Fundamentalism In The Scopes Monkey Trial, Bessie Blackburn 2021 Liberty University

The “Age Of Rock” Versus The “Rock Of Ages”: Naturalism, Social Darwinism, And Fundamentalism In The Scopes Monkey Trial, Bessie Blackburn

CULTURE & CRISIS: Reconciling Constitutionalism & Federalism in a Time of Crisis

Greek mythology once predominated the highest forms of culture known to man. Myths of how fire came to be in the hands of humans, or how the peacock got its spotted feathers were beloved cultural tales of origins.[1] With the decline of the ancient cultures, new ones blossomed in their place. However, the question of origin has remained a pertinent, central question of each culture, no matter how modern. The question of origin dictates who a person believes himself to be, where he believes himself to be going, and what he believes himself to be doing. The question of ...


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