Glutamine Antagonist 6-Diazo-5-Oxo-L-Norleucine, A Hyaluronan Synthesis Inhibitor, Slows Triple Negative Breast Cancer Growth, 2020 University at Albany, State University of New York
Glutamine Antagonist 6-Diazo-5-Oxo-L-Norleucine, A Hyaluronan Synthesis Inhibitor, Slows Triple Negative Breast Cancer Growth, Le Gia Cat Pham
Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) are the most aggressive subtype of breast cancer with few treatment options and poor outcomes. TNBCs are characterized by elevations in hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) enzyme expression, hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) expression and hyaluronan (HA) production. Glutamine is an important substrate for HA production via the HBP. 6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine (DON) is a well-known glutamine antagonist with validated antitumoral efficacy. This project examined the effects of DON on HA production and energy metabolism in TNBC cells. We examined the effect of DON treatment on Hs578T cells, which represent the mesenchymal stem-like subtype of TNBC. We specifically analyzed the ...
The Bioethical Significance Of “The Origin Of Man’S Ethical Behavior” (October 1941, Unpublished) By Ernest Everett Just And Hedwig Anna Schnetzler Just, Theodore Walker Jr.
Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science
E. E. Just (1883-1941) is an acknowledged “pioneer” in cell biology, and he is perhaps the pioneer in study of egg cell fertilization. Here we discover that Just also made pioneering contributions to general biology and evolutionary bioethics.
Within Just’s published contributions to observational cell biology, there are substantial fragments of his theory of ethical behavior, a theory with roots in cell biology. In addition to such previously available fragments, Just’s fully developed theory is now available. This recently discovered unpublished book-length manuscript argues for the biological origins of ethical behavior (evolving from cells to humans, within ...
Peroxiredoxin 6 And Inflammation In Alzheimer's Disease, 2019 Southern Methodist University
Peroxiredoxin 6 And Inflammation In Alzheimer's Disease, Jared Ferrell-Penniman
Biological Sciences Theses and Dissertations
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is known for its debilitating symptoms and poor prognosis. However, despite intense research into neurodegenerative diseases, there are few therapies targeted at the underlying mechanisms of the disease. Oxidative stress (OS) and inflammation are cellular phenomena thought to be key to the progression of the disease. Critically, peroxiredoxin 6 (Prx6), an antioxidant protein with multiple functions, has been identified from mammalian studies as a potential regulator of both OS and inflammation that may have a specific effect on AD. This project seeks to elucidate the role of Prx6 in AD as well as the underlying mechanisms ...
Effects Of E-Cigarette Vapor On Dalpha7 Gene Expression In Adult Drosophila Melanogaster, 2019 Carroll College
Effects Of E-Cigarette Vapor On Dalpha7 Gene Expression In Adult Drosophila Melanogaster, Roma Seal, Bella Maag
Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival
While it is commonly known that there are many negative effects of nicotine on humans, the effects of nicotine specifically from vapor produced by Electric Cigarettes (E-Cigarettes), have not yet been determined. In this study, students test to see if a gene specifically related to nicotine addiction in both fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) and humans is expressed upon exposure to E-Cigarette vapor. Furthermore, students will test to determine if exposure to E-Cigarette vapor has a deleterious effect on the motor function of flies; as similar studies using nicotine alone have concluded. In this study, students will focus on the expression ...
Sensory Primary Cilium Is A Responsive Camp Microdomain In Renal Epithelia, 2019 Chapman University
Sensory Primary Cilium Is A Responsive Camp Microdomain In Renal Epithelia, Rinzhin T. Sherpa, Ashraf M. Mohieldin, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Dagmar Wachten, Rennolds S. Ostrom, Surya M. Nauli
Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research
Primary cilia are hair-like cellular extensions that sense microenvironmental signals surrounding cells. The role of adenylyl cyclases in ciliary function has been of interest because the product of adenylyl cyclase activity, cAMP, is relevant to cilia-related diseases. In the present study, we show that vasopressin receptor type-2 (V2R) is localized to cilia in kidney epithelial cells. Pharmacologic inhibition of V2R with tolvaptan increases ciliary length and mechanosensory function. Genetic knockdown of V2R, however, does not have any effect on ciliary length, although the effect of tolvaptan on ciliary length is dampened. Our study reveals that tolvaptan may have a cilia-specific ...
Amphiphilic Peptides For Efficient Sirna Delivery, 2019 Chapman University
Amphiphilic Peptides For Efficient Sirna Delivery, Saghar Mozaffari, Emira Bousoik, Farideh Amirrad, Robert Lamboy, Melissa Coyle, Ryley Hall, Abdulaziz Alasmari, Parvin Mahdipoor, Keykavous Parang, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi
Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research
A number of amphiphilic cyclic peptides—[FR]4, [WR]5, and [WK]5—containing hydrophobic and positively-charged amino acids were synthesized by Fmoc/tBu solid-phase peptide methods and evaluated for their efficiency in intracellular delivery of siRNA to triple-negative breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468, in the presence and absence of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE). Among the peptides, [WR]5, which contains alternate tryptophan (W) and arginine (R) residues, was found to be the most efficient in the delivery of siRNA by improving the delivery by more than 3-fold when compared to other synthesized cyclic peptides that were not efficient ...
Effects Of Pag1 On Src-Family Kinase Trafficking In Neuroblastoma Cells, 2019 University of Montana, Missoula
Effects Of Pag1 On Src-Family Kinase Trafficking In Neuroblastoma Cells, Makenzie E. Mayfield
Undergraduate Theses, Professional Papers, and Capstone Artifacts
The receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are known to help regulate cell behaviors including differentiation, proliferation and migration during embryonic development of the neural crest. RTKs are believed to initiate signaling cascades in response to extracellular cues in part by controlling localization of Src-family kinases (SFKs). The scaffolding protein PAG1 binds SFKs and is believed to influence SFK activity and location within the cell by promoting interaction of SFKs with regulatory proteins and by drawing SFKs into different components of the endocytic pathway. By targeting the PAG1 gene in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with CRISPR/Cas9 plasmids, we created PAG1-mutant cell-lines in ...
Identifying Functional Components Of The Endoplasmic Reticulum Quality Control And Degradation Factor Edem1, 2018 University of Massachusetts Amherst
Identifying Functional Components Of The Endoplasmic Reticulum Quality Control And Degradation Factor Edem1, Lydia Lamriben
The ER Degradation-Enhancing Mannosidase-Like protein 1 (EDEM1) is a critical endoplasmic reticulum (ER) quality control factor involved in identifying and directing non-native proteins to the ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) pathway. However, its recognition and binding properties have remained enigmatic since its discovery. Here we provide evidence for an additional redox-sensitive interaction between EDEM1 and Z/NHK that requires the presence of the single Cys on the α-1 antitrypsin ERAD clients. Moreover, this Cys-dependent interaction is necessary when the proteins are isolated under stringent detergent conditions, ones in which only strong covalent interactions can be sustained. This interaction is inherent to ...
Modified Cantilever Arrays Improve Sensitivity And Reproducibility Of Nanomechanical Sensing In Living Cells, 2018 University College London
Modified Cantilever Arrays Improve Sensitivity And Reproducibility Of Nanomechanical Sensing In Living Cells, Samadhan B. Patil, Rajai M. Al-Jehani, Hashem Etayash, Valerian Turbe, Keren Jiang, Joe Bailey, Walid Al-Akkad, Rania Soudy, Kamaljit Kaur, Rachel A. Mckendry, Thomas Thundat, Joseph W. Ndieyira
Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research
Mechanical signaling involved in molecular interactions lies at the heart of materials science and biological systems, but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Here we use nanomechanical sensors and intact human cells to provide unique insights into the signaling pathways of connectivity networks, which deliver the ability to probe cells to produce biologically relevant, quantifiable and reproducible signals. We quantify the mechanical signals from malignant cancer cells, with 10 cells per ml in 1000-fold excess of non-neoplastic human epithelial cells. Moreover, we demonstrate that a direct link between cells and molecules creates a continuous connectivity which acts like a percolating ...
Cellular Mechanisms Of Slime Gland Refilling In Pacific Hagfish (Eptatretus Stoutii), 2018 University of Guelph
Cellular Mechanisms Of Slime Gland Refilling In Pacific Hagfish (Eptatretus Stoutii), Sarah Schorno, Todd E. Gillis, Douglas S. Fudge
Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research
Hagfishes use their defensive slime to ward off gill-breathing predators. Slime gland refilling is a surprisingly slow process, and previous research has shown that the composition of the slime exudate changes significantly during refilling, which likely has consequences for the functionality of the slime. This study set out to expand our understanding of slime gland refilling by examining the cellular processes involved in refilling of the glands, as well as determining where in the gland the main slime cells – the gland thread cells and gland mucous cells – arise. Slime glands were electro-stimulated to exhaust their slime stores, left to refill ...
Characterization Of Theranostic Peptides For Glioblastoma Multiforme, 2018 Northern Michigan University
Characterization Of Theranostic Peptides For Glioblastoma Multiforme, Aaron Mellesmoen
All NMU Master's Theses
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a type of primary CNS tumor in which viable treatment options do not exist. Standard of care including tumor resection, chemotherapy, and radiation does little to extend the 5-year survival expectancy past 5.1%. Herein, two small-peptide molecules with inherent antitumor activity, blood-brain barrier permeability, and capability for tumor-specific drug deliverance and intraoperative visualization (termed theranostic) were of focus. Confocal microscopy was employed to characterize in vitro specificity of chlorotoxin, a 4 kDa scorpion venom peptide, and rBSG, the recombinant 25 kDa non-glycosylated extracellular domain of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN; Basigin ...
Efficient Intracellular Delivery Of Cell-Impermeable Cargo Molecules By Peptides Containing Tryptophan And Histidine, Amir Nasrolahi Shirazi, Saghar Mozaffari, Rinzhin Tshering Sherpa, Rakesh Tiwari, Keykavous Parang
Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research
We have previously evaluated and reported numerous classes of linear and cyclic peptides containing hydrophobic and hydrophilic segments for intracellular delivery of multiple molecular cargos. Herein, a combination of histidine and tryptophan amino acids were designed and evaluated for their efficiency in intracellular delivery of cell-impermeable phosphopeptides and the anti-HIV drug, emtricitabine. Two new decapeptides, with linear and cyclic natures, both containing alternate tryptophan and histidine residues, were synthesized using Fmoc/tBu solid-phase chemistry. The peptides were characterized and purified by using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), respectively. These peptides did not show significant ...
Disentangling The Subalpine Marshmarigold Species Complex: The Cytogeography, Phylogeography, And Systematics Of Caltha Biflora Dc., C. Chionophila Greene, And C. Leptosepala Dc. (Ranunculaceae), 2018 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
Disentangling The Subalpine Marshmarigold Species Complex: The Cytogeography, Phylogeography, And Systematics Of Caltha Biflora Dc., C. Chionophila Greene, And C. Leptosepala Dc. (Ranunculaceae), Keir Wefferling
Theses and Dissertations
Subalpine marshmarigolds (Caltha biflora DC., C. chionophila DC., and C. leptosepala Greene, Ranunculaceae) are herbaceous perennials that grow in western North American mountainous and subarctic regions, from Alaska and Yukon in the north to California, Arizona, and New Mexico in the south. Variation in morphology across the range has generally led to recognition of a single species, though some have described up to nine species in the complex. In this dissertation, I describe our approaches to disentangling reticulate evolution across the geographical range of the subalpine marshmarigold complex, including chromosome counts (Chapter II), genome size estimates (Chapter III), morphology (Chapters ...
Investigation For Novel Anti-Apoptotic Factors In The Neurons Of Drosophila Melanogaster, 2018 University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Investigation For Novel Anti-Apoptotic Factors In The Neurons Of Drosophila Melanogaster, Haylie Rachel Lam
Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects
No abstract provided.
Rescue Of Neocortical Circuit Deficits With Modified Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Sb623, In A Rat Model Of Photothrombotic Stroke, Alexander Urry
Yale Day of Data
The following poster characterizes the effects of a novel stem cell line on treating the neural circuit deficits resulting from stroke.
Obesity, 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois
Obesity, Noah Rhodes
Global Issues in Public Health
Obesity is a worldwide issue that can be defined as a non-communicable condition which means that it is non-infectious and non-transmissible and it is defined as having a BMI over 30 even though BMI doesn’t account for the person’s muscle mass which causes some athletes to be considered obese just because they weigh a lot for their height. Diagnosing obesity can be a long process which includes a health history being taken, a general physical exam, calculation of BMI, and measuring waist circumference. Diagnosis of obesity also involves checking for problems such as high blood pressure, variation of ...
The Functions Of Setd5 And Mir-221 In Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation, 2017 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
The Functions Of Setd5 And Mir-221 In Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation, Tsai-Yu Chen
The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are a widely used model system to study cellular differentiation because of their pluripotent characteristics, and ESC differentiation is an epigenetic process. In an effort to identify a new epigenetic factor that is required for ESC differentiation, the function of SETD5 in ESCs was studied for this thesis. Results show that SETD5 is essential for retinoic acid (RA)-induced differentiation of mouse ESCs and for RA-induced expression of critical developmental genes (e.g., Hoxa1 and Hoxa2) and neuron-related genes (e.g., Nestin and Pax6). SETD5 was upregulated during ESC differentiation. Additional results demonstrated that SETD5 bound ...
Transgneic Endothelin 3 Regulates Murine Pigment Production And Coat Color, 2017 Florida International University
Transgneic Endothelin 3 Regulates Murine Pigment Production And Coat Color, Javier Pino
FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Pigmentation plays a protective role against damage caused by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Humans with fair skin and light hair have a higher susceptibility to UV-induced DNA damage that can lead to the development of skin cancers. The melanocytes found in the skin and hair follicles depend on different signaling molecules for their proper development and pigment production. α-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (α-msh) binds to the Melanocortin 1 receptor (Mc1r) to regulate pigment production and the switch between eumelanin and pheomelanin. Lethal yellow mice (Ay) overexpress the agouti signaling protein, which inhibits the binding of α-msh, resulting in a yellow coat ...
Morphogenesis And Growth Driven By Selection Of Dynamical Properties, 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York
Morphogenesis And Growth Driven By Selection Of Dynamical Properties, Yuri Cantor
All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
Organisms are understood to be complex adaptive systems that evolved to thrive in hostile environments. Though widely studied, the phenomena of organism development and growth, and their relationship to organism dynamics is not well understood. Indeed, the large number of components, their interconnectivity, and complex system interactions all obscure our ability to see, describe, and understand the functioning of biological organisms.
Here we take a synthetic and computational approach to the problem, abstracting the organism as a cellular automaton. Such systems are discrete digital models of real-world environments, making them more accessible and easier to study then their physical world ...
The Role Of T-Box Proteins In Vertebrate Germ Layer Formation And Patterning, 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York
The Role Of T-Box Proteins In Vertebrate Germ Layer Formation And Patterning, Sushma Teegala
All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
All of the tissues in triploblastic organisms, with the exception of the germ cells, arise from the three germ layers, ectoderm, mesoderm and the endoderm. The identification of the genes that underlie the differentiation of these layers is crucial to our understanding of development. T-box family proteins are DNA-binding transcriptional regulators that play important roles during germ layer formation in the early vertebrate embryo. Well-characterized members of this family, including the transcriptional activators Brachyury and VegT, are essential for the proper formation of mesoderm and endoderm, respectively. To date, T-box proteins have not been shown to play a role in ...