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7,763 full-text articles. Page 4 of 304.

Coping With Stress: The Caulobacter Approach, Bronson R. Weston, Yang Cao, John J. Tyson 2020 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Coping With Stress: The Caulobacter Approach, Bronson R. Weston, Yang Cao, John J. Tyson

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Emergence, Mechanics, And Development: How Behavior And Geometry Underlie Cowrie Seashell Form, Michael G. Levy, Michael R. DeWeese 2020 University of California Berkeley

Emergence, Mechanics, And Development: How Behavior And Geometry Underlie Cowrie Seashell Form, Michael G. Levy, Michael R. Deweese

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Effect Of Non-Muscle Myosin Ii Inhibition On Epigenetics During Oligodendrocyte Development, Amr Almaktari 2020 CUNY Hunter College

Effect Of Non-Muscle Myosin Ii Inhibition On Epigenetics During Oligodendrocyte Development, Amr Almaktari

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Non-Muscle Myosin II (NMII) is a mechanosensitive motor protein implicated in oligodendrocyte (OL) development. The inhibition of NMII is known to promote OL development and maturation. This project found that NMII inhibition does not affect oligodendrocyte development by altering their epigenetic profile.


Patenting Antibodies: A Complication In Written Description Jurisprudence, Krisha Yadav-Rajan 2020 DePaul University College of Law

Patenting Antibodies: A Complication In Written Description Jurisprudence, Krisha Yadav-Rajan

DePaul Journal of Health Care Law

No abstract provided.


The Anti-Proliferative Effects Of Methotrexate And Novel Ucp1162 On Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cell Lines, Jacqueline Klepinger, Charles Giardina, Didem Ozcan 2020 University of Connecticut, Storrs

The Anti-Proliferative Effects Of Methotrexate And Novel Ucp1162 On Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cell Lines, Jacqueline Klepinger, Charles Giardina, Didem Ozcan

Honors Scholar Theses

Cancer cells proliferate at rapid rates due to the aberrant activity of proteins involved in regulating the cell cycle. This characteristic allows mutated cancer cells to spread and metastasize, causing lesions to form throughout the body. Two treatment conditions, one classical antifolate methotrexate (MTX) and non-classical, novel antifolate UCP1162, were tested on a panel of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines to determine if UCP1162 has higher anti-proliferative activity. High dose MTX is used as a first line chemotherapy in common childhood malignancies such as acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL). Methotrexate is excluded from acute myeloid leukemia (AML) treatments based on ...


Angiopoietin 1 Protects Against Lps-Induced Acute Lung Injury And Alveolar Remodeling In Neonatal Mice, Umar Salimi 2020 Childrens Mercy Hospital

Angiopoietin 1 Protects Against Lps-Induced Acute Lung Injury And Alveolar Remodeling In Neonatal Mice, Umar Salimi

Research Days

No abstract provided.


Yap1/Taz Drives Ependymoma-Like Tumour Formation In Mice, Noreen Eder, Federico Roncaroli, Marie-Charlotte Dolmart, Stuart Horswell, Felipe Andreiuolo, Helen R. Flynn, Andre T. Lopes, Suzanne Claxton, John-Paul Kilday, Lucy Collinson, Junhao Mao, Torsten Pietsch, Barry Thompson, Ambrosius P. Snijders, Sila K. Ultanir 2020 The Francis Crick Institute

Yap1/Taz Drives Ependymoma-Like Tumour Formation In Mice, Noreen Eder, Federico Roncaroli, Marie-Charlotte Dolmart, Stuart Horswell, Felipe Andreiuolo, Helen R. Flynn, Andre T. Lopes, Suzanne Claxton, John-Paul Kilday, Lucy Collinson, Junhao Mao, Torsten Pietsch, Barry Thompson, Ambrosius P. Snijders, Sila K. Ultanir

Open Access Articles

YAP1 gene fusions have been observed in a subset of paediatric ependymomas. Here we show that, ectopic expression of active nuclear YAP1 (nlsYAP5SA) in ventricular zone neural progenitor cells using conditionally-induced NEX/NeuroD6-Cre is sufficient to drive brain tumour formation in mice. Neuronal differentiation is inhibited in the hippocampus. Deletion of YAP1's negative regulators LATS1 and LATS2 kinases in NEX-Cre lineage in double conditional knockout mice also generates similar tumours, which are rescued by deletion of YAP1 and its paralog TAZ. YAP1/TAZ-induced mouse tumours display molecular and ultrastructural characteristics of human ependymoma. RNA sequencing and quantitative proteomics of ...


Tim, A Targeted Insertional Mutagenesis Method Utilizing Crispr/Cas9 In Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii, Tyler Picariello, Yuqing Hou, Tomohiro Kubo, Nathan A. McNeill, Haru-Aki Yanagisawa, Toshiyuki Oda, George B. Witman 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Tim, A Targeted Insertional Mutagenesis Method Utilizing Crispr/Cas9 In Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii, Tyler Picariello, Yuqing Hou, Tomohiro Kubo, Nathan A. Mcneill, Haru-Aki Yanagisawa, Toshiyuki Oda, George B. Witman

Radiology Publications

Generation and subsequent analysis of mutants is critical to understanding the functions of genes and proteins. Here we describe TIM, an efficient, cost-effective, CRISPR-based targeted insertional mutagenesis method for the model organism Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. TIM utilizes delivery into the cell of a Cas9-guide RNA (gRNA) ribonucleoprotein (RNP) together with exogenous double-stranded (donor) DNA. The donor DNA contains gene-specific homology arms and an integral antibiotic-resistance gene that inserts at the double-stranded break generated by Cas9. After optimizing multiple parameters of this method, we were able to generate mutants for six out of six different genes in two different cell-walled strains with ...


Role Of Tissue Microenvironment In Recruiting Macrophages During Apoptosis-Induced Proliferation, Neha Diwanji 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Role Of Tissue Microenvironment In Recruiting Macrophages During Apoptosis-Induced Proliferation, Neha Diwanji

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Apoptosis-induced compensatory proliferation (AiP) is a mechanism that maintains tissue homeostasis after stress-induced cell death. During AiP, apoptotic cells induce proliferation of the neighboring surviving cells to compensate for tissue loss. AiP is important for wound healing and tissue regeneration in several model organisms. Additionally, AiP is an important feature of tumorigenesis and tumor relapse as it contributes to tumor repopulation following radiation or chemotherapy. Using an overgrowth tumor model (“undead tissue”) in Drosophila melanogaster, we determined that the initiator caspase Dronc promotes generation of extracellular Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), which drive activation of the stress kinase JNK and downstream ...


The Snakeskin-Mesh Complex Of Smooth Septate Junction Restricts Yorkie To Regulate Intestinal Homeostasis In Drosophila, Hsi-Ju Chen, Qi Li, Niraj K. Nirala, Y. Tony Ip 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The Snakeskin-Mesh Complex Of Smooth Septate Junction Restricts Yorkie To Regulate Intestinal Homeostasis In Drosophila, Hsi-Ju Chen, Qi Li, Niraj K. Nirala, Y. Tony Ip

Open Access Articles

Tight junctions in mammals and septate junctions in insects are essential for epithelial integrity. We show here that, in the Drosophila intestine, smooth septate junction proteins provide barrier and signaling functions. During an RNAi screen for genes that regulate adult midgut tissue growth, we found that loss of two smooth septate junction components, Snakeskin and Mesh, caused a hyperproliferation phenotype. By examining epitope-tagged endogenous Snakeskin and Mesh, we demonstrate that the two proteins are present in the cytoplasm of differentiating enteroblasts and in cytoplasm and septate junctions of mature enterocytes. In both enteroblasts and enterocytes, loss of Snakeskin and Mesh ...


Expression Analyses Of Hippocampal And Cortical Proteins In A Rat Model For Alzheimer’S Disease, Rangon Islam 2020 CUNY Hunter College

Expression Analyses Of Hippocampal And Cortical Proteins In A Rat Model For Alzheimer’S Disease, Rangon Islam

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Currently, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has no cure. Using a rat AD model, we identified aberrantly expressed proteins during pre-pathology as potential biomarkers. The expression of certain biomarkers was reversed by diazoxide, a repurposed hypertension drug. These results suggest that drug repurposing at an early stage of AD has therapeutic potential.


Exploring The Role Of Ccdc141 In Zebrafish Heart Development, Luci Strong 2020 University of Mississippi

Exploring The Role Of Ccdc141 In Zebrafish Heart Development, Luci Strong

Honors Theses

Zebrafish are a good model organism in which to identify genes important for heart development because most human genes have a zebrafish ortholog and genes in zebrafish are relatively simple to modify. ccdc141 is a gene with unknown function, which we originally found to be highly expressed in cardiac cells in mouse embryos. In this project, we are seeking to determine the function of ccdc141 using zebrafish. To perform this experiment, we are targeting ccdc141 for mutation using CRISPR/Cas9. In this project we have analyzed ccdc141 to determine regions of conservation, designed CRISPR guides to target those regions (exon ...


Evaluation Of The Bax-Vdac Interaction And Their Influence On Apoptosis In Drosophila Melanogaster, Frances Marie Gatlin 2020 University of Mississippi

Evaluation Of The Bax-Vdac Interaction And Their Influence On Apoptosis In Drosophila Melanogaster, Frances Marie Gatlin

Honors Theses

Apoptosis, also known as programmed cell death, is a cellular process used for development or for when cells undergo injury or stress. The Bcl2 family of proteins includes both pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic proteins that control the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Understanding the mechanisms and influence these proteins have on apoptosis is an important area of research focused on in Dr. Jones’s lab. Evidence shows a homology amongst the Bcl2 family of proteins at the BH3 domain. Dr. Jekabsons' lab has found a potential homology amongst VDAC 1-3 and the Bcl2 family at the BH3 domain.

Specifically, our lab is ...


Breast Cancer Sub-Clones That Metastasize To Lung And Bone Exhibit Different Metabolic Preferences, Mollie Merrell 2020 University of Mississippi

Breast Cancer Sub-Clones That Metastasize To Lung And Bone Exhibit Different Metabolic Preferences, Mollie Merrell

Honors Theses

Metastasis is responsible for the majority of cancer related deaths. In breast cancer the lungs and bones are the major sites for metastasis. Previous studies used the metastatic aggressive MDA-MB-231 breast cancer line to isolate sub-clones that preferentially invade the lungs (LM line) or bones (BoM line). While genes associated with the tissue specific metastasis have been identified, it is unknown if metabolic adaptations contribute to the growth of the LM and BoM lines in their respective organs. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that the LM and BoM lines exhibit differences in glucose and glutamine ...


Glucose Metabolism Of Breast Cancer Sub-Clones That Preferentially Metastasize To The Lungs And Bone, Anna G. Skubiz 2020 University of Mississippi

Glucose Metabolism Of Breast Cancer Sub-Clones That Preferentially Metastasize To The Lungs And Bone, Anna G. Skubiz

Honors Theses

Malignant breast cancers exhibit preferential metastasis to bone and lung (1). While changes in gene expression in lung-specific (LM) and bone-specific metastasis (BoM) lines derived from the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer line have been identified, few metabolic genes are differentially expressed; thus it is unknown if tissue-specific metabolic reprogramming occurs. Two hallmarks of cancer cells are an altered metabolic phenotype characterized by enhanced conversion of glucose to lactate in spite of adequate oxygen availability for complete mitochondrial oxidation of this substrate (referred to as aerobic glycolysis or the Warburg effect) and a greater dependence on glutamine. These changes in primary tumor ...


Elucidating The Functional Location Of Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor Alpha, Creation Of A Review Chapter On The Use Of Zebrafish In Studying Congenital Heart Defects, And Using 3d Printing To Create Laboratory Tools, Jaret Lieberth 2020 University of Mississippi

Elucidating The Functional Location Of Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor Alpha, Creation Of A Review Chapter On The Use Of Zebrafish In Studying Congenital Heart Defects, And Using 3d Printing To Create Laboratory Tools, Jaret Lieberth

Honors Theses

Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are currently the most prevalent form of birth defect in the United States. Their combined frequency and severity make necessary a deeper understanding of the molecular underpinnings guiding heart formation. The first major step in cardiac morphogenesis, cardiac fusion, involves the medial movement of bilateral populations of myocardial precursor cells to the embryonic midline, where they merge to form the primitive heart tube. Although crucial to subsequent organogenesis, the precise mechanisms governing cardiac fusion remain unknown. Previous studies have found that a mutation in platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (pdgfra), called refuse-to-fuse (ref), results in a ...


A Runx2 Stabilization Pathway Mediates Physiologic And Pathologic Bone Formation, Jung-Min Kim, Yeon-Suk Yang, Xianpeng Ge, Matthew B. Greenblatt, Jae-Hyuck Shim 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

A Runx2 Stabilization Pathway Mediates Physiologic And Pathologic Bone Formation, Jung-Min Kim, Yeon-Suk Yang, Xianpeng Ge, Matthew B. Greenblatt, Jae-Hyuck Shim

Open Access Articles

The osteoblast differentiation capacity of skeletal stem cells (SSCs) must be tightly regulated, as inadequate bone formation results in low bone mass and skeletal fragility, and over-exuberant osteogenesis results in heterotopic ossification (HO) of soft tissues. RUNX2 is essential for tuning this balance, but the mechanisms of posttranslational control of RUNX2 remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we identify that a CK2/HAUSP pathway is a key regulator of RUNX2 stability, as Casein kinase 2 (CK2) phosphorylates RUNX2, recruiting the deubiquitinase herpesvirus-associated ubiquitin-specific protease (HAUSP), which stabilizes RUNX2 by diverting it away from ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation. This pathway is important ...


Cell Proliferation And Viability Inhibition By Resveratrol On Breast Cancer Cell Lines, Kyle Ford Gordon Jr 2020 University of Mississippi

Cell Proliferation And Viability Inhibition By Resveratrol On Breast Cancer Cell Lines, Kyle Ford Gordon Jr

Honors Theses

Antioxidants are well-known for their various health benefits. They are able to protect cells from being damaged by free radicals that are produced by vital biochemical processes. It has long been known that antioxidants are important in our everyday health, but their potential as disease preventers and potential therapeutic agents is a relatively new field of study. Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol and well-known antioxidant, is found in plants, fruits, and products derived from them, like red wine. Resveratrol has been shown to have various properties, including antiaging, anti-aggregation of platelets, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. Because of their many health benefits ...


Multi-Generational Effects Of ∆9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Exposure On Gene Expression In Liver Tissue, Kayla Lovitt 2020 University of Mississippi

Multi-Generational Effects Of ∆9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Exposure On Gene Expression In Liver Tissue, Kayla Lovitt

Honors Theses

Cannabis is the most commonly used, cultivated, and trafficked illicit drug worldwide. Increased availability and acceptance of cannabis and cannabinoid-containing products provide the necessity for understanding how these substances influence aging. In this study, zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to concentrations of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) (0.08, 0.4, 2 µM) during embryonic-larval development, the effects on aging were measured 30 months later and in the offspring of the exposed fish (F1 generation. We observed results indicating a biphasic and hormetic effect. Treatment with the lowest concentration of THC significantly increased egg production, while higher concentrations resulted in impaired ...


Inter-Individual Variation In Response To Estrogen And Implications For Breast Cancer Risk, Amye L. Black 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Inter-Individual Variation In Response To Estrogen And Implications For Breast Cancer Risk, Amye L. Black

Doctoral Dissertations

Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer related death among women and the most prevalent cancer type in women worldwide. Many risk factors for breast cancer are related to estrogen exposure and all involve prolonged or high levels of estrogen exposure. However, estrogen exposure during early pregnancy reduces breast cancer risk by up to 50%. Estrogen’s paradoxical role in both contributing to and reducing breast cancer risk is still not understood. We hypothesized that a subset of women may be more sensitive to estrogen exposure, and the following experiments were designed to test this hypothesis and determine ...


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