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Surface Runoff Alters Cave Microbial Community Structure And Function, Madison Davis, Maria A. Messina, Giuseppe Nicolosi, Salvatore Petralia, Melvin D. Baker, Christiana K. S. Mayne, Chelsea M. Dinon, Christina J. Moss, Bogdan P. Onac, James R. Garey 2020 University of South Florida

Surface Runoff Alters Cave Microbial Community Structure And Function, Madison Davis, Maria A. Messina, Giuseppe Nicolosi, Salvatore Petralia, Melvin D. Baker, Christiana K. S. Mayne, Chelsea M. Dinon, Christina J. Moss, Bogdan P. Onac, James R. Garey

Cell Biology, Microbiology, and Molecular Biology Faculty Publications

Caves formed by sulfuric acid dissolution have been identified worldwide. These caves can host diverse microbial communities that are responsible for speleogenesis and speleothem formation. It is not well understood how microbial communities change in response to surface water entering caves. Illumina 16S rRNA sequencing and bioinformatic tools were used to determine the impact of surface water on the microbial community diversity and function within a spring pool found deep in the Monte Conca Cave system in Sicily, Italy. Sulfur oxidizers comprised more than 90% of the microbial community during the dry season and were replaced by potential anthropogenic contaminants ...


Quantification Of Mammalian Circadian Rhythms In Response To Photopollution With A Focus On Splitting Behavior, Mehdi Khan 2020 Northeastern Illinois University

Quantification Of Mammalian Circadian Rhythms In Response To Photopollution With A Focus On Splitting Behavior, Mehdi Khan

University Honors Program Senior Projects

Circadian rhythms are generated by internal biological clocks of organisms and are responsible for the synchronization of an organism’s external and internal environment. The cells responsible for conducting and maintaining the circadian system are known to be coupled in order to maintain a harmonic rhythm. Desynchronization of the master circadian rhythm can cause the presence of two or more rhythms to emerge in a single organism, also known as splitting behavior. Photopollution and artificial light is known to disrupt this synchronization and result in a desynchronized or split rhythm. Many studies have highlighted that photopollution can disrupt the biological ...


A Study Of Matr3 And Its Effects On The Neural Progenitor Cells Of Xenopus Laevis Tadpoles, Kendall Branham 2020 William & Mary

A Study Of Matr3 And Its Effects On The Neural Progenitor Cells Of Xenopus Laevis Tadpoles, Kendall Branham

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Understanding the genes and mechanisms that regulate the highly important process of neurogenesis in the developing nervous system is crucial to uncovering why disease arises when this system is disrupted. Neural progenitor cells and their multipotent nature allow for the growth of a large pool of stem cells in the early stages of development, but the signal that leads these cells to the irreversible fate of becoming a neuron is unclear. The gene matr3 has been implicated in having a role in the maintenance of undifferentiated neural stem cells but its role needs further investigation to fully reveal how its ...


Motor Neuron Connections And Innervation Of Muscles In Drosophila Melanogaster, Sharon Tang 2020 City University of New York (CUNY)

Motor Neuron Connections And Innervation Of Muscles In Drosophila Melanogaster, Sharon Tang

Student Theses

Drosophila melanogaster have two sets of muscle systems: larval muscles and adult muscles. The larval somatic muscle system is established during embryogenesis and is necessary for hatching, feeding, and crawling of the larvae. Like humans, Drosophila muscles have individual characteristics, like unique sizes, shapes, orientations, attachment sites, and innervation patterns by motor neurons. These properties are encoded by a group of transcriptional regulators that are expressed in specific muscle subsets. Currently, there are over twenty known transcription factors required for the development of the 30 distinct larval somatic muscles and specification of those muscle properties. We have examined how muscle-specific ...


Sensing Ribonuclease H Activity With Dna Nanoswitches, Ruju Trivedi 2020 University at Albany, State University of New York

Sensing Ribonuclease H Activity With Dna Nanoswitches, Ruju Trivedi

Biological Sciences

Ribonuclease H (RNase H) is a damage-repair protein and ribonuclease that specifically catalyzes the hydrolysis of RNA in an RNA/DNA duplex and breaks down RNA/DNA junctions. It plays an important role in a variety of biological processes including DNA replication, DNA repair, and transcription. It is also pivotal in anti-HIV drug development and the analysis of cellular processes and has been shown to be a potential therapeutic target for various neoplastic diseases. This thesis discusses a unique assay based on DNA nanoswitches to detect RNase H levels and activity. The assay is based on conformational changes of DNA ...


Glutamine Antagonist 6-Diazo-5-Oxo-L-Norleucine, A Hyaluronan Synthesis Inhibitor, Slows Triple Negative Breast Cancer Growth, Le Gia Cat Pham 2020 University at Albany, State University of New York

Glutamine Antagonist 6-Diazo-5-Oxo-L-Norleucine, A Hyaluronan Synthesis Inhibitor, Slows Triple Negative Breast Cancer Growth, Le Gia Cat Pham

Biological Sciences

Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) are the most aggressive subtype of breast cancer with few treatment options and poor outcomes. TNBCs are characterized by elevations in hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) enzyme expression, hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) expression and hyaluronan (HA) production. Glutamine is an important substrate for HA production via the HBP. 6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine (DON) is a well-known glutamine antagonist with validated antitumoral efficacy. This project examined the effects of DON on HA production and energy metabolism in TNBC cells. We examined the effect of DON treatment on Hs578T cells, which represent the mesenchymal stem-like subtype of TNBC. We specifically analyzed the ...


The Coordinate Actions Of Calcineurin And Hog1 Mediate The Stress Response Through Multiple Nodes Of The Cell Cycle Network, Cassandra M. Leech, Mackenzie J. Flynn, Heather E. Arsenault, Jianhong Ou, Haibo Liu, Lihua Julie Zhu, Jennifer A. Benanti 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The Coordinate Actions Of Calcineurin And Hog1 Mediate The Stress Response Through Multiple Nodes Of The Cell Cycle Network, Cassandra M. Leech, Mackenzie J. Flynn, Heather E. Arsenault, Jianhong Ou, Haibo Liu, Lihua Julie Zhu, Jennifer A. Benanti

Open Access Articles

Upon exposure to environmental stressors, cells transiently arrest the cell cycle while they adapt and restore homeostasis. A challenge for all cells is to distinguish between stress signals and coordinate the appropriate adaptive response with cell cycle arrest. Here we investigate the role of the phosphatase calcineurin (CN) in the stress response and demonstrate that CN activates the Hog1/p38 pathway in both yeast and human cells. In yeast, the MAPK Hog1 is transiently activated in response to several well-studied osmostressors. We show that when a stressor simultaneously activates CN and Hog1, CN disrupts Hog1-stimulated negative feedback to prolong Hog1 ...


Sars-Cov-2 Receptor Ace2 Is An Interferon-Stimulated Gene In Human Airway Epithelial Cells And Is Detected In Specific Cell Subsets Across Tissues, Carly G. K. Ziegler, Yuming Cao, Zhiru Guo, Jennifer P. Wang, Robert W. Finberg, Manuel Garber, Alex K. Shalek, Jose Ordovas-Montanes, HCA Lung Biological Network 2020 Harvard Medical School

Sars-Cov-2 Receptor Ace2 Is An Interferon-Stimulated Gene In Human Airway Epithelial Cells And Is Detected In Specific Cell Subsets Across Tissues, Carly G. K. Ziegler, Yuming Cao, Zhiru Guo, Jennifer P. Wang, Robert W. Finberg, Manuel Garber, Alex K. Shalek, Jose Ordovas-Montanes, Hca Lung Biological Network

Coronavirus COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

There is pressing urgency to understand the pathogenesis of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus clade 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes the disease COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein binds angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and in concert with host proteases, principally transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), promotes cellular entry. The cell subsets targeted by SARS-CoV-2 in host tissues and the factors that regulate ACE2 expression remain unknown. Here, we leverage human, non-human primate, and mouse single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) datasets across health and disease to uncover putative targets of SARS-CoV-2 among tissue-resident cell subsets. We identify ACE2 and TMPRSS2 co-expressing cells within lung ...


Exploring Occupational Disruption In Newly Diagnosed Individuals With Cancer With Minor (Dependent) Children, Riley S. Harrold 2020 University of St. Augustine for Health Sciences

Exploring Occupational Disruption In Newly Diagnosed Individuals With Cancer With Minor (Dependent) Children, Riley S. Harrold

Student Capstone Projects

Background: According to the American Cancer Society (2019), there were more than 1.7 million new cases of cancer in 2019 alone. Individuals are being diagnosed at a young age with 22.4% of cases occurring in individuals 22-55 years old and whom are childrearing age (Shah et al., 2017). There are an estimated 2.85 million children under the age of 18 who are living with a parent who has cancer (Shah et al., 2017). Newly diagnosed individuals face changes in daily life, the threat of possible death, and fear of dying (Compas et al., 1994). Changes in shared ...


Comparative Study Of The Effects Of Light On Photophore Ultrastructure From Two Families Of Deep-Sea Decapod Crustaceans: Oplophoridae And Sergestidae, Jamie E. Sickles 2020 Nova Southeastern University

Comparative Study Of The Effects Of Light On Photophore Ultrastructure From Two Families Of Deep-Sea Decapod Crustaceans: Oplophoridae And Sergestidae, Jamie E. Sickles

HCNSO Student Theses and Dissertations

Counterillumination, the mechanism by which pelagic species produce bioluminescence to replace the light blocked by their bodies to hide their silhouettes, has been known for over 100 years. However, little is known about how these animals are able to so precisely replicate the intensity of downwelling light. The recent discovery of opsins in photophores (Bracken-Grissom et al. 2020) suggests that these autogenic organs (i.e. non-bacterial) may be sensitive to light, in addition to their function of emitting visible light. The study presented here is 1) the first ultrastructural assessment of photophores in species Systellaspis debilis, Janicella spinicauda, Parasergestes armatus ...


365— Clobetasol-Induced Quiescence In The Vulvar Carcinoma Cell Line Umscv-4 Can Be Overcome By Repeated Removal And Re-Exposure To This Ultrapotent Corticosteroid, Nolberto Jaramillo Jr., Nina Mustico 2020 SUNY Geneseo

365— Clobetasol-Induced Quiescence In The Vulvar Carcinoma Cell Line Umscv-4 Can Be Overcome By Repeated Removal And Re-Exposure To This Ultrapotent Corticosteroid, Nolberto Jaramillo Jr., Nina Mustico

GREAT Day

Vulvar cancer is rare, mostly afflicting women aged 60 and older. The cancer is often preceded by a common vulvar rash, Lichen sclerosis, that is usually treated with the ultra-potent corticosteroid, clobetasol propionate. This treatment may, in turn, be associated with vulvar carcinogenesis. Quiescence, a common characteristic of stem cells, is a reversible state of growth arrest. Our results suggest that clobetasol is causing UMSCV-4 vulvar carcinoma cells to enter quiescence, and may allow them to evade the standard treatments that target rapidly proliferating populations. Furthermore, when these cells are removed from clobetasol and re-exposed, they proliferate at higher levels ...


155— Analysis Of Her4.1 And Ascl1a In Gef Mutants, Rico Amato, Tessa Beiter, Christopher Lepore 2020 SUNY Geneseo

155— Analysis Of Her4.1 And Ascl1a In Gef Mutants, Rico Amato, Tessa Beiter, Christopher Lepore

GREAT Day

Zebrafish are a model organism for studying developmental abnormalities, especially in the eye. The good effort (gef) mutant zebrafish have smaller eyes than wild-type embryos due to rapid retinal degeneration that becomes apparent only after two days post fertilization. The genetic problem arises from a deletion of intronic DNA sequence which leads to the loss of an exon and disrupts the coding region of the Cha1b protein. Chaf1b is a subunit of the Chromosome assembly factor 1 (CAF-1), a complex of three proteins which has a role in histone loading and chromatin regulation. This small eye phenotype has been hypothesized ...


147— The Effect Of A Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor On Pd-L1, Hla-Abc, Hla-E, And Hla-G On Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines, Nikhil Reddy, Alec Toufexis 2020 SUNY Geneseo

147— The Effect Of A Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor On Pd-L1, Hla-Abc, Hla-E, And Hla-G On Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines, Nikhil Reddy, Alec Toufexis

GREAT Day

Increased expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) allows tumor cells to be more easily detected by the immune system. In previous research, epigenetic modifiers including the histone deacetylase inhibitor 3 (HDAC3), RGFP966, has been shown to decrease PD-L1 expression. PD-L1 expression inhibits T cell cytotoxicity, and decreasing it can enhance the immune response. We hope to elucidate whether or not HLA-ABC expression similarly decreases upon exposure to the HDAC3 inhibitor which would be detrimental to immune detection. Two breast cancer cell lines that express HLA-ABC are MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. Our initial results show that HLA-ABC is expressed on the MDA-MB-231 ...


486— Cell Cycle Effect On Hla Expression In Htb-4 And Mrc-5, Nick Turnquist, Andrew Kareeparampil 2020 SUNY Geneseo

486— Cell Cycle Effect On Hla Expression In Htb-4 And Mrc-5, Nick Turnquist, Andrew Kareeparampil

GREAT Day

Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) is a gene that codes for cell-surface proteins that are the basis of our bodies’ immune response. We observed two cell lines, HTB-4 and a non-cancerous cell line known as MRC-5. Our purpose for this experiment was to observe the effect of the cell cycle on HLA expression for these cell lines. Two flasks were prepared for each cell line: one confluent and one non-confluent. Flow cytometry analysis was performed for each of the four flasks. The flow cytometry results of the MRC-5 cells indicate increased HLA expression in the confluent flask, in the G1 phase ...


Evolutionary Bioethics Advanced By Ernest Everett Just: Implications For Biology, Ethics, And Theology, Theodore Walker 2020 Southern Methodist University

Evolutionary Bioethics Advanced By Ernest Everett Just: Implications For Biology, Ethics, And Theology, Theodore Walker

Perkins Faculty Research and Special Events

Ernest Everett Just (1883-1941) is an acknowledged “pioneer” in biology, being honored with a Black Heritage postage stamp in 1996. Here we discover that Just also made pioneering contributions to general evolutionary bioethics (distinct from special medical bioethics) by advancing a cell-biology-rooted theory of the origin and continuing evolution of ethical behavior influenced by the “law of environmental dependence.”

See especially “The Origin of Man’s Ethical Behavior (1941, unpublished book manuscript) by Ernest Everett Just and Hedwig Schnetzler Just, discovered in 2018 among the collected papers of E.E. Just at the Moorland-Spingarn Research Center at Howard University.

Accordingly ...


Hers And His: Silk Glands Used In Egg Sac Construction By Female Spiders Potentially Repurposed By A 'Modern' Male Spider, Mark A. Townley, Danilo Harms 2020 University of New Hampshire

Hers And His: Silk Glands Used In Egg Sac Construction By Female Spiders Potentially Repurposed By A 'Modern' Male Spider, Mark A. Townley, Danilo Harms

Biological Sciences Scholarship

Cylindrical silk gland (CY) spigots distinguish a large clade of modern spiders, the CY spigot clade, which includes all entelegyne spiders and their closest relatives. Following a widespread paradigm, CYs and their spigots are only known to occur in female spiders and they produce silk used in the construction of egg sacs. Here we report the occurrence of a CY spigot or CY nubbin on each posterior median spinneret (PMS) in males (5th stadium and later) of the spider Australomimetus maculosus. Late juvenile males had a CY spigot on each PMS, whereas adult males either had a CY spigot or ...


Analysis Of Cyclin E In Fibrolamellar Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Hannah Gustafson, Katrina Vang, Tim Vogt, Sara Stickler 2020 Concordia University St. Paul

Analysis Of Cyclin E In Fibrolamellar Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Hannah Gustafson, Katrina Vang, Tim Vogt, Sara Stickler

Research and Scholarship Symposium Posters

Fibrolamellar Hepatocellular Carcinoma (FL-HCC), a rare primary liver cancer, differs from the most common liver cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, as FL-HCC is not correlated with chronic liver diseases. Mayo Clinic conducted a proteomic screening and found the proline biosynthetic pathway to be dysregulated in FL-HCC patients. In liver cells, free proline has been shown to induce the mTOR pathway, which stimulates cell proliferation through upregulation of full-length Cyclin E (FL-E). In addition, FL-E can be partially cleaved by an enzyme called serine protease neutrophil elastase, creating low molecular weight cyclin E (LMW-E) that has been linked to tumorigenesis. To further investigate ...


Microrna Expression Profiling Of Normal And Malignant Human Colonic Stem Cells Identifies, Vignesh Viswanathan, Lynn Opdenaker, Shirin Modarai, Jeremy Z Fields, Gregory Gonye, Bruce M Boman 2020 Helen F Graham Cancer Center and Research Institute

Microrna Expression Profiling Of Normal And Malignant Human Colonic Stem Cells Identifies, Vignesh Viswanathan, Lynn Opdenaker, Shirin Modarai, Jeremy Z Fields, Gregory Gonye, Bruce M Boman

Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Faculty Papers

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have a critical role in regulating stem cells (SCs) during development, and because aberrant expression of miRNAs occurs in various cancers, our goal was to determine if dysregulation of miRNAs is involved in the SC origin of colorectal cancer (CRC). We previously reported that aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) is a marker for normal and malignant human colonic SCs and tracks SC overpopulation during colon tumorigenesis. MicroRNA expression was studied in ALDH-positive SCs from normal and malignant human colon tissues by Nanostring miRNA profiling. Our findings show that: (1) A unique miRNA signature distinguishes ALDH-positive CRC cells from ALDH-positive normal ...


Regulation Of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Sarah R. Chadwick 2020 The University of Western Ontario

Regulation Of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Sarah R. Chadwick

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used extensively to uncover the genetic mechanisms that control basic cellular processes, including survival, maintenance, and response to stressors. One metric of yeast survival is chronological lifespan (CLS), which is the amount of time non-dividing yeast cells can survive at stationary phase. Variations in CLS following genetic alteration are used to understand the function of specific genes and pathways in cellular aging. Many factors contribute to aging, including accumulation of toxic misfolded secretory proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress), to which the cell responds through activation of ER stress signaling pathways, such ...


Using Crispr/Cas9 Gene Editing To Remove Twist2 To Determine Its Role During Somite Development In Zebrafish, Caleb Holdener 2020 Belmont University

Using Crispr/Cas9 Gene Editing To Remove Twist2 To Determine Its Role During Somite Development In Zebrafish, Caleb Holdener

Belmont Undergraduate Research Symposium (BURS)

Embryonic Mesoderm is a precursor to various types of tissues, such as the somatic mesoderm. Somites are a segmented tissue that gives rise to the sclerotome in vertebrates. This sclerotome further develops into the axial skeleton (Stickney, Barresi, and Devoto 2000). Somites are easily observable under low power microscopy during fish development. In fish, great strides have been made in studying the developmental fate of somites (Stoiber, Haslett, and Sänger 1999; Stickney, Barresi, and Devoto 2000). Zebrafish have been studied in many labs due to their similarities with higher vertebrates. These advantages include their inexpensive cost of care, external fertilization ...


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