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Articles 1 - 30 of 6747

Full-Text Articles in Cell and Developmental Biology

Network Analyses Of Glomerular Capillaries, Jason Cory Brunson, Justin Sardi, Mark Terasaki May 2019

Network Analyses Of Glomerular Capillaries, Jason Cory Brunson, Justin Sardi, Mark Terasaki

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Mutant P53 Depletion By Curcumin-Derived Compounds, Mohamed A.A. Alalem May 2019

Mutant P53 Depletion By Curcumin-Derived Compounds, Mohamed A.A. Alalem

Research Days

No abstract provided.


John's "Embryonic Stem Cell Research: Re-Explored Considering Scientific, Philosophical And Theological Understanding Of Human Life" (Book Review), Joseph Baumstarck Jr. May 2019

John's "Embryonic Stem Cell Research: Re-Explored Considering Scientific, Philosophical And Theological Understanding Of Human Life" (Book Review), Joseph Baumstarck Jr.

The Christian Librarian

No abstract provided.


Development And Application Of A Quantitative Bioassay To Evaluate Maize Silk Resistance To Corn Earworm Herbivory Among Progenies Derived From Peruvian Landrace Piura, Miriam D. Lopez, Tesia S. Dennison, Tina M. Paque, Marna D. Yandeau-Nelson, Craig A. Abel, Nick Lauter Apr 2019

Development And Application Of A Quantitative Bioassay To Evaluate Maize Silk Resistance To Corn Earworm Herbivory Among Progenies Derived From Peruvian Landrace Piura, Miriam D. Lopez, Tesia S. Dennison, Tina M. Paque, Marna D. Yandeau-Nelson, Craig A. Abel, Nick Lauter

Marna Yandeau-Nelson

Corn earworm (CEW), Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a major insect pest of corn (Zea mays spp. mays L.). CEW larvae feed on silks, kernels and cobs, causing substantial yield and quality losses both through herbivory and by vectoring pathogens. The long-term goal of this work is to elucidate the genetic and biochemical basis of a potentially novel CEW resistance source discovered in silk tissue of Piura 208, a Peruvian landrace of maize (PI 503849). We developed a quantitative CEW bioassay and tested it on four populations that contrast alleles from Piura 208 with those from GT119, a CEW-susceptible ...


Directed Cell Migration In Multi-Cue Environments, Laura Lara Rodriguez, Ian C. Schneider Apr 2019

Directed Cell Migration In Multi-Cue Environments, Laura Lara Rodriguez, Ian C. Schneider

Ian C. Schneider

Cell migration plays a critical role in development, angiogenesis, immune response, wound healing and cancer metastasis. During these processes, cells are often directed to migrate towards targets by sensing aligned fibers or gradients in concentration, mechanical properties or electric field. Often times, cells must integrate migrational information from several of these different cues. While the cell migration behavior, signal transduction and cytoskeleton dynamics elicited by individual directional cues has been largely determined, responses to multiple directional cues are much less understood. However, initial work has pointed to several interesting behaviors in multi-cue environments, including competition and cooperation between cues to ...


The Function Of Ecdysone And Inhibiting Programmed Cell Death In Death Class Iii Neurons Of Drosophila Melanogaster, Nikolas Richard Likourentzos Apr 2019

The Function Of Ecdysone And Inhibiting Programmed Cell Death In Death Class Iii Neurons Of Drosophila Melanogaster, Nikolas Richard Likourentzos

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

The inhibition of programmed cell death is a factor believed to be responsible for the survival of cancer cells. Using Drosophila as models, factors contributing to the process of programmed cell death can be studied. Neurons die throughout Drosophila melanogaster development to allow the addition of new neurons. The groups of neurons programmed to die are Death Class I neurons, Death Class II neurons, and Death Class III neurons. Ecdysone is a hormone responsible for the timing of programmed cell death (PCD) in the Death Class neurons. Elevated levels of ecdysone are associated with the initiation of PCD of Death ...


A Cell Cycle Cue Triggers Cell Growth Resumption After Division, Afton R. Russell Apr 2019

A Cell Cycle Cue Triggers Cell Growth Resumption After Division, Afton R. Russell

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

The decoupling of the fundamental processes of cell division and growth is important for maintaining cell integrity. Through a chemical approach, we delayed the clock that controls when cells separate, uncoupling cell division and cell growth. This led to polarized cell growth before the cells completed separation. Using fluorescent markers to denote the cell’s stage in the cell cycle, we observed that only cells that were in mitosis exhibited this uncoupling. Previously it was thought that growth resumption occurred after completion of cell division, but this observation suggests that growth is triggered earlier, from a mitotic cue. This mitotic ...


Development And Application Of A Quantitative Bioassay To Evaluate Maize Silk Resistance To Corn Earworm Herbivory Among Progenies Derived From Peruvian Landrace Piura, Miriam D. Lopez, Tesia S. Dennison, Tina M. Paque, Marna D. Yandeau-Nelson, Craig A. Abel, Nick Lauter Apr 2019

Development And Application Of A Quantitative Bioassay To Evaluate Maize Silk Resistance To Corn Earworm Herbivory Among Progenies Derived From Peruvian Landrace Piura, Miriam D. Lopez, Tesia S. Dennison, Tina M. Paque, Marna D. Yandeau-Nelson, Craig A. Abel, Nick Lauter

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

Corn earworm (CEW), Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a major insect pest of corn (Zea mays spp. mays L.). CEW larvae feed on silks, kernels and cobs, causing substantial yield and quality losses both through herbivory and by vectoring pathogens. The long-term goal of this work is to elucidate the genetic and biochemical basis of a potentially novel CEW resistance source discovered in silk tissue of Piura 208, a Peruvian landrace of maize (PI 503849). We developed a quantitative CEW bioassay and tested it on four populations that contrast alleles from Piura 208 with those from GT119, a CEW-susceptible ...


Hexavalent Chromium: Elucidating Its Carcinogenic Mechanism, And Testing Potential Preventative Treatments, Ryan Himes, Timothy Mayotte Apr 2019

Hexavalent Chromium: Elucidating Its Carcinogenic Mechanism, And Testing Potential Preventative Treatments, Ryan Himes, Timothy Mayotte

Scholar Week 2016 - present

Cr(VI) (hexavalent chromium) has recently been found in the drinking water of over 250 million Americans. It is a powerful oxidizing agent, and is known to cause cancer, although the specific mechanism has yet to be elucidated. There is no known preventative treatment for Cr(VI) exposure, and the US EPA is currently determining what concentration of Cr(VI) in drinking water can be safely tolerated. This study sought to test the hypothesis that Cr(VI) cytotoxicity can be prevented by various antioxidants. We tested this hypothesis by exposing human embryonic kidney and human intestinal epithelial cells to Cr ...


Alpha Mangostin As A Chemoprotective Agent Via Activation Of The P53 Pathway For Breast Cancer, Vanessa Van Oost Apr 2019

Alpha Mangostin As A Chemoprotective Agent Via Activation Of The P53 Pathway For Breast Cancer, Vanessa Van Oost

Scholar Week 2016 - present

Breast carcinoma is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among women and causes over 400,000 deaths yearly worldwide. Current treatments such as chemotherapy are not selective for cancerous tissues but are destructive to normal tissues as well. This causes a range of side effects including pain, nausea, hair loss, weakness, and more. Inactivation of p53 is an almost universal mutation within human cancer cells. The ability to activate the p53 pathway which protects cells from tumor formation is lost in 50% of cancers. Due to the prevalence of this mutation, p53 is a uniquely valuable target for applied research. Alpha ...


Therapeutic Peptide Sequences And Gatekeepers Loaded With Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles, Dursitu Hassen Apr 2019

Therapeutic Peptide Sequences And Gatekeepers Loaded With Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles, Dursitu Hassen

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

The research community is developing and looking into new ways of effectively delivering anti-cancer treatment. According to National Cancer Institute over 1.5 million new cases of cancer are predicted in the United States, just alone in 2018. The major hurdles that have been identified by scientists are finding mechanisms that assist in decreasing the side effects of cancer treatment and to increase the effectiveness of the drug. In our lab, a highly toxic peptide sequence, SA-K6L9-AS is encapsulated in MSNs (mesoporous silica nanoparticles) and capped with a gatekeeper. The function of a gatekeeper is preventing ...


Establishment Of 3-D Human Colorectal Cancer Spheroids, India Barnett Apr 2019

Establishment Of 3-D Human Colorectal Cancer Spheroids, India Barnett

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

Three-Dimensional (3D) cell culture plays an important role in cancer biology by providing a life-like microenvironment as a model for drug discovery and treatment. Hydrogels, like many other 3D scaffolds, demonstrate a unique property as matrices for 3D cell culture. The goal of this project is to establish a 3D cell culture for colorectal cancer and apply this 3D model to drug testing. Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in the United States with an early detection rate of 39%. Previously, 2D cell culture of human colorectal cancer cells, SW480, was used to determine the efficacy of ...


A Screen For Genetic Modifiers Of Protein Phosphatase 1 Function In Drosophila Collective Cell Cohesion And Migration, Carmen F. Del Real, Yujun Chen, Marissa Komp, Jocelyn A. Mcdonald Apr 2019

A Screen For Genetic Modifiers Of Protein Phosphatase 1 Function In Drosophila Collective Cell Cohesion And Migration, Carmen F. Del Real, Yujun Chen, Marissa Komp, Jocelyn A. Mcdonald

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

Cells can migrate collectively in tightly or loosely-associated groups during tissue and organ formation, during embryonic development, in tumor metastases, and in wound healing. Drosophilaborder cellsserve as an excellent genetic model of collective cell migration inside a developing tissue. During ovarian development, 6-8 cells form the border cell cluster and migrate together as a cohesive group to reach the large oocyte. Previous experiments have shown that Nuclear inhibitor of Protein Serine Threonine Phosphatase 1 (NiPP1) causes border cells to separate into single cells, rather than stay in a group, and limits their ability to migrate. NiPP1 inhibits the ...


Using Arabidopsis Mesophyll Protoplasts To Study Unfolded Protein Response Signaling, Yan Bao, Diane C. Bassham Apr 2019

Using Arabidopsis Mesophyll Protoplasts To Study Unfolded Protein Response Signaling, Yan Bao, Diane C. Bassham

Diane Bassham

Various environmental stresses or artificial reagents can trigger unfolded protein accumulation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) due to the folding capacity of the ER being exceeded. This is termed ER stress, and triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR). Assays for activation of the UPR in plants include Tunicamycin (Tm)- or dithiothreitol (DTT)-mediated root growth inhibition, analysis of splicing of the UPR-responsive transcription factor bZIP60 (basic Leucine Zipper Domain 60), and upregulation of relevant UPR genes. We provide here a quick and robust method to detect UPR signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts. This assay can also be applied to other ...


Snrk1 Activates Autophagy Via The Tor Signaling Pathway In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Junmarie Soto-Burgos, Diane C. Bassham Apr 2019

Snrk1 Activates Autophagy Via The Tor Signaling Pathway In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Junmarie Soto-Burgos, Diane C. Bassham

Diane Bassham

Autophagy is a degradation process in which cells break down and recycle their cytoplasmic contents when subjected to environmental stress or during cellular remodeling. The Arabidopsis thaliana SnRK1 complex is a protein kinase that senses changes in energy levels and triggers downstream responses to enable survival. Its mammalian ortholog, AMPK, and yeast ortholog, Snf-1, activate autophagy in response to low energy conditions. We therefore hypothesized that SnRK1 may play a role in the regulation of autophagy in response to nutrient or energy deficiency in Arabidopsis. To test this hypothesis, we determined the effect of overexpression or knockout of the SnRK1 ...


Tor-Dependent And -Independent Pathways Regulate Autophagy In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Yunting Pu, Xinjuan Luo, Diane C. Bassham Apr 2019

Tor-Dependent And -Independent Pathways Regulate Autophagy In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Yunting Pu, Xinjuan Luo, Diane C. Bassham

Diane Bassham

Autophagy is a critical process for recycling of cytoplasmic materials during environmental stress, senescence and cellular remodeling. It is upregulated under a wide range of abiotic stress conditions and is important for stress tolerance. Autophagy is repressed by the protein kinase target of rapamycin (TOR), which is activated in response to nutrients and in turn upregulates cell growth and translation and inhibits autophagy. Down-regulation of TOR in Arabidopsis thaliana leads to constitutive autophagy and to decreased growth, but the relationship to stress conditions is unclear. Here, we assess the extent to which TOR controls autophagy activation by abiotic stress. Overexpression ...


Tno1, A Tgn-Localized Snare-Interacting Protein, Modulates Root Skewing In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Rahul Roy, Diane C. Bassham Apr 2019

Tno1, A Tgn-Localized Snare-Interacting Protein, Modulates Root Skewing In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Rahul Roy, Diane C. Bassham

Diane Bassham

Background: The movement of plant roots within the soil is key to their ability to interact with the environment and maximize anchorage and nutrient acquisition. Directional growth of roots occurs by a combination of sensing external cues, hormonal signaling and cytoskeletal changes in the root cells. Roots growing on slanted, impenetrable growth medium display a characteristic waving and skewing, and mutants with deviations in these phenotypes assist in identifying genes required for root movement. Our study identifies a role for a trans-Golgi network-localized protein in root skewing.

Results: We found that Arabidopsis thaliana TNO1 (TGN-localized SYP41-interacting protein), a putative tethering ...


Cellular Dynamics: Cellular Systems In The Time Domain, Dan Szymanski, Diane Bassham, Teun Munnik, Wataru Sakamoto Apr 2019

Cellular Dynamics: Cellular Systems In The Time Domain, Dan Szymanski, Diane Bassham, Teun Munnik, Wataru Sakamoto

Diane Bassham

Plant cells are the fundamental building blocks of growth and development. For each cell type, the size, shape, and mechanical properties of the cell wall are customized for particular physiological functions (Szymanski and Cosgrove, 2009; Winship et al., 2011). The morphogenesis of highly polarized cell types such as trichoblasts and pollen tubes is internally programmed and occurs largely in the absence of a neighbor. Most cell types differentiate in the context of a tissue. Therefore, their growth and shape change can operate at larger spatial scales to influence tissue- and organ-level processes. Because plant cells grow symplastically and are mechanically ...


A Functional Unfolded Protein Response Is Required For Normal Vegetative Development, Yan Bao, Diane C. Bassham, Stephen H. Howell Apr 2019

A Functional Unfolded Protein Response Is Required For Normal Vegetative Development, Yan Bao, Diane C. Bassham, Stephen H. Howell

Diane Bassham

The unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated in plants in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress and plays an important role in mitigating stress damage. Multiple factors act in the UPR, including the membrane-associated transcription factor, BASIC LEUCINE ZIPPER 17 (bZIP17), and the membrane-associated RNA splicing factor, INOSITOL REQUIRING ENZYME1 (IRE1). We have analyzed an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ire1a ire1b bzip17 triple mutant, with defects in stress signaling, and found that the mutant is also impaired in vegetative plant growth under conditions without externally applied stress. This raised the possibility that the UPR functions in plant development in the same manner ...


Autophagy In Crop Plants: What's New Beyond Arabidopsis?, Jie Tang, Diane C. Bassham Apr 2019

Autophagy In Crop Plants: What's New Beyond Arabidopsis?, Jie Tang, Diane C. Bassham

Diane Bassham

Autophagy is a major degradation and recycling pathway in plants. It functions to maintain cellular homeostasis and is induced by environmental cues and developmental stimuli. Over the past decade, the study of autophagy has expanded from model plants to crop species. Many features of the core machinery and physiological functions of autophagy are conserved among diverse organisms. However, several novel functions and regulators of autophagy have been characterized in individual plant species. In light of its critical role in development and stress responses, a better understanding of autophagy in crop plants may eventually lead to beneficial agricultural applications. Here, we ...


Recombinant Netrin-4 Does Not Signal Through The Netrin-1 Or Netrin-3 Pathway In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Nicholas Bradley, Heather G. Kuruvilla Apr 2019

Recombinant Netrin-4 Does Not Signal Through The Netrin-1 Or Netrin-3 Pathway In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Nicholas Bradley, Heather G. Kuruvilla

Heather G. Kuruvilla, Ph.D.

Netrin 4 protein and its homologs are found throughout the animal kingdom. Netrin-4 is known to have a protective role against vascular damage. Previous studies have shown that human netrin-1 has a role in angiogenesis. This information about human netrin-1 and netrin-4 led us to research the pathway of netrin-4 in Tetrahymena thermophila. Our previous studies of the netrin proteins show that netrin-1 and netrin-3 are both repellents in Tetrahymena thermophila. The data in this study show that netrin-4 is also a repellent of Tetrahymena thermophila. These data suggest that netrin-4 could signal through the same pathway as netrin-1 and ...


Selective Autophagy Of Bes1 Mediated By Dsk2 Balances Plant Growth And Survival, Trevor M. Nolan, Benjamin Brennan, Mengran Yang, Jiani Chen, Mingcai Zhang, Zhaohu Li, Xuelu Wang, Diane C. Bassham, Justin Walley, Yanhai Yin Apr 2019

Selective Autophagy Of Bes1 Mediated By Dsk2 Balances Plant Growth And Survival, Trevor M. Nolan, Benjamin Brennan, Mengran Yang, Jiani Chen, Mingcai Zhang, Zhaohu Li, Xuelu Wang, Diane C. Bassham, Justin Walley, Yanhai Yin

Diane Bassham

Plants encounter a variety of stresses and must fine-tune their growth and stress-response programs to best suit their environment. BES1 functions as a master regulator in the brassinosteroid (BR) pathway that promotes plant growth. Here, we show that BES1 interacts with the ubiquitin receptor protein DSK2 and is targeted to the autophagy pathway during stress via the interaction of DSK2 with ATG8, a ubiquitin-like protein directing autophagosome formation and cargo recruitment. Additionally, DSK2 is phosphorylated by the GSK3-like kinase BIN2, a negative regulator in the BR pathway. BIN2 phosphorylation of DSK2 flanking its ATG8 interacting motifs (AIMs) promotes DSK2-ATG8 interaction ...


Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy Imaging Of Microtubule Arrays In Intact Arabidopsis Thaliana Seedling, Bin Dong, Xiaochen Yang, Shaobin Zhu, Diane C. Bassham, Ning Fang Apr 2019

Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy Imaging Of Microtubule Arrays In Intact Arabidopsis Thaliana Seedling, Bin Dong, Xiaochen Yang, Shaobin Zhu, Diane C. Bassham, Ning Fang

Diane Bassham

Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy has generated tremendous success in revealing detailed subcellular structures in animal cells. However, its application to plant cell biology remains extremely limited due to numerous technical challenges, including the generally high fluorescence background of plant cells and the presence of the cell wall. In the current study, stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) imaging of intact Arabidopsis thaliana seedling roots with a spatial resolution of 20–40 nm was demonstrated. Using the super-resolution images, the spatial organization of cortical microtubules in different parts of a whole Arabidopsis root tip was analyzed quantitatively, and the results show the dramatic ...


Recombinant Netrin-4 Does Not Signal Through The Netrin-1 Or Netrin-3 Pathway In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Nicholas Bradley, Heather G. Kuruvilla Apr 2019

Recombinant Netrin-4 Does Not Signal Through The Netrin-1 Or Netrin-3 Pathway In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Nicholas Bradley, Heather G. Kuruvilla

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Netrin 4 protein and its homologs are found throughout the animal kingdom. Netrin-4 is known to have a protective role against vascular damage. Previous studies have shown that human netrin-1 has a role in angiogenesis. This information about human netrin-1 and netrin-4 led us to research the pathway of netrin-4 in Tetrahymena thermophila. Our previous studies of the netrin proteins show that netrin-1 and netrin-3 are both repellents in Tetrahymena thermophila. The data in this study show that netrin-4 is also a repellent of Tetrahymena thermophila. These data suggest that netrin-4 could signal through the same pathway as netrin-1 and ...


Tetrahymena Thermophila Lack A Homologue Of The Caenorhabditis Elegans Lin-4 Mirna, Bryce H. Childers, Sorrel Paris, Emma Wessels, Heather G. Kuruvilla Apr 2019

Tetrahymena Thermophila Lack A Homologue Of The Caenorhabditis Elegans Lin-4 Mirna, Bryce H. Childers, Sorrel Paris, Emma Wessels, Heather G. Kuruvilla

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

The netrin family of proteins was first discovered because of their role in axonal guidance during development. Netrin homologues are important developmental signals in organisms ranging from vertebrates to the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, and netrin-like proteins have even been found in the ciliated protozoan, Tetrahymena thermophila. Since the lin-4 miRNA regulates netrin signaling in C. elegans, we hypothesized that a lin-4 homologue might exists in Tetrahymena thermophila. In order to test this hypothesis, we purified total miRNA from T. thermophila, used this miRNA to make cDNA, then used RT-PCR to quantitate the amount of lin-4 specific cDNA we obtained. Our ...


A Functional Unfolded Protein Response Is Required For Normal Vegetative Development, Yan Bao, Diane C. Bassham, Stephen H. Howell Apr 2019

A Functional Unfolded Protein Response Is Required For Normal Vegetative Development, Yan Bao, Diane C. Bassham, Stephen H. Howell

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

The unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated in plants in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress and plays an important role in mitigating stress damage. Multiple factors act in the UPR, including the membrane-associated transcription factor, BASIC LEUCINE ZIPPER 17 (bZIP17), and the membrane-associated RNA splicing factor, INOSITOL REQUIRING ENZYME1 (IRE1). We have analyzed an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ire1a ire1b bzip17 triple mutant, with defects in stress signaling, and found that the mutant is also impaired in vegetative plant growth under conditions without externally applied stress. This raised the possibility that the UPR functions in plant development in the same manner ...


X-Inactivation And Epigenetics, Serena Weston Apr 2019

X-Inactivation And Epigenetics, Serena Weston

Thinking Matters Symposium

To prevent abnormal development caused by expressing both X chromosomes, female mammals inactivate one of their X chromosomes using an epigenetic process called dosage compensation. This literature review examines how X chromosome inactivation (XCI) occurs during the formation and development of an embryo. This condensation of DNA is marked by histone tail modifications, DNA methylation, and the arrival of structural proteins resulting in extraordinarily stable heterochromatin. X-inactivation is regulated in cis by the X-inactivation center (Xic) that contains the Xist gene and its antisense gene, Tsix. On one X chromosome, Xist RNA is expressed and coats the center of the ...


Arterial Distribution Of The Human Aorta: An Examination Of The Evolutionary, Developmental, And Physiological Bases Of Asymmetry., Brandon Oddo, Cooker Storm Mar 2019

Arterial Distribution Of The Human Aorta: An Examination Of The Evolutionary, Developmental, And Physiological Bases Of Asymmetry., Brandon Oddo, Cooker Storm

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

The study of anatomy contends that “form follows function”; a disciplinary theme purporting that anatomical structures (i.e., cells, tissues, and organs) have a shape that serves its proper function. With this in mind, it is unclear why human arterial distribution off the aortic arch is asymmetrical, while the corresponding venous anatomy is symmetrical. We investigated the evolutionary, developmental, and physiological bases for the asymmetry of aortic arch branches in humans. First, we investigated the cardiovascular anatomy of ancestral species to determine if, and at what level, anatomical divergence (from aortic symmetry to asymmetry) occurs. Second, we examined the formation ...


Ultrafine Carbon Nanoparticles Activate Inflammasome Signaling And Cell Death In Murine Macrophages, Alexander Soloniuk, Hadley Lamascus, Jay Brewster, John Mann Mar 2019

Ultrafine Carbon Nanoparticles Activate Inflammasome Signaling And Cell Death In Murine Macrophages, Alexander Soloniuk, Hadley Lamascus, Jay Brewster, John Mann

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

Carbon black (CB) is the primary nanoparticulate component of air pollution from fossil fuel combustion. This work examines the cellular impact of ultrafine carbon (carbon black, CB) nanoparticles, that range in size down to 30 nm, upon murine macrophages. The size analysis of the carbon black nanoparticles was performed using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. RAW246.7 macrophage cells were exposed to CB doses ranging from 50 – 200 ug/ml in complete media. Analysis of cell survival over time revealed elevated rates of significant nuclear degradation and cell lifting after 48 hours of exposure, and ...


Vegf/Neuropilin Signaling In Cancer Stem Cells, Arthur M. Mercurio Mar 2019

Vegf/Neuropilin Signaling In Cancer Stem Cells, Arthur M. Mercurio

Arthur M. Mercurio

The function of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in cancer extends beyond angiogenesis and vascular permeability. Specifically, VEGF-mediated signaling occurs in tumor cells and this signaling contributes to key aspects of tumorigenesis including the self-renewal and survival of cancer stem cells (CSCs). In addition to VEGF receptor tyrosine kinases, the neuropilins (NRPs) are critical for mediating the effects of VEGF on CSCs, primarily because of their ability to impact the function of growth factor receptors and integrins. VEGF/NRP signaling can regulate the expression and function of key molecules that have been implicated in CSC function including Rho family guanosine ...