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Pam-1 Localizations In The Regulation Of Autophagy During Caenorhabditis Elegans Oogenesis, Ashley N. Munie 2017 Murray State University

Pam-1 Localizations In The Regulation Of Autophagy During Caenorhabditis Elegans Oogenesis, Ashley N. Munie

Steeplechase

Autophagy, the cell's recycling system, is a highly-conserved survival mechanism of the cell. Autophagy has been implicated in the mediation of the removal of cytotoxic aggregates, such as those linked to neurodegenerative disorders like Huntington and Alzheimer disease. Studies in several model organisms have identified numerous genes involved in mediating autophagy, including the Puromycin sensitive aminopeptidase (Psa). The Caenorhabditis elegans orthologue of Psa, pam-1, also governs fertility. Along with apoptosis, a form of regulated cell death, autophagy has been found to be required for efficient C. elegans oogenesis. When autophagy is suppressed through RNAi in worms harboring a pam-1 ...


Materials And Method For Modifying A Biochemical Component In A Plant, Ling Li, Eve Syrkin Wurtele 2017 Iowa State University

Materials And Method For Modifying A Biochemical Component In A Plant, Ling Li, Eve Syrkin Wurtele

Eve Wurtele

A method of modifying the amount of at least one biochemical component in a plant comprising expressing Qua-Quine Starch (QQS) in the plant, the wild-type of which does not express QQS; a transgenic plant, or part thereof, which comprises and expresses QQS as a transgene and in which the amount of at least one biochemical component is modified; a tissue culture of regenerable cells of the transgenic plant; a vector comprising a nucleotide sequence, which encodes the coding sequence of QQS, operably linked to a non-native promoter, which promotes expression of the nucleotide sequence in a plant, which is other ...


Jennifer Maurer Phd Thesis.Pdf, Jennifer Maurer 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Jennifer Maurer Phd Thesis.Pdf, Jennifer Maurer

Jennifer Maurer


Signaling cascades, such as the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway, play vital roles in early vertebrate development. Signals through these pathways are initiated by a growth factor or hormone, are transduced through a kinase cascade, and result in the expression of specific downstream genes that promote cellular proliferation, growth, or differentiation.Tight regulation of these signals is provided by positive or negative modulators at varying levels in the pathway, and is required for proper development and function. Two members of the dual-specificity phosphatase (Dusp) family, dusp6 and dusp2, are believed to be negative regulators of the ERK pathway and are ...


Optimizing Sperm Collection Procedures In Zebrafish, Madelyn B. Wasden, Rachel L. Roberts, April DeLaurier 2017 University of South Carolina Aiken

Optimizing Sperm Collection Procedures In Zebrafish, Madelyn B. Wasden, Rachel L. Roberts, April Delaurier

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

Zebrafish are a highly-valued model organism used for developmental biology research. Zebrafish can be used for genetic manipulation and hence, many mutant and transgenic lines exist. It is impractical to maintain lines of adult zebrafish, due to resource constraints and the need to continuously produce new generations. Therefore, a practical way to preserve zebrafish lines is to freeze sperm and retrieve lines using in vitro fertilization of fresh eggs. Most existing in vitro protocols used by research labs have a wide variety of fertilization rates (ranging from 0% to >90%). Due to this variability, lines may be at risk of ...


Primary Cilium-Dependent Signaling Mechanisms, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Nedaa Alomari, Surya M. Nauli 2017 Chapman University

Primary Cilium-Dependent Signaling Mechanisms, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Nedaa Alomari, Surya M. Nauli

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Primary cilia are hair-like organelles and play crucial roles in vertebrate development, organogenesis, health, and many genetic disorders. A primary cilium is a mechano-sensory organelle that responds to mechanical stimuli in the micro-environment. A cilium is also a chemosensor that senses chemical signals surrounding a cell. The overall function of a cilium is therefore to act as a communication hub to transfer extracellular signals into intracellular responses. Although intracellular calcium has been one of the most studied signaling messengers that transmit extracellular signals into the cells, calcium signaling by various ion channels remains a topic of interest in the field ...


Modeling Microtubule-Based Transport In The Frog Egg Cell, Maria-Veronica Ciocanel 2017 Mathematical Biosciences Institute at OSU

Modeling Microtubule-Based Transport In The Frog Egg Cell, Maria-Veronica Ciocanel

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Role Of Nitric Oxide In Embryonic Heart Development And Adult Aortic Valve Disease, Yin Liu 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Role Of Nitric Oxide In Embryonic Heart Development And Adult Aortic Valve Disease, Yin Liu

Yin Liu

Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common birth defect in infants. Identifying factors that are critical to embryonic heart development or CHDs in general could further our understanding of the disease and may lead to new strategies of its prevention and treatment. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3/eNOS) is known for many important biological functions including vasodilation, vascular homeostasis and angiogenesis. Previous studies have shown that deficiency in NOS3 results in congenital septal defects, cardiac hypertrophy and postnatal heart failure. In addition, NOS3 is pivotal to morphogenesis of aortic valve and myocardial capillary development. The aim of my thesis ...


Identification Of Stiffness-Induced Signalling Mechanisms In Cells From Patent And Fused Sutures Associated With Craniosynostosis., Sara Barreto, Arlyng Gonzalez Vazquez, Andrew R. Cameron, Fergal J. O'Brien, Dylan J Murray 2017 Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland

Identification Of Stiffness-Induced Signalling Mechanisms In Cells From Patent And Fused Sutures Associated With Craniosynostosis., Sara Barreto, Arlyng Gonzalez Vazquez, Andrew R. Cameron, Fergal J. O'Brien, Dylan J Murray

Anatomy Articles

Craniosynostosis is a bone developmental disease where premature ossification of the cranial sutures occurs leading to fused sutures. While biomechanical forces have been implicated in craniosynostosis, evidence of the effect of microenvironmental stiffness changes in the osteogenic commitment of cells from the sutures is lacking. Our aim was to identify the differential genetic expression and osteogenic capability between cells from patent and fused sutures of children with craniosynostosis and whether these differences are driven by changes in the stiffness of the microenvironment. Cells from both sutures demonstrated enhanced mineralisation with increasing substrate stiffness showing that stiffness is a stimulus capable ...


The Role Of T-Box Proteins In Vertebrate Germ Layer Formation And Patterning, Sushma Teegala 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Role Of T-Box Proteins In Vertebrate Germ Layer Formation And Patterning, Sushma Teegala

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

All of the tissues in triploblastic organisms, with the exception of the germ cells, arise from the three germ layers, ectoderm, mesoderm and the endoderm. The identification of the genes that underlie the differentiation of these layers is crucial to our understanding of development. T-box family proteins are DNA-binding transcriptional regulators that play important roles during germ layer formation in the early vertebrate embryo. Well-characterized members of this family, including the transcriptional activators Brachyury and VegT, are essential for the proper formation of mesoderm and endoderm, respectively. To date, T-box proteins have not been shown to play a role in ...


Intracellular Signalling Crosstalk In The Differentiation Of F9 Cells Into Extraembryonic Endoderm, Tina Nicole Cuthbert 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Intracellular Signalling Crosstalk In The Differentiation Of F9 Cells Into Extraembryonic Endoderm, Tina Nicole Cuthbert

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Mouse F9 cells differentiate into primitive extraembryonic endoderm (PrE) with retinoic acid (RA) treatment, resulting in up-regulation of Gata6, which when translated directly activates Wnt6. Canonical Wnt signalling is required for PrE differentiation, and this, like most developmental processes, requires input from one or more additional pathways, including hedgehog (Hh). The Hh pathway is regulated by GATA6, and crosstalks positively/negatively with Wnt signalling. Ihh up-regulation in F9 cells accompanies PrE induction, but a role for GATA6 or Hh pathway activation in obligatory Wnt/ß-catenin signalling is not known. To address this, I show that RA induces Ihh and altered ...


Contribution Of Activating Transcription Factor 3 To Development Of Acinar-To-Ductal Cell Metaplasia, Jelena Toma 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Contribution Of Activating Transcription Factor 3 To Development Of Acinar-To-Ductal Cell Metaplasia, Jelena Toma

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the third leading cause of cancer death in North America. The highest risk factor for PDAC is recurrent pancreatitis. While the link between PDAC and pancreatitis is unknown, de-differentiation of acinar cells is common to both diseases. Our lab has shown that Activating Transcription Factor 3 (ATF3), a factor upregulated during pancreatic injury, contributes to the development of acinar-to-ductal cell metaplasia (ADM), a precursor phenotype of PDAC. The goal of this study was to identify how ATF3 contributes to ADM. I hypothesize that ATF3 regulates acinar gene expression promoting ADM. We observed decreased ADM development ...


The Effect Of Hemodynamic Force On The Maturation Of Blood Vessels During Embryogenesis, Rachel Lee Padget 2017 Missouri State University

The Effect Of Hemodynamic Force On The Maturation Of Blood Vessels During Embryogenesis, Rachel Lee Padget

MSU Graduate Theses

Throughout embryonic development, blood vessels are derived from endothelial cells by way of vasculogenesis. During angiogenesis, vessels remodel to form a hierarchy of large-diameter arteries that branch into small-diameter capillaries. In this maturation, vessels respond to unidentified signaling events to become surrounded with an outer layer of vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs). This results in arteries that have a thick vSMC layer, veins that have a thin vSMC layer, and capillaries that have a very thin or absent vSMC layer. What remains to be determined is the cause of the thicker layer of vSMCs around proximal arteries. Previous studies have ...


The Role Of Hemodynamic Force On Development Of The Mouse Embryonic Heart, Samantha Jean Fredrickson 2017 Missouri State University

The Role Of Hemodynamic Force On Development Of The Mouse Embryonic Heart, Samantha Jean Fredrickson

MSU Graduate Theses

The most common type of birth defects are congenital heart defects (or CHDs). Though a few cases of CHDs have been attributed to genetic defects specific to the heart, substance exposure, or to maternal disease, the cause of most CHDs is unknown. Thus, further research is needed to determine how CHDs form. Very few studies have investigated how physiological factors like perturbations of blood flow can affect normal heart development. For instance, increasing or decreasing the resistance to blood flow can alter development of the heart in both zebrafish and chicken embryos. This could be one mechanism to explain CHD ...


The Dlk1-Meg3 Locus In Malignant Cells Of Proposed Primordial Germ Cell Origins., Zachariah Payne Sellers 2017 University of Louisville

The Dlk1-Meg3 Locus In Malignant Cells Of Proposed Primordial Germ Cell Origins., Zachariah Payne Sellers

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are hypothesized to deposit hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) along their migration route through the embryo during the early stages of embryogenesis. PGCs also undergo global chromatin remodeling, including the erasure and reestablishment of genomic imprints, during this migration. While PGCs do not spontaneously form teratomas, their malignant development into germ cell tumors (GCTs) in vivo is often accompanied by the retention of hypomethylation at the IGF2-H19 imprinting control differentially methylated region (DMR). Previous studies in bimaternal embryos determined that proper genomic imprinting at two paternally imprinted loci was necessary for their growth and development: Igf2-H19 and ...


Ivd Formation In Monodelphis Domestica, Emma C.B. Gray, Jen Maier, Karen Sears 2017 Parkland College

Ivd Formation In Monodelphis Domestica, Emma C.B. Gray, Jen Maier, Karen Sears

Phenotypic Plasticity Research Experience for Community College Students

The research summarized on this poster supports the use of the gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica) as a lab animal for research into invertebral disc formation and degeneration. Preliminary data suggests that some genes involved in the formation and maintenance of the notochord in mice are the same in the short-tailed opossum. Data also suggests the ossification of the vertebral column of pups proceeds anteriorly to posteriorly and that much of the maturation of the nucleus puposus happens in the first ten days.


A Mathematical Model For Selective Differentiation Of Neural Progenitor Cells On Micropatterned Polymer Substrates, Cory L. Howk, Howard A. Levine, Michael W. Smiley, Surya K. Mallapragada, Marit Nilsen-Hamilton, Jisun Oh, Donald S. Sakaguchi 2017 University of Iowa

A Mathematical Model For Selective Differentiation Of Neural Progenitor Cells On Micropatterned Polymer Substrates, Cory L. Howk, Howard A. Levine, Michael W. Smiley, Surya K. Mallapragada, Marit Nilsen-Hamilton, Jisun Oh, Donald S. Sakaguchi

Surya K Mallapragada

The biological hypothesis that the astrocyte-secreted cytokine, interleukin-6 (IL6), stimulates differentiation of adult rat hippocampal progenitor cells (AHPCs) is considered from a mathematical perspective. The proposed mathematical model includes two different mechanisms for stimulation and is based on mass–action kinetics. Both biological mechanisms involve sequential binding, with one pathway solely utilizing surface receptors while the other pathway also involves soluble receptors. Choosing biologically-reasonable values for parameters, simulations of the mathematical model show good agreement with experimental results. A global sensitivity analysis is also conducted to determine both the most influential and non-influential parameters on cellular differentiation, providing additional insights ...


A Mathematical Model For Selective Differentiation Of Neural Progenitor Cells On Micropatterned Polymer Substrates, Cory L. Howk, Howard A. Levine, Michael W. Smiley, Surya K. Mallapragada, Marit Nilsen-Hamilton, Jisun Oh, Donald S. Sakaguchi 2017 University of Iowa

A Mathematical Model For Selective Differentiation Of Neural Progenitor Cells On Micropatterned Polymer Substrates, Cory L. Howk, Howard A. Levine, Michael W. Smiley, Surya K. Mallapragada, Marit Nilsen-Hamilton, Jisun Oh, Donald S. Sakaguchi

Marit Nilsen-Hamilton

The biological hypothesis that the astrocyte-secreted cytokine, interleukin-6 (IL6), stimulates differentiation of adult rat hippocampal progenitor cells (AHPCs) is considered from a mathematical perspective. The proposed mathematical model includes two different mechanisms for stimulation and is based on mass–action kinetics. Both biological mechanisms involve sequential binding, with one pathway solely utilizing surface receptors while the other pathway also involves soluble receptors. Choosing biologically-reasonable values for parameters, simulations of the mathematical model show good agreement with experimental results. A global sensitivity analysis is also conducted to determine both the most influential and non-influential parameters on cellular differentiation, providing additional insights ...


Myo/Nog Cells: Targets For Preventing The Accumulation Of Skeletal Muscle-Like Cells In The Human Lens, Jacquelyn Gerhart, M. Greenbaum, V. Scheinfeld, P. Fitzgerald, M. Crawford, Arturo Bravo Nuevo, M. Pitts, Mindy George-Weinstein 2017 Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine

Myo/Nog Cells: Targets For Preventing The Accumulation Of Skeletal Muscle-Like Cells In The Human Lens, Jacquelyn Gerhart, M. Greenbaum, V. Scheinfeld, P. Fitzgerald, M. Crawford, Arturo Bravo Nuevo, M. Pitts, Mindy George-Weinstein

Arturo Bravo-Nuevo

Posterior capsule opacification (PCO) is a vision impairing condition that arises in some patients following cataract surgery. The fibrotic form of PCO is caused by myofibroblasts that may emerge in the lens years after surgery. In the chick embryo lens, myofibroblasts are derived from Myo/Nog cells that are identified by their expression of the skeletal muscle specific transcription factor MyoD, the bone morphogenetic protein inhibitor Noggin, and the epitope recognized by the G8 monoclonal antibody. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that depletion of Myo/Nog cells will prevent the accumulation of myofibroblasts in human ...


Complement-Related Regulates Autophagy In Neighboring Cells, Lin Lin 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Complement-Related Regulates Autophagy In Neighboring Cells, Lin Lin

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Autophagy is a conserved process that cells use to degrade their own cytoplasmic components by delivery to lysosomes. Autophagy ensures intracellular quality control and is associated with diseases such as cancer and immune disorders. The process of autophagy is controlled by core autophagy (Atg) genes that are conserved from yeast to mammal. Most Atg proteins and their regulators were identified through pioneering studies of the single cell yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and little is known about factors that systematically coordinate autophagy within the tissues of multicellular animals. The goal of this thesis is to identify new autophagy regulators and provide a ...


Moesin1 And Ve-Cadherin Are Required In Endothelial Cells During In Vivo Tubulogenesis, Ying Wang, Mark S. Kaiser, Jon D. Larson, Aidas Nasevicius, Karl J. Clark, Shannon A. Wadman, Sharon E. Roberg-Perez, Stephen C. Ekker, Perry B. Hackett, Maura McGrail, Jeffrey J. Essner 2017 Iowa State University

Moesin1 And Ve-Cadherin Are Required In Endothelial Cells During In Vivo Tubulogenesis, Ying Wang, Mark S. Kaiser, Jon D. Larson, Aidas Nasevicius, Karl J. Clark, Shannon A. Wadman, Sharon E. Roberg-Perez, Stephen C. Ekker, Perry B. Hackett, Maura Mcgrail, Jeffrey J. Essner

Jeffrey J. Essner

Endothelial tubulogenesis is a crucial step in the formation of functional blood vessels during angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. Here, we use in vivo imaging of living zebrafish embryos expressing fluorescent fusion proteins of β-Actin, α-Catenin, and the ERM family member Moesin1 (Moesin a), to define a novel cord hollowing process that occurs during the initial stages of tubulogenesis in intersegmental vessels (ISVs) in the embryo. We show that the primary lumen elongates along cell junctions between at least two endothelial cells during embryonic angiogenesis. Moesin1-EGFP is enriched around structures that resemble intracellular vacuoles, which fuse with the luminal membrane during expansion ...


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