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Investigating The Gene Regulatory Network Underlying Caudal Hindbrain Specification In Embryonic Zebrafish, Priyanjali Ghosh 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Investigating The Gene Regulatory Network Underlying Caudal Hindbrain Specification In Embryonic Zebrafish, Priyanjali Ghosh

Priyanjali Ghosh

To understand the gene regulatory network (GRN) governing caudal hindbrain formation in embryonic zebrafish, several early expressed factors have been manipulated, and multiple genetic mutants have been characterized. Such analyses have identified morphogens such as Retinoic Acid (RA) and Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), as well as transcription factors like hoxb1b, hoxb1a, hnf1ba, and valentino as being required for rhombomere (r) r4-r6 formation in zebrafish. Considering that the caudal hindbrain is relatively complex – for instance, unique sets of neurons are formed in each rhombomere segment – it is likely that additional essential genes remain to be identified and integrated into the caudal ...


Mechanisms Of Age-Related Prostate Growth And Tumorigenesis, Deon O'Bryant 2018 Atlanta University Center

Mechanisms Of Age-Related Prostate Growth And Tumorigenesis, Deon O'Bryant

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy among men, but few genetic factors that drive prostate cancer initiation have been identified. The WD repeat domain 77 (Wdr77) protein is essential for cellular proliferation when it localizes in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells at the early stage of prostate development. In the adult prostate, it is transported into the nucleus and functions as a co-regulator of the androgen receptor to promote cellular differentiation and prostate function. This developmental process is reversed during prostate tumorigenesis i.e., Wdr77 is translocated from the nucleus into the cytoplasm to drive proliferation of prostate ...


Examining The Roles Of Genetic And Environmental Factors In Drosophila Melanogaster Hematopoiesis And Innate Immune System, Minkyung Lee 2018 Baruch College

Examining The Roles Of Genetic And Environmental Factors In Drosophila Melanogaster Hematopoiesis And Innate Immune System, Minkyung Lee

Student Theses

Nearly 24 million people are affected by autoimmune diseases in the United States. Main causes of autoimmune diseases have been attributed to genetic predisposition and environmental exposure to chemicals such as hormones and pesticides. Due to the large population that are affected by autoimmune diseases, it is critical to understand the mechanisms behind them. In this study, we sought to explore both genetic and environmental factors that affect hematopoiesis, or the formation of specific blood cells, and immune system in Drosophila melanogaster. As Drosophila melanogaster have conserved pathways of hematopoiesis as humans, they were used as the model organism for ...


Regulation Of Epithelial Proliferation And Migration By Apical-Basal Polarity Proteins, Gregory Vincent Schimizzi 2018 Washington University in St. Louis

Regulation Of Epithelial Proliferation And Migration By Apical-Basal Polarity Proteins, Gregory Vincent Schimizzi

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Epithelial cells line all the outside surfaces of the body where they perform essential roles in maintaining homeostasis. In addition, epithelial tissues are implicated in many disease processes and are the most common tissue type to give rise to human cancer. Therefore, a thorough understanding of epithelial development and homeostasis has broad implications for understanding human development, health, and disease. The establishment and maintenance of apical-basal polarity is a defining characteristic and essential feature of functioning epithelia. Proper apical-basal polarity (ABP) is required for epithelial tissues to carry out their functions, which include absorption, secretion, barrier formation, and collective migration ...


Egfr Polymorphisms In Drosophila Melanogaster, Stacie Chue, Neha Mehta, Samantha Poon, Heather Trazino 2018 CUNY Bernard M Baruch College

Egfr Polymorphisms In Drosophila Melanogaster, Stacie Chue, Neha Mehta, Samantha Poon, Heather Trazino

Publications and Research

No abstract provided.


Manganese Toxicity In The Dopamine Synthesis Pathway In Drosophilia Melanogaster, Brandon J. Adair, Tamra E. Jones 2018 Carroll College - Helena

Manganese Toxicity In The Dopamine Synthesis Pathway In Drosophilia Melanogaster, Brandon J. Adair, Tamra E. Jones

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

Manganese is prevalent in Montana, and Manganese toxicity symptomatically resembles Parkinson’s disease. The goal of this project was to determine whether exposure to high levels of Manganese affects the Dopamine synthesis pathway. For our experiment, we chose to measure the expression of the ple gene in Drosophila melanogaster that were exposed to Manganese during development. The ple gene codes for Tyrosine Hydroxylase, an enzyme that functions in the first rate-limiting step of Dopamine synthesis. We hypothesized that an abundance of Manganese would result in decreased expression of ple in larvae and observable motor function deficits among adult flies. In ...


Effects Of Everyday Toxin, Titanium Dioxide, On Drosophila Melanogaster Nervous System Development, Maria Carparelli, Kelsey Ripley 2018 Carroll College, Helena, MT

Effects Of Everyday Toxin, Titanium Dioxide, On Drosophila Melanogaster Nervous System Development, Maria Carparelli, Kelsey Ripley

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a widely used compound found in everything from food packaging to sunscreens. When ingested, TiO2 is readily transported across membranes and efficiently stored within cells. Previous studies showed that exposure to TiO2 results in underdeveloped nervous systems. For our study, we attempted to answer the following question: Will exposing Drosophila melanogaster larvae to TiO2 affect expression of the Neur gene and development of the central nervous system? The Neur gene is crucial during the cell-determination stage of development as its encoded protein helps specify neuroblast development and aids in nervous system and sensory organ development. It ...


Effects Of Uvb Light On P8/Ttda Gene Expression In Developing Drosophila Melanogaster, Teal Bullick, Bryce Green 2018 Carroll College

Effects Of Uvb Light On P8/Ttda Gene Expression In Developing Drosophila Melanogaster, Teal Bullick, Bryce Green

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

UVB light is known to cause DNA damage that results in gene mutations. Most regions of DNA damage are corrected using Nucleotide Excision Repair mechanisms (NER). In Drosophila melanogaster, the p8/TTDAgene codes for an essential subunit of a protein involved in NER-mediated DNA repair. In this experiment, we attempted to answer the question: will overexpression of the p8/TTDA gene in Drosophila compensate for the damage done to DNA by UVB light exposure? In testing this hypothesis, we exposed our Drosophila larvae cultures to 7-minute periods of UVB light once during each stage of larval development. Our control ...


Put Your Phone Down: Effects Of Cellular Radiation On Drosophila Melanogaster, Anna Sapone, Michael Wilson 2018 Carroll College

Put Your Phone Down: Effects Of Cellular Radiation On Drosophila Melanogaster, Anna Sapone, Michael Wilson

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

In this project, we aimed to answer the question: Does cellular radiation affect offspring production and expression of the Rad51 gene in the organism Drosophila melanogaster? It was hypothesized that if Drosophila larvae were exposed to cellular radiation, the total offspring production would decrease, along with a corresponding increase in Rad51 expression. The Rad51 protein is crucial to the propagation of strand invasion and exchange steps in homologous recombination, resulting in the repair of double stranded DNA breaks. To test our hypothesis, we exposed the experimental group of Drosophila larvae to doses of cellular radiation emitted from an iPhone 6 ...


Diurnal And Developmental Differences In Gene Expression Between Adult Dispersing And Flightless Morphs Of The Wing Polymorphic Cricket, Gryllus Firmus: Implications For Life-History Evolution, Anthony J. Zera, Neetha Nanoth Vellichirammal, Jennifer A. Brisson 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Diurnal And Developmental Differences In Gene Expression Between Adult Dispersing And Flightless Morphs Of The Wing Polymorphic Cricket, Gryllus Firmus: Implications For Life-History Evolution, Anthony J. Zera, Neetha Nanoth Vellichirammal, Jennifer A. Brisson

Anthony Zera Publications

The functional basis of life history adaptation is a key topic of research in life history evolution. Studies of wing polymorphism in the cricket Gryllus firmus have played a prominent role in this field. However, prior in-depth investigations of morph specialization have primarily focused on a single hormone, juvenile hormone, and a single aspect of intermediary metabolism, the fatty-acid biosynthetic component of lipid metabolism. Moreover, the role of diurnal variation in life history adaptation in G. firmus has been understudied, as is the case for organisms in general. Here, we identify genes whose expression differs consistently between the ...


Stimulating Canonical Wnt Signaling In Pituitary Progenitors Inhibits Differentiation Of Hormone Cell Types, Tanner F. Coleman 2018 University of South Carolina

Stimulating Canonical Wnt Signaling In Pituitary Progenitors Inhibits Differentiation Of Hormone Cell Types, Tanner F. Coleman

Senior Theses

The mouse pituitary gland secretes hormones that regulate many physiological processes including growth, stress response, and reproduction. The canonical WNT signaling pathway, activation of which results in nuclear accumulation of β-CATENIN and transcription of target genes including LEF1, is crucial for proper development of the pituitary gland. Pituitary progenitors that lack β-CATENIN at embryonic day of development 8.5 (E8.5) cannot form three of the six cell types of the anterior pituitary that produce growth hormone (GH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and prolactin (PRL). Additionally, stimulating canonical WNT signaling through creation of degradation-resistant β-CATENIN at E9.5 causes pituitary ...


Genetic Basis Of Larval Crystal Cell Quantity Variation In The Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel (Dgrp), Brian Tang 2018 Bernard M Baruch College & CUNYBA Program

Genetic Basis Of Larval Crystal Cell Quantity Variation In The Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel (Dgrp), Brian Tang

Student Theses

Crystal cells are one of three requisite hemocytes that take part in fighting infection and wound healing in Drosophila melanogaster (common fruit flies). The developmental genetics of crystal cell formation is only beginning to be discovered. To address this question, we performed a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) on larval crystal cell number from 78 isolines of the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) collection. The DGRP consists of naturally caught fruit flies that are inbred to near homozygosity with completely sequenced genomes. By placing the wandering third instar larvae under heatshock, a process that induces the melanization of crystal cells, it ...


Effects Of Larval Density On Gene Regulation In Caenorhabditis Elegans During Routine L1 Synchronization, Io Long Chan, Oliver J. Rando, Colin C. Conine 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Effects Of Larval Density On Gene Regulation In Caenorhabditis Elegans During Routine L1 Synchronization, Io Long Chan, Oliver J. Rando, Colin C. Conine

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Bleaching gravid C. elegans followed by a short period of starvation of the L1 larvae is a routine method performed by worm researchers for generating synchronous populations for experiments. During the process of investigating dietary effects on gene regulation in L1 stage worms by single-worm RNA-Seq, we found that the density of resuspended L1 larvae affects expression of many mRNAs. Specifically, a number of genes related to metabolism and signalling are highly expressed in worms arrested at low density, but are repressed at higher arrest densities. We generated a GFP reporter strain based on one of the most density-dependent genes ...


C. Elegans Mrp-5 Exports Vitamin B12 From Mother To Offspring To Support Embryonic Development, Huimin Na, Olga Ponomarova, Gabrielle E. Giese, Albertha J. M. Walhout 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

C. Elegans Mrp-5 Exports Vitamin B12 From Mother To Offspring To Support Embryonic Development, Huimin Na, Olga Ponomarova, Gabrielle E. Giese, Albertha J. M. Walhout

Program in Systems Biology Publications and Presentations

Vitamin B12 functions as a cofactor for methionine synthase to produce the anabolic methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and for methylmalonyl-CoA mutase to catabolize the short-chain fatty acid propionate. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, maternally supplied vitamin B12 is required for the development of offspring. However, the mechanism for exporting vitamin B12 from the mother to the offspring is not yet known. Here, we use RNAi of more than 200 transporters with a vitamin B12-sensor transgene to identify the ABC transporter MRP-5 as a candidate vitamin B12 exporter. We show that the injection of vitamin B12 into the gonad of mrp-5 ...


A Parental Requirement For Dual-Specificity Phosphatase 6 In Zebrafish, Jennifer M. Maurer, Charles G. Sagerstrom 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

A Parental Requirement For Dual-Specificity Phosphatase 6 In Zebrafish, Jennifer M. Maurer, Charles G. Sagerstrom

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Signaling cascades, such as the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway, play vital roles in early vertebrate development. Signals through these pathways are initiated by a growth factor or hormone, are transduced through a kinase cascade, and result in the expression of specific downstream genes that promote cellular proliferation, growth, or differentiation. Tight regulation of these signals is provided by positive or negative modulators at varying levels in the pathway, and is required for proper development and function. Two members of the dual-specificity phosphatase (Dusp) family, dusp6 and dusp2, are believed to be negative regulators of the ERK pathway and ...


Cerebral Organoids Derived From Sandhoff Disease-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Exhibit Impaired Neurodifferentiation, Maria L. Allende, Emily K. Cook, Bridget C. Larman, Adrienne Nugent, Jacqueline M. Brady, Diane Golebiowski, Miguel Sena-Esteves, Cynthia J. Tifft, Richard L. Proia 2018 National Institutes of Health

Cerebral Organoids Derived From Sandhoff Disease-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Exhibit Impaired Neurodifferentiation, Maria L. Allende, Emily K. Cook, Bridget C. Larman, Adrienne Nugent, Jacqueline M. Brady, Diane Golebiowski, Miguel Sena-Esteves, Cynthia J. Tifft, Richard L. Proia

Open Access Articles

Sandhoff disease, one of the GM2 gangliosidoses, is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by the absence of beta-hexosaminidase A and B activity and the concomitant lysosomal accumulation of its substrate, GM2 ganglioside. It features catastrophic neurodegeneration and death in early childhood. How the lysosomal accumulation of ganglioside might affect the early development of the nervous system is not understood. Recently, cerebral organoids derived from induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have illuminated early developmental events altered by disease processes. To develop an early neurodevelopmental model of Sandhoff disease, we first generated iPS cells from the fibroblasts of an infantile Sandhoff disease ...


A Cre-Inducible Dux4 Transgenic Mouse Model For Investigating Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy, Takako I. Jones, Peter L. Jones 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

A Cre-Inducible Dux4 Transgenic Mouse Model For Investigating Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy, Takako I. Jones, Peter L. Jones

Open Access Articles

The Double homeobox 4 (DUX4) gene is an important regulator of early human development and its aberrant expression is causal for facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). The DUX4-full length (DUX4-fl) mRNA splice isoform encodes a transcriptional activator; however, DUX4 and its unique DNA binding preferences are specific to old-world primates. Regardless, the somatic cytotoxicity caused by DUX4 expression is conserved when expressed in cells and animals ranging from fly to mouse. Thus, viable animal models based on DUX4-fl expression have been difficult to generate due in large part to overt developmental toxicity of low DUX4-fl expression from leaky transgenes. We have ...


Transient Transcriptional Silencing Alters The Cell Cycle To Promote Germline Stem Cell Differentiation In Drosophila, Pooja Flora, Sean Schowalter, SiuWah Wong-Deyrup, Matthew DeGennaro, Mohamad Ali Nasrallah, Prashanth Rangan 2018 University at Albany, State University of New York

Transient Transcriptional Silencing Alters The Cell Cycle To Promote Germline Stem Cell Differentiation In Drosophila, Pooja Flora, Sean Schowalter, Siuwah Wong-Deyrup, Matthew Degennaro, Mohamad Ali Nasrallah, Prashanth Rangan

Open Access Articles

Transcriptional silencing is a conserved process used by embryonic germ cells to repress somatic fate and maintain totipotency and immortality. In Drosophila, this transcriptional silencing is mediated by polar granule component (pgc). Here, we show that in the adult ovary, pgc is required for timely germline stem cell (GSC) differentiation. Pgc is expressed transiently in the immediate GSC daughter (pre-cystoblast), where it mediates a pulse of transcriptional silencing. This transcriptional silencing mediated by pgc indirectly promotes the accumulation of Cyclin B (CycB) and cell cycle progression into late-G2 phase, when the differentiation factor bag of marbles (bam) is expressed. Pgc ...


Cloning And Spatiotemporal Expression Of Xenopus Laevis Apolipoprotein Ci, Jyotsna Sridharan, Tomomi Haremaki, Daniel C. Weinstein 2018 Thermo Fisher Scientific

Cloning And Spatiotemporal Expression Of Xenopus Laevis Apolipoprotein Ci, Jyotsna Sridharan, Tomomi Haremaki, Daniel C. Weinstein

Publications and Research

Apolipoprotein CI (ApoCI) belongs to the Apolipoprotein superfamily, members of which are involved in lipid transport, uptake and homeostasis. Excessive ApoCI has been implicated in atherosclerosis and Alzheimer’s disease in humans. In this study we report the isolation of Xenopus laevis apoCI and describe the expression pattern of this gene during early development, using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and whole mount in situ hybridization. Xenopus apoCI is enriched in the dorsal ectoderm during gastrulation, and is subsequently expressed in sensory placodes, neural tube and cranial neural crest. These data suggest as yet uncharacterized roles for ApoCI during early ...


Jak/Stat Signaling Regulates Gametogenesis And Age-Related Reproductive Maintenance, Michelle Suzanne Giedt 2018 University of Kentucky

Jak/Stat Signaling Regulates Gametogenesis And Age-Related Reproductive Maintenance, Michelle Suzanne Giedt

Theses and Dissertations--Biology

Cell signaling is central to integration of internal and external cues that regulate development and homeostasis. Most development is thought of as pre-adult, but limited developmental processes occur in adults. Gametogenesis incorporates elements of both these facets, with a distinct developmental plan for gamete synthesis which is regulated by integration of homeostatic inputs such as nutrient status, and environmental cues. Signaling pathways integrate and transduce information from these cues to evoke a response. A decline in homeostasis and subsequent cues occurs over time, in the case of reproductive tissues leading to a progressive loss of fertility. The Janus Kinase and ...


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