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Modeling And Analysis Of Germ Layer Formations Using Finite Dynamical Systems, Alexander Garza, Megan Eberle, Eric A. Eager 2016 University of Wisconsin-La Crosse

Modeling And Analysis Of Germ Layer Formations Using Finite Dynamical Systems, Alexander Garza, Megan Eberle, Eric A. Eager

Spora: A Journal of Biomathematics

The development of an embryo from a fertilised egg to a multicellular organism proceeds through numerous steps, with the formation of the three germ layers (endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm) being one of the first. In this paper we study the mesendoderm (the tissue that collectively gives rise to both mesoderm and endoderm) gene regulatory network for two species, \textit{Xenopus laevis} and the axolotl (\textit{Ambystoma mexicanum}) using Boolean networks. We find that previously-established bistability found in these networks can be reproduced using this Boolean framework, provided that some assumptions used in previously-published differential equations models are relaxed. We conclude by ...


Investigating The Roles Of Δnp63 As A Suppressor Of Migration, Invasion, And Metastasis, Ramon E. Flores Gonzalez 2016 The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Investigating The Roles Of Δnp63 As A Suppressor Of Migration, Invasion, And Metastasis, Ramon E. Flores Gonzalez

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death and disease in the world. Considerable resources are spent to study and understand cancer, with the hope of developing new treatments and eventually cures that will help millions of people. Efforts to understand cancer are hindered by its inherent complexity and instability. Nonetheless, understanding the basics of tumor development and progression are the key to focused on studying the role of ΔNp63 in cancer, a p53 family member known to be involved in epithelial development, microRNA biogenesis, and stem cell maintenance. Using the strength of in vivo mouse models, we found ...


Dichotomous Key To Pea Aphid (Acyrthosiphon Pisum) Apterous Parthenogenic Instars, Bates College Department of Biology, Daisy Diamond, Daniel Levitis 2016 Bates College

Dichotomous Key To Pea Aphid (Acyrthosiphon Pisum) Apterous Parthenogenic Instars, Bates College Department Of Biology, Daisy Diamond, Daniel Levitis

SCARAB Data Repository

We provide a dichotomous key, with photographs and illustrations, for distinguishing between instars of the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) in the developmental pathway leading to the apterous parthenogenetic adult. Lengths of body, antenna and cauda are provided for a sample of each instar.


Osteopetrorickets Due To Snx10 Deficiency In Mice Results From Both Failed Osteoclast Activity And Loss Of Gastric Acid-Dependent Calcium Absorption, Liang Ye, Leslie R. Morse, Li Zhang, Hajime Sasaki, Jason C. Mills, Paul R. Odgren, Greg Sibbel, James R.L. Stanley, Gee Wong, Ariane Zamarioli, Ricardo A. Battaglino 2016 The Forsyth Institute

Osteopetrorickets Due To Snx10 Deficiency In Mice Results From Both Failed Osteoclast Activity And Loss Of Gastric Acid-Dependent Calcium Absorption, Liang Ye, Leslie R. Morse, Li Zhang, Hajime Sasaki, Jason C. Mills, Paul R. Odgren, Greg Sibbel, James R.L. Stanley, Gee Wong, Ariane Zamarioli, Ricardo A. Battaglino

Paul R. Odgren PhD

Mutations in sorting nexin 10 (Snx10) have recently been found to account for roughly 4% of all human malignant osteopetrosis, some of them fatal. To study the disease pathogenesis, we investigated the expression of Snx10 and created mouse models in which Snx10 was knocked down globally or knocked out in osteoclasts. Endocytosis is severely defective in Snx10-deficient osteoclasts, as is extracellular acidification, ruffled border formation, and bone resorption. We also discovered that Snx10 is highly expressed in stomach epithelium, with mutations leading to high stomach pH and low calcium solubilization. Global Snx10-deficiency in mice results in a combined phenotype: osteopetrosis ...


The Role Of Nadph Oxidase In Ros Mediated Differentiation, Benjamin J. Dickson 2016 The University of Western Ontario

The Role Of Nadph Oxidase In Ros Mediated Differentiation, Benjamin J. Dickson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Mouse teratocarcinoma F9 cells differentiate into primitive endoderm (PrE) when treated with retinoic acid (RA) or H2O2 and these changes are accompanied by an upregulation of Wnt6 and activation of the canonical WNT/β-catenin pathway. Data from our lab shows PrE differentiation is accompanied by an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS), which induces a conformational change in Nucleoredoxin preventing its ability to bind and inhibit Dishevelled. This in turn positively impacts on the WNT/β- catenin signaling pathway leading to differentiation. The source of endogenous ROS seen following RA treatment was investigated and members of the NADPH oxidase (NOX ...


Promoter-Enhancer Looping At The Pparγ2 Locus During Adipogenic Differentiation Requires The Prmt5 Methyltransferase, Scott E. LeBlanc, Qiong Wu, Pallavi Lamba, Said Sif, Anthony N. Imbalzano 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Promoter-Enhancer Looping At The Pparγ2 Locus During Adipogenic Differentiation Requires The Prmt5 Methyltransferase, Scott E. Leblanc, Qiong Wu, Pallavi Lamba, Said Sif, Anthony N. Imbalzano

Imbalzano Lab

PPARγ2 is a critical lineage-determining transcription factor that is essential for adipogenic differentiation. Here we report characterization of the three-dimensional structure of the PPARγ2 locus after the onset of adipogenic differentiation and the mechanisms by which it forms. We identified a differentiation-dependent loop between the PPARγ2 promoter and an enhancer sequence 10 kb upstream that forms at the onset of PPARγ2 expression. The arginine methyltransferase Prmt5 was required for loop formation, and overexpression of Prmt5 resulted in premature loop formation and earlier onset of PPARγ2 expression. Kinetic studies of regulatory factor interactions at the PPARγ2 promoter and enhancer revealed enhanced ...


Genetic Analysis Reveals A Hierarchy Of Interactions Between Polycystin-Encoding Genes And Genes Controlling Cilia Function During Left-Right Determination, Daniel T. Grimes, Jennifer L. Keynton, Maria T. Buenavista, Xingjian Jin, Saloni H. Patel, Shinohara Kyosuke, Jennifer Vibert, Debbie J. Williams, Hiroshi Hamada, Rohana Hussain, Surya M. Nauli, Dominic P. Norris 2016 MRC Harwell

Genetic Analysis Reveals A Hierarchy Of Interactions Between Polycystin-Encoding Genes And Genes Controlling Cilia Function During Left-Right Determination, Daniel T. Grimes, Jennifer L. Keynton, Maria T. Buenavista, Xingjian Jin, Saloni H. Patel, Shinohara Kyosuke, Jennifer Vibert, Debbie J. Williams, Hiroshi Hamada, Rohana Hussain, Surya M. Nauli, Dominic P. Norris

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

During mammalian development, left-right (L-R) asymmetry is established by a cilia-driven leftward fluid flow within a midline embryonic cavity called the node. This ‘nodal flow’ is detected by peripherally-located crown cells that each assemble a primary cilium which contain the putative Ca2+ channel PKD2. The interaction of flow and crown cell cilia promotes left side-specific expression of Nodal in the lateral plate mesoderm (LPM). Whilst the PKD2-interacting protein PKD1L1 has also been implicated in L-R patterning, the underlying mechanism by which flow is detected and the genetic relationship between Polycystin function and asymmetric gene expression remains unknown. Here, we ...


Modelling The Polarization, Migration And Neuromast Deposition In The Zebrafish Posterior Lateral Line System, Hildur Knutsdottir 2016 University of British Columbia

Modelling The Polarization, Migration And Neuromast Deposition In The Zebrafish Posterior Lateral Line System, Hildur Knutsdottir

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Modeling Tracheal Occlusion In The Embryonic Lung, Uduak George 2016 University of Louisiana Monroe

Modeling Tracheal Occlusion In The Embryonic Lung, Uduak George

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Translating Dosage Compensation To Trisomy 21, Jun Jiang, Yuanchun Jing, Gregory J. Cost, Jen-Chieh Chiang, Heather J. Kolpa, Allison M. Cotton, Dawn M. Carone, Benjamin R. Carone, Meg Byron, Philip D. Gregory, Carolyn J. Brown, Fyodor D. Urnov, Lisa L. Hall, Jeanne B. Lawrence 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Translating Dosage Compensation To Trisomy 21, Jun Jiang, Yuanchun Jing, Gregory J. Cost, Jen-Chieh Chiang, Heather J. Kolpa, Allison M. Cotton, Dawn M. Carone, Benjamin R. Carone, Meg Byron, Philip D. Gregory, Carolyn J. Brown, Fyodor D. Urnov, Lisa L. Hall, Jeanne B. Lawrence

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Down syndrome is the leading genetic cause of intellectual disabilities, occurring in 1 out of 700 live births. Given that Down syndrome is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21 that involves over-expression of 400 genes across a whole chromosome, it precludes any possibility of a genetic therapy. Our lab has long studied the natural dosage compensation mechanism for X chromosome inactivation. To “dosage compensate” X-linked genes between females and males, the X-linked XIST gene produces a large non-coding RNA that silences one of the two X chromosomes in female cells. The initial motivation of this study was to ...


Effect Of Bisphenol-A On Neurodevelopment In Drosophila Melanogaster Larvae, Alexandra M. Streifel 2016 College of Saint Benedict/Saint John's University

Effect Of Bisphenol-A On Neurodevelopment In Drosophila Melanogaster Larvae, Alexandra M. Streifel

All College Thesis Program

This paper examines the effects of the chemical preservative bisphenol-A on the developing nervous systems of Drosophila melanogaster, or fruit fly, larvae. This study examines the effects of bisphenol-A using both behavioral as well as morphological paradigms. It was determined that bisphenol-A significantly increased the amount of time larvae spent in seeking behavior, the number of peristaltic contractions, and the distance traveled in a linear fashion. In the morphological analysis, indications of increased dendritic area in experimental larvae existed, but there was not enough data to determine significance. For future research, it is recommended that more data be gathered to ...


Expansion, Characterization, Differentiation, And Visualization Of Mc 3t3-E1 Preosteoblast Cells: An In Vitro Model To Study Bone Healing And Stem Cell-Mediated Regeneration, Jakob T. Samsel, Madhu Dhar, Austin Bow, Tom Masi 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Expansion, Characterization, Differentiation, And Visualization Of Mc 3t3-E1 Preosteoblast Cells: An In Vitro Model To Study Bone Healing And Stem Cell-Mediated Regeneration, Jakob T. Samsel, Madhu Dhar, Austin Bow, Tom Masi

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Development Of Vip-Sst Interneuron Associations In Mouse Neocortex And Entorhinal Cortex, Aayushi A. Mehta 2016 University of Connecticut

Development Of Vip-Sst Interneuron Associations In Mouse Neocortex And Entorhinal Cortex, Aayushi A. Mehta

Honors Scholar Theses

Cortical networks depend upon inhibition through the neurotransmitter GABA to control and coordinate specific spatiotemporal circuit patterns, underlying the exquisite complexity of neural signaling. Disinhibition, a form of inhibition where inhibitory neurons inhibit other inhibitory cells, further aids in amplifying local neural processing in a selective, organized manner. A subset of GABAergic interneurons, vasoactive intestinal peptide-expressing (VIP) cells, preferentially inhibit somatostatin interneurons, which provide inhibitory input onto pyramidal cells, thus creating an archetypal circuit illustrating disinhibition in the cortex. The aim of this anatomical study was to investigate variations in GABAergic VIP synapses onto somatostatin-expressing inhibitory interneurons in mice at ...


Programming Heart Disease: Does Poor Maternal Nutrition Alter Expression Of Cardiac Markers Of Proliferation, Hypertrophy, And Fibrosis In Offspring?, Cathy Chun 2016 University of Connecticut

Programming Heart Disease: Does Poor Maternal Nutrition Alter Expression Of Cardiac Markers Of Proliferation, Hypertrophy, And Fibrosis In Offspring?, Cathy Chun

Honors Scholar Theses

Maternal malnutrition can affect fetal organogenesis, metabolic processes, and factors involved in developmental regulation. Of the many physiological effects poor maternal nutrition can induce in offspring, one of the most important organs affected is the heart. Cardiovascular disease has been associated with poor maternal diet. It also been suggested that hypertension can originate during impaired intrauterine growth and development. Hypertension can trigger hypertensive heart disease and is associated with numerous heart complications. We hypothesized that poor maternal nutrition would alter critical growth factors associated with normal heart development, specifically, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, IGF-2, transforming growth factor (TGF)β ...


Impact Of Reduced Calcium During Development In Snakes, Kaitlyn A. Mathis 2016 East Tennessee State University

Impact Of Reduced Calcium During Development In Snakes, Kaitlyn A. Mathis

Undergraduate Honors Theses

In squamate reptiles, the evolutionary transition from oviparity to viviparity is accompanied by loss of the calcareous outer eggshell, which suggests significant implications for the role of calcium during embryonic development (Packard et al., 1977). An experiment was designed to evaluate the impact of reduced calcium availability during development in the oviparous corn snake, Pantherophis guttatus (Stewart and Ecay, 2013). Results from that study showed significant decreases in the mass and length of hatchling corn snakes when the outer calcareous eggshell layer was removed during development. In vertebrates, variation in total body length reflects skeletal differences---primarily differences in the number ...


The Uas-Gal4 System In D. Melanogaster: An Insight Into The Influence Of Micrornas On The Developmental Pathways Of The Wing, Emily R. Wilson 2016 The University of Southern Mississippi

The Uas-Gal4 System In D. Melanogaster: An Insight Into The Influence Of Micrornas On The Developmental Pathways Of The Wing, Emily R. Wilson

Honors Theses

By examining genetic pathways in D. melanogaster, a better understanding of the homologous regulatory mechanisms in humans can be utilized to further enhance knowledge of the roles of microRNA within development. This study utilizes the UAS-Gal4 system in order to produce a mutant phenotype capable of being visually studied and analyzed, focusing on the developmental pathway of the wing in D. melanogaster. Dissections of the wandering third instar larvae yielded wing disc tissue expressing the downregulation of loquacious and CG17386.


A Genetic Test Of A Model For Two Activities Of Fushi Tarazu Protein In Drosophila Melanogaster, Alaa Briek 2016 The University of Western Ontario

A Genetic Test Of A Model For Two Activities Of Fushi Tarazu Protein In Drosophila Melanogaster, Alaa Briek

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The important pair-rule segmentation gene fushi tarazu (ftz) encodes a homeodomain (HD)-containing protein involved in the establishment of even-numbered parasegments during embryonic development. The D. melanogaster ftz is a derived homeotic selector (Hox) gene which lost its homeotic function during the evolution of arthropods. Genetic analyses have shown that FTZ has two distinct activities required during development: HD-dependent and HD-independent FTZ activities. The aim of this study was to test the interaction of the two FTZ activities proposed by Hyduk and Percival-Smith (1996), by generating site-specific mutant ftz alleles for intragenic complementation. CRISPR-mediated homology directed repair (HDR) was used ...


Heredity In The Epigenetic Era: Are We Facing A Politics Of Reproductive Obligations?, Michael J. Crawford 2016 University of Windsor

Heredity In The Epigenetic Era: Are We Facing A Politics Of Reproductive Obligations?, Michael J. Crawford

Biological Sciences Publications

Recent research in the emerging field of epigenetics has implications with the potential to re-ignite acrimony in the discourse of reproductive rights, medical ethics, and the role of the state in our homes and in our lives. For scientists, epigenetics has profoundly realigned our understanding of heredity: epigenetics provides a mechanism through which the environmental challenges met in one generation can be inscribed and transmitted to future offspring. Although both genetic parents have the potential to transmit heritable epigenetic changes to their offspring, mothers have a particularly potent effect because nutrition in the uterine environment can exert a supplemental effect ...


Impact Of Stress Hormones And Iugr Fetal Conditions On Myoblast Function, Hannah E. Riley, Kristin A. Beede, Dustin T. Yates 2016 University of Nebraska Lincoln

Impact Of Stress Hormones And Iugr Fetal Conditions On Myoblast Function, Hannah E. Riley, Kristin A. Beede, Dustin T. Yates

UCARE Research Products

Chronic fetal stress causes adaptive responses that result in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Maternal stressors including heat stress, illness, and obesity cause placental dysfunction that harshens the intrauterine environment by inducing hypoxia and nutrient restriction. IUGR fetuses have restricted growth through the last trimester and after birth. The objective of this study was to test the effects of stress hormones on myoblast proliferation rates. L6 cells and primary myoblasts that were isolated from IUGR fetal sheep in a previous study were used to study the effects of stress hormones on myoblast proliferation and myoblast gene expression. Incubation in epinephrine-spiked media ...


Genetic Link Between Renal Birth Defects And Congenital Heart Disease, Jovenal T. San Agustin, Nikolai Klena, Kristi Granath, Ashok Panigrahy, Eileen Stewart, William Devine, Lara Strittmatter, Julie A. Jonassen, Xiaoqin Liu, Cecilia W. Lo, Gregory J. Pazour 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Genetic Link Between Renal Birth Defects And Congenital Heart Disease, Jovenal T. San Agustin, Nikolai Klena, Kristi Granath, Ashok Panigrahy, Eileen Stewart, William Devine, Lara Strittmatter, Julie A. Jonassen, Xiaoqin Liu, Cecilia W. Lo, Gregory J. Pazour

Program in Molecular Medicine Publications and Presentations

Structural birth defects in the kidney and urinary tract are observed in 0.5% of live births and are a major cause of end-stage renal disease, but their genetic aetiology is not well understood. Here we analyse 135 lines of mice identified in large-scale mouse mutagenesis screen and show that 29% of mutations causing congenital heart disease (CHD) also cause renal anomalies. The renal anomalies included duplex and multiplex kidneys, renal agenesis, hydronephrosis and cystic kidney disease. To assess the clinical relevance of these findings, we examined patients with CHD and observed a 30% co-occurrence of renal anomalies of a ...


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