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Integration Of Bmp And Insulin/Igf-1 Signaling Regulates Multiple Homeostatic Functions In Caenorhabditis Elegans, James F. Clark 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Integration Of Bmp And Insulin/Igf-1 Signaling Regulates Multiple Homeostatic Functions In Caenorhabditis Elegans, James F. Clark

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The maintenance of homeostatic functions is key to the survival and well-being of an organism. Regulation of homeostasis relies on varied inputs, both intrinsic and extrinsic, to potentiate a web of interconnected signaling relays. Insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) is a well-known regulator of glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as having far reaching effects in other homeostatic mechanisms. On the other hand, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), a member of the transforming growth factor beta signaling superfamily, is known for its role in differentiation and development, with only recent studies highlighting potential roles in metabolic homeostasis. Here we elucidate new functions ...


Growing Up In Tell El-Amarna: An Examination Of Growth And Non-Specific Stress Indicators In New Kingdom Children., Ashley Elizabeth Shidner 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Growing Up In Tell El-Amarna: An Examination Of Growth And Non-Specific Stress Indicators In New Kingdom Children., Ashley Elizabeth Shidner

Theses and Dissertations

The health status of the subadult skeletal remains from the South Tombs Cemetery at Tell el-Amarna were assessed by examining fluctuations in childhood growth and rates of skeletal indicators of physiological stress within a biocultural framework. The long bone standardization method outlined by Goode et al. (1993) was used to compare the South Tombs cemetery’s cross-sectional growth data to subadult samples from other cemeteries during which major social, political, and economic changes were taking place. The comparative subadult samples included the HK43 cemetery from Hierakonpolis (Egypt), the African American Cemetery from Cedar Grove (Arkansas), and the St. Martin’s ...


Investigation Of Zebrafish Larvae Behavior As Precursor For Suborbital Flights: Feasibility Study, Pedro Llanos, Kristina Andrijauskaite, Mark Rubinstein, Sherine S.L. Chan 2018 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University - Daytona Beach

Investigation Of Zebrafish Larvae Behavior As Precursor For Suborbital Flights: Feasibility Study, Pedro Llanos, Kristina Andrijauskaite, Mark Rubinstein, Sherine S.L. Chan

Pedro J. Llanos (www.AstronauticsLlanos.com)


Suborbital spaceflights, carrying scientific payloads, allow scientists not only to test the feasibility of their payloads, but they also provide the basis for refining scientific hypotheses to be later tested on the International Space Station (ISS). Therefore, it is essential to establish robust pre-flight procedures in order to take advantage of this unique research platform to facilitate payload delivery. In the present study, we assessed zebrafish larvae behavior as a precursor for the future suborbital spaceflight involving research on the musculoskeletal system. Zebrafish larvae were exposed to the same physiological stressors they would encounter during suborbital spaceflight: alterations in light ...


Put Your Phone Down: Effects Of Cellular Radiation On Drosophila Melanogaster, Anna Sapone, Michael Wilson, Stefanie Otto-Hitt 2018 Carroll College

Put Your Phone Down: Effects Of Cellular Radiation On Drosophila Melanogaster, Anna Sapone, Michael Wilson, Stefanie Otto-Hitt

Life and Environmental Sciences Course-based Research Projects

In this project, we aimed to answer the question: Does cellular radiation affect offspring production and expression of the Rad51 gene in the organism Drosophila melanogaster? It was hypothesized that if Drosophila larvae were exposed to cellular radiation, the total offspring production would decrease, along with a corresponding increase in Rad51 expression. The Rad51 protein is crucial to the propagation of strand invasion and exchange steps in homologous recombination, resulting in the repair of double stranded DNA breaks. To test our hypothesis, we exposed the experimental group of Drosophila larvae to doses of cellular radiation emitted from an iPhone 6 ...


Manganese Toxicity In The Dopamine Synthesis Pathway In Drosophila Melanogaster, Brandon Adair, Tamra E. Jones, Stefanie Otto-Hitt 2018 Carroll College

Manganese Toxicity In The Dopamine Synthesis Pathway In Drosophila Melanogaster, Brandon Adair, Tamra E. Jones, Stefanie Otto-Hitt

Life and Environmental Sciences Course-based Research Projects

Manganese is prevalent in Montana, and Manganese toxicity symptomatically resembles Parkinsons disease. The goal of this project was to determine whether exposure to high levels of Manganese affects the Dopamine synthesis pathway. For our experiment, we chose to measure the expression of the ple gene in Drosophila melanogaster that were exposed to Manganese during development. The ple gene codes for Tyrosine Hydroxylase, an enzyme that functions in the first rate-limiting step of Dopamine synthesis. We hypothesized that an abundance of Manganese would result in decreased expression of ple in larvae and observable motor function deficits among adult flies. To carry ...


Analysis Of Fbp1 Gene Expression In Uv Light-Exposed Tetrahymena Thermophila Cultures, Colby Henry, Stefanie Otto-Hitt 2018 Carroll College

Analysis Of Fbp1 Gene Expression In Uv Light-Exposed Tetrahymena Thermophila Cultures, Colby Henry, Stefanie Otto-Hitt

Life and Environmental Sciences Course-based Research Projects

In this study, Tetrahymena thermophila cultures were exposed to an acute treatment of UV light and expression of the FBP1 gene was examined. The FBP1 gene encodes Fructose- 1,6-biphosphatase which plays an important role in the process of gluconeogenesis. It was hypothesized that exposure of Tetrahymena to UV light would cause an upregulation in DNA repair enzymes, thereby causing these cells to require higher levels of glucose. The higher demand for glucose would then result in the upregulation of gluconeogenesis and FBP1. Following acute exposure of Tetrahymena cultures to UV light, the expression of FBP1 was analyzed using reverse ...


Effects Of Sulfur Dioxide On Abda Gene Expression And Larval Development In Drosophila Melanogaster, Emma Esposito, Keenan McNally, Stefanie Otto-Hitt 2018 Carroll College

Effects Of Sulfur Dioxide On Abda Gene Expression And Larval Development In Drosophila Melanogaster, Emma Esposito, Keenan Mcnally, Stefanie Otto-Hitt

Life and Environmental Sciences Course-based Research Projects

In this experiment, we tested the effects sulfur dioxide exposure had on abd-A gene expression and larval development in Drosophila melanogaster. Previous studies showed that sulfur dioxide exposure inhibits development of gonads in adult flies and increases development time. We hypothesized that expression of abd-A would decrease in developing Drosophila exposed to sulfur dioxide. The abd-A gene is in the Hox gene family, which functions in the development of body segmentation. The abd-A gene is specific to the abdominal region of the fly, and is also important to the development of gonads and fat bodies. To test our hypothesis, we ...


Impacts Of Environmental Motion On Cdc2 Expression And Cell Growth In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Jack Rees, Keaton Brady, Stefanie Otto-Hitt 2018 Carroll College

Impacts Of Environmental Motion On Cdc2 Expression And Cell Growth In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Jack Rees, Keaton Brady, Stefanie Otto-Hitt

Life and Environmental Sciences Course-based Research Projects

In this experiment, the eect of constant motion on expression of the cell cycle control gene CDC2 was examined in the organism Tetrahymena thermophila. We hypothesized that CDC2 expression would decrease with a corresponding increase in movement within the Tetrahymena culture environment. The CDC2 protein is primarily used in the replication of eukaryotic DNA because of its connection to HHO1, an important factor in transcriptional regulation. If the cells were subject to vegetative growth in which there are no stressors put on the cell, then HHO1 becomes phosphorylated to prevent it from interacting with chromatin. Because CDC2 is important in ...


Effects Of The Everyday Toxin, Titanium Dioxide, On Drosophila Melanogaster Nervous System Development, Maria Carparelli, Kelsey Ripley, Stefanie Otto-Hitt 2018 Carroll College

Effects Of The Everyday Toxin, Titanium Dioxide, On Drosophila Melanogaster Nervous System Development, Maria Carparelli, Kelsey Ripley, Stefanie Otto-Hitt

Life and Environmental Sciences Course-based Research Projects

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a widely used compound found in everything from food packaging to sunscreens. When ingested, TiO2 is readily transported across membranes and efficiently stored within cells. Previous studies showed that exposure to TiO2 results in underdeveloped nervous systems. For our study, we attempted to answer the following question: Will exposing Drosophila melanogaster larvae to TiO2 affect expression of the Neur gene and development of the central nervous system? The Neur gene is crucial during the celldetermination stage of development as its encoded protein helps specify neuroblast development and aids in nervous system and sensory organ development. It ...


The Effect Of Basic Conditions On Cdk1 Expression In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Kaitlin Stromberg, Jakob Plagenz, Stefanie Otto-Hitt 2018 Carroll College

The Effect Of Basic Conditions On Cdk1 Expression In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Kaitlin Stromberg, Jakob Plagenz, Stefanie Otto-Hitt

Life and Environmental Sciences Course-based Research Projects

The goal of this project was to discover whether expression of the CDK1 gene in Tetrahymena thermophila, as well as their growth, are aected by changing the pH of the growth media. We hypothesized that expression of the CDK1 gene would decrease significantly when grown in basic media. The CDK1 gene encodes the protein Cyclin-Dependent Kinase, which functions to advance cells through various stages of the cell cycle. To test our hypothesis, Tetrahymena cultures were randomly assigned to either the control group, which was grown in media with a neutral pH, or a treatment group, which was grown in media ...


Effect Of Potassium Bromate On Oxr1 Gene Expression And Cell Growth In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Scott Khale, Brendan McMahon, Stefanie Otto-Hitt 2018 Carroll College

Effect Of Potassium Bromate On Oxr1 Gene Expression And Cell Growth In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Scott Khale, Brendan Mcmahon, Stefanie Otto-Hitt

Life and Environmental Sciences Course-based Research Projects

The purpose of our experiment was to answer the question: Does oxidative damage, induced by potassium bromate (KBrO3), affect growth rate and expression of the OXR1 gene in Tetrahymena thermophila? Potassium Bromate was chosen as the environmental stressor because it is a strong oxidizing agent that is used as a leavening agent in baked goods. It was hypothesized that expression of OXR1 would increase in Tetrahymena cells that were exposed to potassium bromate and that their growth rate would decrease. The exact mechanism and function of the OXR1 gene is still unknown; however, the literature suggests that it is required ...


Effects Of Uvb Light On Tfb5 Gene Expression In Developing Drosophila Melanogaster, Teal Bullick, Bryce Green, Stefanie Otto-Hitt 2018 Carroll College

Effects Of Uvb Light On Tfb5 Gene Expression In Developing Drosophila Melanogaster, Teal Bullick, Bryce Green, Stefanie Otto-Hitt

Life and Environmental Sciences Course-based Research Projects

UVB light is known to cause DNA damage that results in gene mutations. Most regions of DNA damage are corrected using Nucleotide Excision Repair mechanisms (NER). In Drosophila melanogaster, the Tfb5 gene codes for an essential subunit of a protein involved in NER-mediated DNA repair. In this experiment, we attempted to answer the question: will overexpression of the Tfb5 gene in Drosophila compensate for the damage done to DNA by UVB light exposure? In testing this hypothesis, we exposed our Drosophila larvae cultures to 7-minute periods of UVB light once during each stage of larval development. Our control group grew ...


Effect Of Nitrate Pollution On Tetrahymena Thermophila, Reegan DeBruycker, Hannah Sylvester, Stefanie Otto-Hitt 2018 Carroll College

Effect Of Nitrate Pollution On Tetrahymena Thermophila, Reegan Debruycker, Hannah Sylvester, Stefanie Otto-Hitt

Life and Environmental Sciences Course-based Research Projects

The question under investigation in this project was: Does an elevated concentration of nitrates have a negative eect on cell growth and expression of the CDC16 gene in the organism Tetrahymena thermophila? Exposure of Tetrahymena cultures to nitrates mimics the exposure of these organisms to nitrate pollution in the environment, which can occur due to septic tank leakage, nitrogen-rich fertilizer run o, and agricultural processes. The EPA standard for nitrate concentrations in drinking water is a maximum of 10ppm. In our experiment, Tetrahymena cultures were treated with media that contained 30ppm of nitrates for one week. The 30ppm nitrate concentration ...


Effects Of Salt Concentration On Tetrahymena Thermophila Growth And Crp1 Gene Expression, Katie Mchugh, Rachel Tremaine, Anna Sapone, Stefanie Otto-Hitt 2018 Carroll College

Effects Of Salt Concentration On Tetrahymena Thermophila Growth And Crp1 Gene Expression, Katie Mchugh, Rachel Tremaine, Anna Sapone, Stefanie Otto-Hitt

Life and Environmental Sciences Course-based Research Projects

The use of salt to remove ice from roads has resulted in increased salinity in many freshwater lakes in North America. For this project, we wanted to explore how environmental salt concentrations influence the rate of growth of Tetrahymena thermophila and expression of the CRP1 gene. We hypothesized that if the sodium concentration is increased in the media, Tetrahymena growth would decrease and expression of the CRP1 gene would increase. The CRP1 gene encodes a protein that helps regulate calcium concentrations within a cell based on the concentration of sodium ions. The media of the experimental group was treated with ...


Effect Of Egta On Sit1 Scramblase Gene Expression And Cell Growth In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Emma Esposito, Theda Knauth, Amelia Ohnstad, Stefanie Otto-Hitt 2018 Carroll College

Effect Of Egta On Sit1 Scramblase Gene Expression And Cell Growth In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Emma Esposito, Theda Knauth, Amelia Ohnstad, Stefanie Otto-Hitt

Life and Environmental Sciences Course-based Research Projects

Scramblase is an enzyme that facilitates the movement of newly synthesized phospholipids from the cytosolic side to the extracellular side of the lipid bilayer. This process is vital for cell membrane repair and growth. In Tetrahymena thermophila, the gene SIT1 encodes for the Scramblase protein, whose functionality is Ca2+-dependent. In this experiment, the concentration of accessible Ca2+ ions was decreased in order to observe whether the change had an aect on the expression of SIT1 and cell growth. It was hypothesized that expression of the SIT1 gene would increase, while cell growth would decrease. To carry out the experiment ...


Tale Factors Use Two Distinct Functional Modes To Control An Essential Zebrafish Gene Expression Program, Franck Ladam, William Stanney, Ian J. Donaldson, Ozge Yildiz, Nicoletta Bobola, Charles G. Sagerstrom 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Tale Factors Use Two Distinct Functional Modes To Control An Essential Zebrafish Gene Expression Program, Franck Ladam, William Stanney, Ian J. Donaldson, Ozge Yildiz, Nicoletta Bobola, Charles G. Sagerstrom

Open Access Articles

TALE factors are broadly expressed embryonically and known to function in complexes with transcription factors (TFs) like Hox proteins at gastrula/segmentation stages, but it is unclear if such generally expressed factors act by the same mechanism throughout embryogenesis. We identify a TALE-dependent gene regulatory network (GRN) required for anterior development and detect TALE occupancy associated with this GRN throughout embryogenesis. At blastula stages, we uncover a novel functional mode for TALE factors, where they occupy genomic DECA motifs with nearby NF-Y sites. We demonstrate that TALE and NF-Y form complexes and regulate chromatin state at genes of this GRN ...


Investigating The Gene Regulatory Network Underlying Caudal Hindbrain Specification In Embryonic Zebrafish, Priyanjali Ghosh 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Investigating The Gene Regulatory Network Underlying Caudal Hindbrain Specification In Embryonic Zebrafish, Priyanjali Ghosh

Priyanjali Ghosh

To understand the gene regulatory network (GRN) governing caudal hindbrain formation in embryonic zebrafish, several early expressed factors have been manipulated, and multiple genetic mutants have been characterized. Such analyses have identified morphogens such as Retinoic Acid (RA) and Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), as well as transcription factors like hoxb1b, hoxb1a, hnf1ba, and valentino as being required for rhombomere (r) r4-r6 formation in zebrafish. Considering that the caudal hindbrain is relatively complex – for instance, unique sets of neurons are formed in each rhombomere segment – it is likely that additional essential genes remain to be identified and integrated into the caudal ...


Mechanisms Of Age-Related Prostate Growth And Tumorigenesis, Deon O'Bryant 2018 Atlanta University Center

Mechanisms Of Age-Related Prostate Growth And Tumorigenesis, Deon O'Bryant

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy among men, but few genetic factors that drive prostate cancer initiation have been identified. The WD repeat domain 77 (Wdr77) protein is essential for cellular proliferation when it localizes in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells at the early stage of prostate development. In the adult prostate, it is transported into the nucleus and functions as a co-regulator of the androgen receptor to promote cellular differentiation and prostate function. This developmental process is reversed during prostate tumorigenesis i.e., Wdr77 is translocated from the nucleus into the cytoplasm to drive proliferation of prostate ...


Examining The Roles Of Genetic And Environmental Factors In Drosophila Melanogaster Hematopoiesis And Innate Immune System, Minkyung Lee 2018 Baruch College

Examining The Roles Of Genetic And Environmental Factors In Drosophila Melanogaster Hematopoiesis And Innate Immune System, Minkyung Lee

Student Theses

Nearly 24 million people are affected by autoimmune diseases in the United States. Main causes of autoimmune diseases have been attributed to genetic predisposition and environmental exposure to chemicals such as hormones and pesticides. Due to the large population that are affected by autoimmune diseases, it is critical to understand the mechanisms behind them. In this study, we sought to explore both genetic and environmental factors that affect hematopoiesis, or the formation of specific blood cells, and immune system in Drosophila melanogaster. As Drosophila melanogaster have conserved pathways of hematopoiesis as humans, they were used as the model organism for ...


Regulation Of Epithelial Proliferation And Migration By Apical-Basal Polarity Proteins, Gregory Vincent Schimizzi 2018 Washington University in St. Louis

Regulation Of Epithelial Proliferation And Migration By Apical-Basal Polarity Proteins, Gregory Vincent Schimizzi

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Epithelial cells line all the outside surfaces of the body where they perform essential roles in maintaining homeostasis. In addition, epithelial tissues are implicated in many disease processes and are the most common tissue type to give rise to human cancer. Therefore, a thorough understanding of epithelial development and homeostasis has broad implications for understanding human development, health, and disease. The establishment and maintenance of apical-basal polarity is a defining characteristic and essential feature of functioning epithelia. Proper apical-basal polarity (ABP) is required for epithelial tissues to carry out their functions, which include absorption, secretion, barrier formation, and collective migration ...


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