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Expression And Localization Of The 14-3-3 (Ywha) Protein Family Within Mammals, Neha Kumrah, Santanu De 2020 Nova Southeastern University

Expression And Localization Of The 14-3-3 (Ywha) Protein Family Within Mammals, Neha Kumrah, Santanu De

Mako: NSU Undergraduate Student Journal

The 14-3-3 (YWHA) are a family of homologous, acidic, and highly conserved proteins expressed abundantly and ubiquitously in a wide array of organisms ranging from plants to animals, including humans, which regulate important cellular events. Within mammals, seven isoforms of 14-3-3 exist: β, γ, ε, ζ, η, τ, and σ (stratifin), each of which is encoded by a unique gene. Studies have shown similar expression patterns among mammalian species. The 14-3-3 proteins are commonly expressed and have proven to play critical roles in proper cellular localization, function, and homeostatic regulation. Numerous researchers have investigated the expression and localization patterns of ...


An Improved Zebrafish Transcriptome Annotation For Sensitive And Comprehensive Detection Of Cell Type-Specific Genes, Nathan D. Lawson, Rui Li, Masahiro Shin, Ann S. Grosse, Onur Yukselen, Oliver A. Stone, Alper Kucukural, Lihua Julie Zhu 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

An Improved Zebrafish Transcriptome Annotation For Sensitive And Comprehensive Detection Of Cell Type-Specific Genes, Nathan D. Lawson, Rui Li, Masahiro Shin, Ann S. Grosse, Onur Yukselen, Oliver A. Stone, Alper Kucukural, Lihua Julie Zhu

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

The zebrafish is ideal for studying embryogenesis and is increasingly applied to model human disease. In these contexts, RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) provides mechanistic insights by identifying transcriptome changes between experimental conditions. Application of RNA-seq relies on accurate transcript annotation for a genome of interest. Here, we find discrepancies in analysis from RNA-seq datasets quantified using Ensembl and RefSeq zebrafish annotations. These issues were due, in part, to variably annotated 3' untranslated regions and thousands of gene models missing from each annotation. Since these discrepancies could compromise downstream analyses and biological reproducibility, we built a more comprehensive zebrafish transcriptome annotation that addresses ...


An Atlas Of Cell Types In The Mouse Epididymis And Vas Deferens, Vera D. Rinaldi, Elisa Donnard, Kyle Gellatly, Morten Rasmussen, Alper Kucukural, Onur Yukselen, Manuel Garber, Upasna Sharma, Oliver J. Rando 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

An Atlas Of Cell Types In The Mouse Epididymis And Vas Deferens, Vera D. Rinaldi, Elisa Donnard, Kyle Gellatly, Morten Rasmussen, Alper Kucukural, Onur Yukselen, Manuel Garber, Upasna Sharma, Oliver J. Rando

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Following testicular spermatogenesis, mammalian sperm continue to mature in a long epithelial tube known as the epididymis, which plays key roles in remodeling sperm protein, lipid, and RNA composition. To understand the roles for the epididymis in reproductive biology, we generated a single-cell atlas of the murine epididymis and vas deferens. We recovered key epithelial cell types including principal cells, clear cells, and basal cells, along with associated support cells that include fibroblasts, smooth muscle, macrophages and other immune cells. Moreover, our data illuminate extensive regional specialization of principal cell populations across the length of the epididymis. In addition to ...


Regulation Of The Mammalian Swi/Snf Family Of Chromatin Remodeling Enzymes By Phosphorylation During Myogenesis, Teresita Padilla-Benavides, Pablo Reyes-Gutierrez, Anthony N. Imbalzano 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Regulation Of The Mammalian Swi/Snf Family Of Chromatin Remodeling Enzymes By Phosphorylation During Myogenesis, Teresita Padilla-Benavides, Pablo Reyes-Gutierrez, Anthony N. Imbalzano

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Myogenesis is the biological process by which skeletal muscle tissue forms. Regulation of myogenesis involves a variety of conventional, epigenetic, and epigenomic mechanisms that control chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, histone modification, and activation of transcription factors. Chromatin remodeling enzymes utilize ATP hydrolysis to alter nucleosome structure and/or positioning. The mammalian SWItch/Sucrose Non-Fermentable (mSWI/SNF) family of chromatin remodeling enzymes is essential for myogenesis. Here we review diverse and novel mechanisms of regulation of mSWI/SNF enzymes by kinases and phosphatases. The integration of classic signaling pathways with chromatin remodeling enzyme function impacts myoblast viability and proliferation as well ...


Luteinizing Hormone Action In Human Oocyte Maturation And Quality: Signaling Pathways, Regulation, And Clinical Impact, Armando Arroyo, Beomsu Kim, John Yeh 2020 SUNY Upstate Medical University

Luteinizing Hormone Action In Human Oocyte Maturation And Quality: Signaling Pathways, Regulation, And Clinical Impact, Armando Arroyo, Beomsu Kim, John Yeh

Open Access Articles

The ovarian follicle luteinizing hormone (LH) signaling molecules that regulate oocyte meiotic maturation have recently been identified. The LH signal reduces preovulatory follicle cyclic nucleotide levels which releases oocytes from the first meiotic arrest. In the ovarian follicle, the LH signal reduces cyclic nucleotide levels via the CNP/NPR2 system, the EGF/EGF receptor network, and follicle/oocyte gap junctions. In the oocyte, reduced cyclic nucleotide levels activate the maturation promoting factor (MPF). The activated MPF induces chromosome segregation and completion of the first and second meiotic divisions. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the ...


Dynamics Of The 4d Genome During In Vivo Lineage Specification And Differentiation, A. Marieke Oudelaar, Daniel Hidalgo, Merav Socolovsky, Douglas R. Higgs, Jim R. Hughes 2020 University of Oxford

Dynamics Of The 4d Genome During In Vivo Lineage Specification And Differentiation, A. Marieke Oudelaar, Daniel Hidalgo, Merav Socolovsky, Douglas R. Higgs, Jim R. Hughes

Open Access Articles

Mammalian gene expression patterns are controlled by regulatory elements, which interact within topologically associating domains (TADs). The relationship between activation of regulatory elements, formation of structural chromatin interactions and gene expression during development is unclear. Here, we present Tiled-C, a low-input chromosome conformation capture (3C) technique. We use this approach to study chromatin architecture at high spatial and temporal resolution through in vivo mouse erythroid differentiation. Integrated analysis of chromatin accessibility and single-cell expression data shows that regulatory elements gradually become accessible within pre-existing TADs during early differentiation. This is followed by structural re-organization within the TAD and formation of ...


Dictyostelium Discoideum Protein Kinase C-Orthologue Pkca Regulates The Actin Cytoskeleton Through Interaction With Phospholipase D And P21-Activated Kinase, Sean Singh 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Dictyostelium Discoideum Protein Kinase C-Orthologue Pkca Regulates The Actin Cytoskeleton Through Interaction With Phospholipase D And P21-Activated Kinase, Sean Singh

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Proper regulation of the actin cytoskeleton is crucial to many cellular processes. Many of these processes are regulated by extracellular signaling cues, which direct changes in the actin cytoskeleton, resulting in changes to cellular morphology, and directed motility. The social amoeba, Dictyostelium discoideum, is used as a simple model system to study the translation of extracellular signals to the actin cytoskeleton. When starved, these unicellular amoebae undergo a multicellular developmental process characterized by a tightly regulated sequence of signaling events. This results in chemotaxis and formation of a multicellular aggregate, and ultimately cell differentiation and the formation of a fruiting ...


Spreading Mechanics And Differentiation Of Astrocytes During Retinal Development, Tracy Stepien, Timothy W. Secomb 2020 University of Florida

Spreading Mechanics And Differentiation Of Astrocytes During Retinal Development, Tracy Stepien, Timothy W. Secomb

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Emergence, Mechanics, And Development: How Behavior And Geometry Underlie Cowrie Seashell Form, Michael G. Levy, Michael R. DeWeese 2020 University of California Berkeley

Emergence, Mechanics, And Development: How Behavior And Geometry Underlie Cowrie Seashell Form, Michael G. Levy, Michael R. Deweese

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Effect Of Non-Muscle Myosin Ii Inhibition On Epigenetics During Oligodendrocyte Development, Amr Almaktari 2020 CUNY Hunter College

Effect Of Non-Muscle Myosin Ii Inhibition On Epigenetics During Oligodendrocyte Development, Amr Almaktari

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Non-Muscle Myosin II (NMII) is a mechanosensitive motor protein implicated in oligodendrocyte (OL) development. The inhibition of NMII is known to promote OL development and maturation. This project found that NMII inhibition does not affect oligodendrocyte development by altering their epigenetic profile.


Exploring The Role Of Ccdc141 In Zebrafish Heart Development, Luci Strong 2020 University of Mississippi

Exploring The Role Of Ccdc141 In Zebrafish Heart Development, Luci Strong

Honors Theses

Zebrafish are a good model organism in which to identify genes important for heart development because most human genes have a zebrafish ortholog and genes in zebrafish are relatively simple to modify. ccdc141 is a gene with unknown function, which we originally found to be highly expressed in cardiac cells in mouse embryos. In this project, we are seeking to determine the function of ccdc141 using zebrafish. To perform this experiment, we are targeting ccdc141 for mutation using CRISPR/Cas9. In this project we have analyzed ccdc141 to determine regions of conservation, designed CRISPR guides to target those regions (exon ...


Evaluation Of The Bax-Vdac Interaction And Their Influence On Apoptosis In Drosophila Melanogaster, Frances Marie Gatlin 2020 University of Mississippi

Evaluation Of The Bax-Vdac Interaction And Their Influence On Apoptosis In Drosophila Melanogaster, Frances Marie Gatlin

Honors Theses

Apoptosis, also known as programmed cell death, is a cellular process used for development or for when cells undergo injury or stress. The Bcl2 family of proteins includes both pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic proteins that control the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Understanding the mechanisms and influence these proteins have on apoptosis is an important area of research focused on in Dr. Jones’s lab. Evidence shows a homology amongst the Bcl2 family of proteins at the BH3 domain. Dr. Jekabsons' lab has found a potential homology amongst VDAC 1-3 and the Bcl2 family at the BH3 domain.

Specifically, our lab is ...


Elucidating The Functional Location Of Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor Alpha, Creation Of A Review Chapter On The Use Of Zebrafish In Studying Congenital Heart Defects, And Using 3d Printing To Create Laboratory Tools, Jaret Lieberth 2020 University of Mississippi

Elucidating The Functional Location Of Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor Alpha, Creation Of A Review Chapter On The Use Of Zebrafish In Studying Congenital Heart Defects, And Using 3d Printing To Create Laboratory Tools, Jaret Lieberth

Honors Theses

Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are currently the most prevalent form of birth defect in the United States. Their combined frequency and severity make necessary a deeper understanding of the molecular underpinnings guiding heart formation. The first major step in cardiac morphogenesis, cardiac fusion, involves the medial movement of bilateral populations of myocardial precursor cells to the embryonic midline, where they merge to form the primitive heart tube. Although crucial to subsequent organogenesis, the precise mechanisms governing cardiac fusion remain unknown. Previous studies have found that a mutation in platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (pdgfra), called refuse-to-fuse (ref), results in a ...


A Runx2 Stabilization Pathway Mediates Physiologic And Pathologic Bone Formation, Jung-Min Kim, Yeon-Suk Yang, Xianpeng Ge, Matthew B. Greenblatt, Jae-Hyuck Shim 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

A Runx2 Stabilization Pathway Mediates Physiologic And Pathologic Bone Formation, Jung-Min Kim, Yeon-Suk Yang, Xianpeng Ge, Matthew B. Greenblatt, Jae-Hyuck Shim

Open Access Articles

The osteoblast differentiation capacity of skeletal stem cells (SSCs) must be tightly regulated, as inadequate bone formation results in low bone mass and skeletal fragility, and over-exuberant osteogenesis results in heterotopic ossification (HO) of soft tissues. RUNX2 is essential for tuning this balance, but the mechanisms of posttranslational control of RUNX2 remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we identify that a CK2/HAUSP pathway is a key regulator of RUNX2 stability, as Casein kinase 2 (CK2) phosphorylates RUNX2, recruiting the deubiquitinase herpesvirus-associated ubiquitin-specific protease (HAUSP), which stabilizes RUNX2 by diverting it away from ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation. This pathway is important ...


Multi-Generational Effects Of ∆9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Exposure On Gene Expression In Liver Tissue, Kayla Lovitt 2020 University of Mississippi

Multi-Generational Effects Of ∆9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Exposure On Gene Expression In Liver Tissue, Kayla Lovitt

Honors Theses

Cannabis is the most commonly used, cultivated, and trafficked illicit drug worldwide. Increased availability and acceptance of cannabis and cannabinoid-containing products provide the necessity for understanding how these substances influence aging. In this study, zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to concentrations of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) (0.08, 0.4, 2 µM) during embryonic-larval development, the effects on aging were measured 30 months later and in the offspring of the exposed fish (F1 generation. We observed results indicating a biphasic and hormetic effect. Treatment with the lowest concentration of THC significantly increased egg production, while higher concentrations resulted in impaired ...


Inter-Individual Variation In Response To Estrogen And Implications For Breast Cancer Risk, Amye L. Black 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Inter-Individual Variation In Response To Estrogen And Implications For Breast Cancer Risk, Amye L. Black

Doctoral Dissertations

Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer related death among women and the most prevalent cancer type in women worldwide. Many risk factors for breast cancer are related to estrogen exposure and all involve prolonged or high levels of estrogen exposure. However, estrogen exposure during early pregnancy reduces breast cancer risk by up to 50%. Estrogen’s paradoxical role in both contributing to and reducing breast cancer risk is still not understood. We hypothesized that a subset of women may be more sensitive to estrogen exposure, and the following experiments were designed to test this hypothesis and determine ...


Neurocognitive Risk Factors And Current Intervention Strategies For Survivors Of Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Abigail Taber 2020 Liberty University

Neurocognitive Risk Factors And Current Intervention Strategies For Survivors Of Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Abigail Taber

Senior Honors Theses

The improved survival rate for pediatric cancer patients is one of the greatest triumphs of recent medicine, but the late effects faced by these survivors have been uncovered through this new population of survivors. Many survivors of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) experience cognitive deficits in areas such as attention, memory, processing speed, and academic achievement following cancer treatment. Recent research has pointed to chemotherapeutic agents, host risk factors, and genetic predispositions as perpetrators of these deficits, although other factors are also under investigation. Consequently, the search for appropriate interventions for the amelioration of these deficits has dominated the literature ...


Modeling Hybrid Novel Traits: A Case Study In Complex Petal Pigment Patterning In Hybrid Mimulus, Xingyu Zheng 2020 William & Mary

Modeling Hybrid Novel Traits: A Case Study In Complex Petal Pigment Patterning In Hybrid Mimulus, Xingyu Zheng

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Hybridization between species, by introducing dramatic trait variation into the population and creating viable, transgressive offsprings with novel phenotypes, can have huge evolutionary implications. Some hybrid traits have been studied in the classical genetics or population genetics context, but most complex traits are determined by multiple causes, e.g. the number of loci involved, the rewiring of the genetic circuitries, and the changes in gene expression pattern. Using the hybrid monkeyflower petal pigment patterning as an example, we present a case study to investigate complex hybrid traits in a systematic manner that includes empirical data analysis and quantitative mathematical modeling ...


A Study Of Matr3 And Its Effects On The Neural Progenitor Cells Of Xenopus Laevis Tadpoles, Kendall Branham 2020 William & Mary

A Study Of Matr3 And Its Effects On The Neural Progenitor Cells Of Xenopus Laevis Tadpoles, Kendall Branham

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Understanding the genes and mechanisms that regulate the highly important process of neurogenesis in the developing nervous system is crucial to uncovering why disease arises when this system is disrupted. Neural progenitor cells and their multipotent nature allow for the growth of a large pool of stem cells in the early stages of development, but the signal that leads these cells to the irreversible fate of becoming a neuron is unclear. The gene matr3 has been implicated in having a role in the maintenance of undifferentiated neural stem cells but its role needs further investigation to fully reveal how its ...


Microglia-Neuron Interactions In A Mouse Model Of Low Grade Neuroepithelial Tumors, Veolette Hanna 2020 University of Connecticut

Microglia-Neuron Interactions In A Mouse Model Of Low Grade Neuroepithelial Tumors, Veolette Hanna

Honors Scholar Theses

Microglia are the macrophages of the brain and spinal cord, playing an important role in the immune response to disease states of the nervous system. This study conducts an investigation on the activity of microglia in response to low grade neuroepithelial tumors. Using mouse models and microglial markers, a qualitative and quantitative analysis of microglia activation, migration, and invasion within the brain cortex during early stages of tumor development was conducted. It was found that the presence of a low grade neuroepithelial tumor in the cortex of one hemisphere of the brain causes significant microglia activation in comparison to the ...


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