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Mitochondrial Roles In Developmentally Programmed Heart Disease, Eli John Louwagie 2023 University of South Dakota

Mitochondrial Roles In Developmentally Programmed Heart Disease, Eli John Louwagie

Dissertations and Theses

Offspring of diabetic and obese mothers (ODOM) have greater risks of heart disease at birth and later in life. However, prevention is hindered because underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Mounting studies in the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease field suggest that mitochondria play key roles in developmentally programmed heart disease similar to the roles they play in cardiomyopathy in adults with diabetes and obesity. However, whether mitochondria are responsible for the short[1]and long-term cardiac disease seen in ODOM remains unknown. Here, we sought to delineate the roles of mitochondria in the hearts of ODOM, determine whether mitochondria ...


Determining The Full-Length Structure Of Collagenase H Using Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering, Josie Carson 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Determining The Full-Length Structure Of Collagenase H Using Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering, Josie Carson

Chemistry & Biochemistry Undergraduate Honors Theses

Known to cause gas gangrene, Hathewaya histolytica secretes two sister collagenases, collagenase G (Col G) and collagenase H (Col H), to degrade the triple helical structure of collagen to further infection in a host. Individual domains of Col H have been crystalized in previous studies, but methods in x-ray crystallization of full-length Col H have been unsuccessful. Using Small Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS) data, atomistic modeling was used to generate multiple conformations of Col H while accounting for flexibility between domains. Full-length Col H was found to adopt a two-state conformational model exhibiting a majority compact and a minority elongated ...


Cdc6 Is Sequentially Regulated By Pp2a-Cdc55, Cdc14, And Sic1 For Origin Licensing In S. Cerevisiae, Jasmin Philip 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Cdc6 Is Sequentially Regulated By Pp2a-Cdc55, Cdc14, And Sic1 For Origin Licensing In S. Cerevisiae, Jasmin Philip

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Control of DNA replication is critical for progression of the cell cycle and genomic stability. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) coordinate numerous phosphorylation events to accomplish two biological tasks for all living organisms: DNA replication and cell division. One CDK, Cyclin-Cdc28, is responsible for cell cycle progression in budding yeast. DNA replication requires a stepwise assembly of the pre-replicative complex on DNA, including Orc1-6, Cdc6, Cdt1 and Mcm2-7, during M-G1 phase. Cdc6 contains eight Cdc28 consensus sites, SP or TP motifs. Clb5-Cdc28 phosphorylates Cdc6-T7 to recruit Cks1, the Cdc28 phospho-adaptor, for subsequent multisite phosphorylation during S phase. There are two phospho-degrons at ...


Targeting Stress Granule Inhibition As A Novel Vulnerability Of Mutant P53, Elizabeth Thoenen 2022 Children's Mercy Kansas City

Targeting Stress Granule Inhibition As A Novel Vulnerability Of Mutant P53, Elizabeth Thoenen

Research Days

Background: Tumor suppressor p53 (p53) inhibits cancer progression by transactivating genes involved in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. P53 is mutated in half of all human tumors, which is well correlated with poor patient outcomes. Most of p53 mutations are missense mutations. Missense mutant p53 protein (mutp53) not only loses wild-type p53 (wtp53) transcription factor activity, but also shows oncogenic gain of function that enhances metastasis and drug resistance through protein-protein interactions. However, the exact mechanism by which mutp53 induces drug resistance is poorly described. Moreover, strategies that directly target mutp53 have been challenging.

Objectives/Goal: Our goal is to ...


Structural Formation And Functionality Of The Spoiie Protein In Clostridium Difficile, Rachel Siebenmorgen 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Structural Formation And Functionality Of The Spoiie Protein In Clostridium Difficile, Rachel Siebenmorgen

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

My research efforts were directed toward the structure and functionality of a protein, designated SpoIIE [11], which previously has been shown to regulate C. difficile peptide utilization in addition to sporulation and toxin release. The SpoIIE protein is found in all spore-forming gram-positive bacteria and is a crucial component in activation of transcription factors and septum formation thus affecting the regulation and timing of spore development [11,12]. A truncated form of the SpoIIE protein named SpoIIE∆TM was used in an effort to determine the structure of an important but uncharacterized linker domain of the protein. If the structure ...


Evaluation Of Selected Nuproxa Feed Additives For Protection Against Lameness And Improving The Wellbeing Of Broilers In A Lameness Challenge Model, Jaren Hernandez 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Evaluation Of Selected Nuproxa Feed Additives For Protection Against Lameness And Improving The Wellbeing Of Broilers In A Lameness Challenge Model, Jaren Hernandez

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

A common concern in commercial industries profiting from broiler chickens is their inability to yield a completely healthy flock. Bacterial Chondronecrosis with Osteomyelitis poses a threat to these companies by impairing the birds' proximal and distal tibial and femoral heads. In 2000, roughly 17.3% of broiler chickens were affected by Bacterial Chondronecrosis with Osteomyelitis which caused a substantial economic loss in the industry (McNammee et al., 2000). BCO cannot be tied to a particular bacterial species; this experiment focuses on evaluating the efficacy of certain commercial feed additives while determining the bacterial species causing BCO in this set of ...


Investigating The Impact Of Hypoxia On Reactive Oxygen Species Generation Within Murine Breast Cancer Cells, Jared McPeake 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Investigating The Impact Of Hypoxia On Reactive Oxygen Species Generation Within Murine Breast Cancer Cells, Jared Mcpeake

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

When cancer metastasizes from a primary tumor site to secondary site through the bloodstream or lymph, the cancer becomes more difficult to treat. For this reason, it is vital to study what indicates the metastatic potential of a tumor. Current research has shown that cell lines with high metastatic potential display increased levels of metabolic adaptability over their nonmetastatic counterparts after undergoing hypoxic conditions. One method of assessing this adaptability is to measure the concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by the cells while undergoing oxidative stress. In highly adaptable metastatic cells, an increase of ROS buildup within the ...


Methods For Assessing Cellular Phenotypes Related To Aging And Longevity In Turtles, Stephanie E. Bulls 2022 University of South Alabama

Methods For Assessing Cellular Phenotypes Related To Aging And Longevity In Turtles, Stephanie E. Bulls

Theses and Dissertations

There are many costs associated with increased body size and longevity in animals, including the accumulation of genotoxic and cytotoxic damage that comes with having more cells and living longer. Yet, some species have overcome these barriers and have evolved remarkably large body sizes and long lifespans. Organisms with these unique phenotypes have come under recent genomic scrutiny to discover mechanisms of healthy aging and tumor suppression but little physiological work to validate these mechanisms has been conducted outside of mammals. Here I propose that reptiles, especially testudines (turtles), would be an excellent system to investigate the topics of size ...


The Central Dogma: Gene Expression, Ayisha Sookdeo 2022 CUNY Guttman Community College

The Central Dogma: Gene Expression, Ayisha Sookdeo

Open Educational Resources

In this lesson plan, students will learn the basic structure and function of DNA and RNA. They will also learn the process of gene expression. Finally, students will learn about the scientific contributor, Ernest Everest Just, and his contributions to the field of Biology.


Aeromonas Phage Research And The Public Health Impact Of Antibiotics In Aquaculture Workers, Madelyn Merchant 2022 Bowling Green State University

Aeromonas Phage Research And The Public Health Impact Of Antibiotics In Aquaculture Workers, Madelyn Merchant

Honors Projects

One of the most common fish diseases in aquaculture is Aeromonas infection. The most common way to treat this infection is through antibiotics. The bacteria in the fish can become antibiotic-resistant and perpetuate the disease. The diseases in fish create a huge financial loss and the industry loses $6 billion per year due to diseases in fish. An alternative to antibiotics is bacteriophage which causes less environmental degradation and is better for human gut flora. In aquaculture there have been examples of aquaculture workers becoming sick from the water in aquaculture ponds as well as from people eating the fish ...


Exchange Protein Directly Activated By Camp (Epac1) Protects Human Endothelial Cells From Tumor Necrosis Factor-⍺ (Tnf-⍺) Induced Cell Death, Anh Luu, Abigail Carpenter, Rosetta Tolley 2022 Ohio Northern University

Exchange Protein Directly Activated By Camp (Epac1) Protects Human Endothelial Cells From Tumor Necrosis Factor-⍺ (Tnf-⍺) Induced Cell Death, Anh Luu, Abigail Carpenter, Rosetta Tolley

ONU Student Research Colloquium

Millions of people are affected by diseases involving inflammatory states such as sepsis. Sepsis is associated with elevated tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-⍺) which mediates inflammation. Excessive TNF-⍺ contributes to death of endothelial cells (EC) with subsequent disruption of vascular endothelial function. Exchange Factor Directly Activated by cAMP (EPAC1) is a cyclic-AMP (cAMP) sensor that regulates multiple EC functions. We hypothesized that EPAC1 activation affects the response of EC to TNF-a. Microvascular EC were pretreated for 45 minutes with 100 mM 8-pCPT-2′-O-Me-cAMP (8-CPT, specific EPAC1 activator) or 10 mM forskolin (adenylyl cyclase activator that increases cAMP), then exposed to ...


The Effects Of Paclitaxel On Cellular Migration And The Cytoskeleton, Ashley Salguero-Gonzalez 2022 University of Southern Maine

The Effects Of Paclitaxel On Cellular Migration And The Cytoskeleton, Ashley Salguero-Gonzalez

Thinking Matters Symposium

In a clinical setting, some patients are exposed to an anti-cancer chemotherapy agent, paclitaxel. Cancerous cells undergo rapid, continuous cell division without control. Chemotherapy treatments try to slow and stop the uncontrollable cell division cycles and eliminate cancerous cells in the process. Paclitaxel serves as a treatment for some types of cancers, including lung, melanoma, bladder, and esophageal. Because it targets the cytoskeleton, paclitaxel can also influence cell migration. This project utilizes a cellular migration assay and an immunohistochemistry assay to analyze the effects of paclitaxel on the movement of cells and on the cytoskeleton of neuroglia rat cells with ...


Spr-5; Met-2 Maternal Reprogramming Cooperates With The Dream Complex To Regulate Developmental Cell Fates, Jazmin Dozier, Sandra Nguyen, Brandon Carpenter 2022 Kennesaw State University

Spr-5; Met-2 Maternal Reprogramming Cooperates With The Dream Complex To Regulate Developmental Cell Fates, Jazmin Dozier, Sandra Nguyen, Brandon Carpenter

Symposium of Student Scholars

Histone methylation is a post-transcriptional modification to the N-terminal tails of histone core proteins that regulates DNA accessibility, and consequently, gene expression. Like DNA, histone methylation can be inherited between generations, and is highly regulated during embryonic development. At fertilization, histone methylation must undergo maternal reprogramming to reset the epigenetic landscape in the new zygote. During maternal reprogramming of histone methylation in the nematode, C. elegans, H3K4me (a modification associated with active transcription) is removed by the H3K4 demethylase, SPR-5, and H3K9me (a modification associated with transcriptional repression) is subsequently added by the histone methyltransferase, MET-2. Recently, it was demonstrated ...


Utilization Of Bioinformatics And Immunocytochemistry To Examine Gap Junction Expression In Breast Cancers Cells, Jasmine D. Carter, Giovanni Reyes, Abeeha K. Choudhary, Eric A. Albrecht 2022 Kennesaw State University - Dept of Molecular and Cellular Biology

Utilization Of Bioinformatics And Immunocytochemistry To Examine Gap Junction Expression In Breast Cancers Cells, Jasmine D. Carter, Giovanni Reyes, Abeeha K. Choudhary, Eric A. Albrecht

Symposium of Student Scholars

Utilization of Bioinformatics and Immunocytochemistry to Examine Gap Junction Expression in Breast Cancers Cells.

Jasmine D. Carter1, Giovanni Reyes1, Abeeha Choudhary2 and Eric A. Albrecht1

Breast cancer is known for its diverse clinical classifications and expressing different levels of membrane proteins such as ion channels and gap junctions. This diversity allows more variations in cell polarization, which can lead to enhanced directional ion fluxes in certain breast cancer subtypes. We utilized the interactive web portal UALCAN to evaluate the gene expression data of gap junctions, ion exchange channels and cytoskeletal proteins in breast cancer tissues. Our ...


Tissue-Specific Diversity Of The Muscleblind Expression In Adult Flies., Davron Hanley, Anton Bryantsev 2022 Kennesaw State University

Tissue-Specific Diversity Of The Muscleblind Expression In Adult Flies., Davron Hanley, Anton Bryantsev

Symposium of Student Scholars

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Kennesaw State University

The muscleblind (mbl) family of RNA-binding proteins regulates alternative splicing, determining mRNA transcript composition for various types of tissue, and has been implicated in myotonic dystrophy. The mbl gene is subject to alternative splicing in Drosophila, leading to multiple isoforms, and has several paralogs in humans. Mbl proteins vary significantly in length, although the significance of such diversity and the role of specific isoforms have not been fully explored.

Using immunofluorescence microscopy and polyclonal serum, we analyzed Mbl protein expression across adult Drosophila tissues. Mbl was detected in various locations, including ...


Feasibility Of Tubulin As A Control For Gene Expression Following Transfection In Mouse Monocyte/Macrophage-Like Cells, Ankita Chabra 2022 St. Mary's University

Feasibility Of Tubulin As A Control For Gene Expression Following Transfection In Mouse Monocyte/Macrophage-Like Cells, Ankita Chabra

St. Mary's University Honors Theses and Projects

Transfection, which is the ability to modify host cells’ genetic content, has broad application in studying normal cellular processes, molecular mechanism of disease and gene therapy. There are several transfection techniques, and all require either a control or a reference gene. Commonly used controls for transfection experiments are housekeeping genes, which maintain expression for a given cell/tissue, experimental conditions, and treatment. However, recent research has uncovered that expression levels of housekeeping genes may vary depending on the gene, cell type and experimental conditions. A growing body of evidence demonstrates that housekeeping genes are inadequate internal standards for measuring gene ...


Generating A Colorimetric Ssa4 Transcript Export Reporter For Multicopy Suppression Screen In S. Cerevisiae, Zaid Hatem 2022 Belmont University

Generating A Colorimetric Ssa4 Transcript Export Reporter For Multicopy Suppression Screen In S. Cerevisiae, Zaid Hatem

Belmont University Research Symposium (BURS)

The export of mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm is a regulatory point that is essential to the pathway of gene expression in eukaryotic cells. The export of mRNA transcripts is mediated through selective doorways called the nuclear pore complexes (NPC). Additionally, there are proteins associated with the nuclear pore complex that assist in facilitating the export. This includes association with the export receptor, Mex67, which binds to the transcript and ferries it through NPCs. During cellular stress, such as heat shock, the export of housekeeping mRNA transcripts is halted, forcing these transcripts to remain inside the nucleus and ...


Developing An Electroporation Method For Transforming Streptomyces Nymphaeiformis, Heather Knott, Stephen Baron 2022 Bridgewater College

Developing An Electroporation Method For Transforming Streptomyces Nymphaeiformis, Heather Knott, Stephen Baron

Honors Projects

Streptomyces species are notoriously difficult to transform. Streptomyces nymphaeiformis is no different, so a method of electroporation was used to attempt to transform the cells. Multiple growth stages were used in order to alter the degree of development of the cell wall. The procedure did not kill the cells, but the cells were not transformed. Due to the lack of transformation with S. nymphaeiformis, transformation was attempted on two other Streptomyces strains, S. lividans and S. coelicolor. Neither was successfully transformed to thiostrepton (tsr) resistance, nor did they grow on a plate lacking thiostrepton. One possibility for the lack of ...


Paratesticular Solitary Fibrous Tumour Mimicking Cellular Angiofibroma: An Unusual Morphology And Rare Site, Madiha Bilal Qureshi, Muhammad Usman, Qurratulain Chundriger, Nasir uddin 2022 Aga Khan University

Paratesticular Solitary Fibrous Tumour Mimicking Cellular Angiofibroma: An Unusual Morphology And Rare Site, Madiha Bilal Qureshi, Muhammad Usman, Qurratulain Chundriger, Nasir Uddin

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) is a ubiquitous benign mesenchymal tumour of fibroblastic origin, which occurs most often in middle-aged adults. It usually presents as lung mass originating from pleura, but extrapleural occurrence is also common. Tumour is characterised by hypo- and hyper-cellular areas of spindle-shaped cells, arranged in haphazard manner with dispersed staghorn-shaped vessels. Surgical excision is the curative treatment. SFTs of the primary testicular or paratesticular region are extremely rare, but they exhibit histologic findings similar to SFTs originating at other body sites. Here, we report the case of a paratesticular SFT in a 37-year male, who presented with ...


Amphiphilic Cell-Penetrating Peptides Containing Natural And Unnatural Amino Acids As Drug Delivery Agents, David Salehi, Saghar Mozaffari, Khalid Zoghebi, Sandeep Lohan, Dindyal Mandal, Rakesh Tiwari, Keykavous Parang 2022 Chapman University

Amphiphilic Cell-Penetrating Peptides Containing Natural And Unnatural Amino Acids As Drug Delivery Agents, David Salehi, Saghar Mozaffari, Khalid Zoghebi, Sandeep Lohan, Dindyal Mandal, Rakesh Tiwari, Keykavous Parang

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

A series of cyclic peptides, [(DipR)(WR)4], [(DipR)2(WR)3], [(DipR)3(WR)2], [(DipR)4(WR)], and [DipR]5, and their linear counterparts containing arginine (R) as positively charged residues and tryptophan (W) or diphenylalanine (Dip) as hydrophobic residues, were synthesized and evaluated for their molecular transporter efficiency. The in vitro cytotoxicity of the synthesized peptides was determined in human epithelial ovary adenocarcinoma cells (SK-OV-3), human lymphoblast peripheral blood cells (CCRF-CEM), human embryonic epithelial kidney healthy cells (HEK-293), human epithelial mammary gland adenocarcinoma cells (MDA-MB-468), pig epithelial kidney normal cells (LLC-PK1), and human epithelial fibroblast uterine sarcoma ...


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