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Cal And Magi Pdz Protein Regulation Of Crfr1 And 5-Ht2ar Trafficking And Signaling, Maha Mahmoud Hammad 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Cal And Magi Pdz Protein Regulation Of Crfr1 And 5-Ht2ar Trafficking And Signaling, Maha Mahmoud Hammad

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

PDZ (PSD95/Disc Large/Zona Occludens) domain-containing proteins are scaffolding proteins that play important roles in regulating the activity of G protein-coupled receptors. Corticotropin Releasing Factor Receptor 1 (CRFR1) and Serotonin 2A Receptor (5-HT2AR) are two GPCRs that are commonly associated with mental disorders. Both receptors also contain a class I PDZ-binding motif at the carboxyl terminal tail. In the first chapter, we investigate the effects of CAL (CFTR-associated ligand) on regulating the trafficking and signaling of CRFR1. We demonstrate a role for CAL in inhibiting CRFR1 endocytosis, cell surface expression, and CRF-mediated ERK1/2 signaling via the ...


Contribution Of A Putative Up Element Dna Sequence To The Activity Of A Newly Identified Phage Promoter, Courtney Hamilton 2016 Western Kentucky University

Contribution Of A Putative Up Element Dna Sequence To The Activity Of A Newly Identified Phage Promoter, Courtney Hamilton

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

In transcription, a universal step in gene expression, information from a DNA sequence is copied into RNA. A key component in gene expression is the promoter sequence, a region of DNA to which RNA polymerase binds during the initiation of transcription of downstream genes. Most bacterial promoters contain a -10 and a -35 sequence that are bound by the RNA polymerase. Some promoters also contain an Upstream Promoter (UP) element. UP elements have been shown to boost promoter activity. We recently identified a new promoter in a mutant bacteriophage that grows on a bacterial host that prevents antitermination of phage ...


P-Rex1 Promotes Resistance To Vegf/Vegfr-Targeted Therapy In Prostate Cancer, Hira Lal Goel, Bryan M. Pursell, Leonard D. Shultz, Dale L. Greiner, Rolf A. Brekken, Craig W. Vander Kooi, Arthur M. Mercurio 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

P-Rex1 Promotes Resistance To Vegf/Vegfr-Targeted Therapy In Prostate Cancer, Hira Lal Goel, Bryan M. Pursell, Leonard D. Shultz, Dale L. Greiner, Rolf A. Brekken, Craig W. Vander Kooi, Arthur M. Mercurio

Arthur M. Mercurio

Autocrine VEGF signaling is critical for sustaining prostate and other cancer stem cells (CSCs), and it is a potential therapeutic target, but we observed that CSCs isolated from prostate tumors are resistant to anti-VEGF (bevacizumab) and anti-VEGFR (sunitinib) therapy. Intriguingly, resistance is mediated by VEGF/neuropilin signaling, which is not inhibited by bevacizumab and sunitinib, and it involves the induction of P-Rex1, a Rac GEF, and consequent Rac1-mediated ERK activation. This induction of P-Rex1 is dependent on Myc. CSCs isolated from the PTEN(pc-/-) transgenic model of prostate cancer exhibit Rac1-dependent resistance to bevacizumab. Rac1 inhibition or P-Rex1 downregulation increases ...


The Histone H3k9 Demethylase Kdm3a Promotes Anoikis By Transcriptionally Activating Pro-Apoptotic Genes Bnip3 And Bnip3l, Victoria E. Pedanou, Stephane Gobeil, Sebastien Tabaries, Tessa M. Simone, Lihua Julie Zhu, Peter M. Siegel, Michael R. Green 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The Histone H3k9 Demethylase Kdm3a Promotes Anoikis By Transcriptionally Activating Pro-Apoptotic Genes Bnip3 And Bnip3l, Victoria E. Pedanou, Stephane Gobeil, Sebastien Tabaries, Tessa M. Simone, Lihua Julie Zhu, Peter M. Siegel, Michael R. Green

Open Access Articles

Epithelial cells that lose attachment to the extracellular matrix undergo a specialized form of apoptosis called anoikis. Here, using large-scale RNA interference (RNAi) screening, we find that KDM3A, a histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) mono- and di-demethylase, plays a pivotal role in anoikis induction. In attached breast epithelial cells, KDM3A expression is maintained at low levels by integrin signaling. Following detachment, integrin signaling is decreased resulting in increased KDM3A expression. RNAi-mediated knockdown of KDM3A substantially reduces apoptosis following detachment and, conversely, ectopic expression of KDM3A induces cell death in attached cells. We find that KDM3A promotes anoikis through transcriptional activation ...


Cell And Molecular Biology : What We Know & How We Found Out (Second Edition, Sample Chapter), Gerald Bergtrom 2016 University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee

Cell And Molecular Biology : What We Know & How We Found Out (Second Edition, Sample Chapter), Gerald Bergtrom

Cell and Molecular Biology 2e i-Text

No abstract provided.


Cell And Molecular Biology : What We Know & How We Found It (Second Edition, An Annotated Itext), Gerald Bergtrom 2016 University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee

Cell And Molecular Biology : What We Know & How We Found It (Second Edition, An Annotated Itext), Gerald Bergtrom

Cell and Molecular Biology 2e i-Text

No abstract provided.


Somatostatin Receptors Signal Through Efa6a-Arf6 To Activate Phospholipase D In Clonal Β-Cells, Justin A. Grodnitzky, Nasser Syed, Michael J. Kimber, Tim A. Day, Julie G. Donaldson, Walter H. Hsu 2016 Iowa State University

Somatostatin Receptors Signal Through Efa6a-Arf6 To Activate Phospholipase D In Clonal Β-Cells, Justin A. Grodnitzky, Nasser Syed, Michael J. Kimber, Tim A. Day, Julie G. Donaldson, Walter H. Hsu

Michael J. Kimber

Somatostatin (SS) is a peptide hormone that inhibits insulin secretion in β-cells by activating its Gi/o-coupled receptors. Our previous work indicated that a βγ-dimer of Gi/o coupled to SS receptors can activate phospholipase D1 (PLD1) (Cheng, H., Grodnitzky, J. A., Yibchok-anun, S., Ding, J., and Hsu, W. H. (2005) Mol. Pharmacol. 67, 2162–2172). The aim of the present study was to elucidate the mechanisms underlying SS-induced PLD activation. We demonstrated the presence of ADP-ribosylation factor Arf1 and Arf6 in clonal β-cells, HIT-T15. We also determined that the activation of PLD1 was mediated through Arf6 ...


Identification And Characterization Of Heat Shock Transcription Factor 1 Isoforms In Orange-Spotted Grouper (Epinephelus Coioides), Tingyu Wang 2016 National Cheng Kung University

Identification And Characterization Of Heat Shock Transcription Factor 1 Isoforms In Orange-Spotted Grouper (Epinephelus Coioides), Tingyu Wang

2nd International Conference of Fish & Shellfish Immunology

No abstract provided.


Igt And Igd From Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus Labrax): Localization Of Expressing And Immunoreactive Cells In Lymphoid Tissues., giuseppe scapigliati Prof., Simona Picchietti PhD, Francesco Buonocore PhD, Noelia Nuñez Ortiz, Valentina Stocchi, Laura Guerra PhD, Elisa Randelli PhD 2016 University of Tuscia, Dept. DIBAF, Viterbo, Italy

Igt And Igd From Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus Labrax): Localization Of Expressing And Immunoreactive Cells In Lymphoid Tissues., Giuseppe Scapigliati Prof., Simona Picchietti Phd, Francesco Buonocore Phd, Noelia Nuñez Ortiz, Valentina Stocchi, Laura Guerra Phd, Elisa Randelli Phd

2nd International Conference of Fish & Shellfish Immunology

No abstract provided.


Osteopetrorickets Due To Snx10 Deficiency In Mice Results From Both Failed Osteoclast Activity And Loss Of Gastric Acid-Dependent Calcium Absorption, Liang Ye, Leslie R. Morse, Li Zhang, Hajime Sasaki, Jason C. Mills, Paul R. Odgren, Greg Sibbel, James R.L. Stanley, Gee Wong, Ariane Zamarioli, Ricardo A. Battaglino 2016 The Forsyth Institute

Osteopetrorickets Due To Snx10 Deficiency In Mice Results From Both Failed Osteoclast Activity And Loss Of Gastric Acid-Dependent Calcium Absorption, Liang Ye, Leslie R. Morse, Li Zhang, Hajime Sasaki, Jason C. Mills, Paul R. Odgren, Greg Sibbel, James R.L. Stanley, Gee Wong, Ariane Zamarioli, Ricardo A. Battaglino

Paul R. Odgren PhD

Mutations in sorting nexin 10 (Snx10) have recently been found to account for roughly 4% of all human malignant osteopetrosis, some of them fatal. To study the disease pathogenesis, we investigated the expression of Snx10 and created mouse models in which Snx10 was knocked down globally or knocked out in osteoclasts. Endocytosis is severely defective in Snx10-deficient osteoclasts, as is extracellular acidification, ruffled border formation, and bone resorption. We also discovered that Snx10 is highly expressed in stomach epithelium, with mutations leading to high stomach pH and low calcium solubilization. Global Snx10-deficiency in mice results in a combined phenotype: osteopetrosis ...


Understanding Viral Dsrna Production, Cell Entry And Use As An Antiviral Therapeutic In Rainbow Trout, Sarah J. Poynter, Amal Aloufi, Jeremy Weleff, Adam Soares, Stephanie J. DeWitte-Orr 2016 University of Waterloo

Understanding Viral Dsrna Production, Cell Entry And Use As An Antiviral Therapeutic In Rainbow Trout, Sarah J. Poynter, Amal Aloufi, Jeremy Weleff, Adam Soares, Stephanie J. Dewitte-Orr

2nd International Conference of Fish & Shellfish Immunology

No abstract provided.


Leveraging The Plant Biotechnology Toolbox For Aquaculture: Production Of Protein Therapeutants For Promoting Fish Immune Health, Lana L. Elkins 2016 Arkansas State University - Main Campus

Leveraging The Plant Biotechnology Toolbox For Aquaculture: Production Of Protein Therapeutants For Promoting Fish Immune Health, Lana L. Elkins

2nd International Conference of Fish & Shellfish Immunology

No abstract provided.


Patterning Defects In Silkworm Embryos Analysed Through Cuticle Preparations, Amit Singh, Madhuri Kango-Singh, K. P. Gopinathan 2016 University of Dayton

Patterning Defects In Silkworm Embryos Analysed Through Cuticle Preparations, Amit Singh, Madhuri Kango-Singh, K. P. Gopinathan

Madhuri Kango-Singh

The mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori, a holometabolous lepidopteran insect, has a metameric body plan. Due to its functional adaptation, B. mori presents some unique deviations in its pal/ern from the evolutionarily advanced dipteran insect, Drosophila melanogaster. Previous studies on mutant phenotype analysis in B. mori have been carried out in late stages of larval development. Here we employ, the cuticle preparation approach during embryonic development to study morphological landmarks associated with B. mori, Eri, another race a/silkworm, and pattern defects associated with Ekp mutant of B.mori. The homeotic mutant Ekp, generates ectopic abdominallegs, a feature previously documented ...


Eye Suppression, A Novel Function Of Teashirt, Requires Wingless Signaling, Amit Singh, Madhuri Kango-Singh, Y. Henry Sun 2016 University of Dayton

Eye Suppression, A Novel Function Of Teashirt, Requires Wingless Signaling, Amit Singh, Madhuri Kango-Singh, Y. Henry Sun

Madhuri Kango-Singh

Teashirt (tsh) encodes a Drosophila zinc-finger protein. Misexpression of tsh has been shown to induce ectopic eye formation in the antenna. We report that tsh can suppress eye development. This novel function of tsh is due to the induction of homothorax (hth), a known repressor of eye development, and requires Wingless (WG) signaling. Interestingly, tsh has different functions in the dorsal and ventral eye, suppressing eye development close to the ventral margin, while promoting eye development near the dorsal margin. It affects both growth of eye disc and retinal cell differentiation.


Lobe And Serrate Are Required For Cell Survival During Early Eye Development In Drosophila, Amit Singh, Xiao Shi, Kwang-Wook Choi 2016 University of Dayton

Lobe And Serrate Are Required For Cell Survival During Early Eye Development In Drosophila, Amit Singh, Xiao Shi, Kwang-Wook Choi

Amit Singh

Organogenesis involves an initial surge of cell proliferation, leading to differentiation. This is followed by cell death in order to remove extra cells. During early development, there is little or no cell death. However, there is a lack of information concerning the genes required for survival during the early cell-proliferation phase. Here, we show that Lobe (L) and the Notch (N) ligand Serrate (Ser), which are both involved in ventral eye growth, are required for cell survival in the early eye disc. We observed that the loss-of-ventral-eye phenotype in L or Ser mutants is due to the induction of cell ...


The Hippo Pathway Effector Yki Downregulates Wg Signaling To Promote Retinal Differentiation In The Drosophila Eye, Erika Lynn Wittkorn, Ankita Sarkar, Kristine Garcia, Madhuri Kango-Singh, Amit Singh 2016 University of Dayton

The Hippo Pathway Effector Yki Downregulates Wg Signaling To Promote Retinal Differentiation In The Drosophila Eye, Erika Lynn Wittkorn, Ankita Sarkar, Kristine Garcia, Madhuri Kango-Singh, Amit Singh

Amit Singh

The evolutionarily conserved Hippo signaling pathway is known to regulate cell proliferation and maintain tissue homeostasis during development. We found that activation of Yorkie (Yki), the effector of the Hippo signaling pathway, causes separable effects on growth and differentiation of theDrosophila eye. We present evidence supporting a role for Yki in suppressing eye fate by downregulation of the core retinal determination genes. Other upstream regulators of the Hippo pathway mediate this effect of Yki on retinal differentiation. Here, we show that, in the developing eye, Yki can prevent retinal differentiation by blocking morphogenetic furrow (MF) progression and R8 specification. The ...


Neurodegeneration - A Means To An End, Amit Singh 2016 University of Dayton

Neurodegeneration - A Means To An End, Amit Singh

Amit Singh

Cell death, a global phenomenon found throughout the animal kingdom, is a mechanism to maintain tissue homeostasis and for adaptation to changes in the environment [1,2]. Millions of cells die in our body daily- they succumb to stress and commit suicide by a mechanism referred to as cell death or apoptosis [2-4]. Under normal conditions cells are continuously replaced by new cells from the stemor progenitor- cells. For example, an optimum balance in shedding of dead cells from the skin and their replenishment by new ones maintain our health and hygiene. In this context, apoptosis is a mechanism to ...


Initial State Of The Drosophila Eye Before Dorsoventral Specification Is Equivalent To Ventral, Amit Singh, Kwang-Wook Choi 2016 University of Dayton

Initial State Of The Drosophila Eye Before Dorsoventral Specification Is Equivalent To Ventral, Amit Singh, Kwang-Wook Choi

Amit Singh

Dorsoventral (DV) patterning is crucial for eye development in invertebrates and higher animals. DV lineage restriction is the primary event in undifferentiated early eye primordia of Drosophila. InDrosophila eye disc, a dorsal-specific GATA family transcription factor pannier (pnr) controls Iroquois-Complex (Iro-C) genes to establish the dorsal eye fate whereas Lobe (L), which is involved in controlling a Notch ligand Serrate (Ser), is specifically required for ventral growth. However, fate of eye disc cells before the onset of dorsal expression of pnr and Iro-C is not known. We show that L/Ser are expressed in entire early eye disc before ...


Cell Type-Specific Responses To Wingless, Hedgehog And Decapentaplegic Are Essential For Patterning Early Eye-Antenna Disc In Drosophila, Jong-Hoon Won, Orkhon Tsogtbartarr, Wonseok Son, Amit Singh, Kwang-Wook Choi, Kyung-Ok Cho 2016 Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology

Cell Type-Specific Responses To Wingless, Hedgehog And Decapentaplegic Are Essential For Patterning Early Eye-Antenna Disc In Drosophila, Jong-Hoon Won, Orkhon Tsogtbartarr, Wonseok Son, Amit Singh, Kwang-Wook Choi, Kyung-Ok Cho

Amit Singh

The Drosophila eye-antenna imaginal disc (ead) is a flattened sac of two-layered epithelia, from which most head structures are derived. Secreted morphogens like Wingless (Wg), Hedgehog (Hh), and Decapentaplegic (Dpp) are important for early patterning of ead, but the underlying mechanisms are still largely unknown. To understand how these morphogens function in the ead of early larval stages, we used wg-LacZ and dpp-Gal4 markers for the examination of wild-type and mutant eads. We found that the ead immediately after hatching was crescent-shaped with the Bolwig’s nerve at the ventral edge, suggesting that it consists of dorsal domain. In a ...


Eye Development At The Houston "Fly Meeting", Amit Singh 2016 University of Dayton

Eye Development At The Houston "Fly Meeting", Amit Singh

Amit Singh

Meeting report: The 47th Annual Drosophila Research Conference or "Fly Meeting" took place at Houston, Texas, USA from March 29th- April 2nd, 2006, under the aegis of the Genetics Society of America. The Fly Meeting provides an excellent opportunity for fly researchers to present their work and to get a snapshot of recent developments and upcoming trends in their research field. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is a very versatile model to study growth, patterning, neural development, evolution, systemetics and various other facets of biomedical science. The topics presented in the meeting covered a very broad spectrum of fly research ...


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