Preliminary Study: Leucine Supplementation Exacerbates Muscle Wasting Independent Of The Ubiquitin-Proteasome System, 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Preliminary Study: Leucine Supplementation Exacerbates Muscle Wasting Independent Of The Ubiquitin-Proteasome System, Katarina Bejarano
Theses and Dissertations
Cancer cachexia is the rapid, drastic loss of muscle mass associated with cancer and is not reversible by conventional nutritional means (Brown et al., 2018; Brown et al., 2017). It occurs in ~80% of cancer patients and is responsible for 20-40% of cancer-related deaths (Brown et al., 2018; Brown et al., 2017). This condition leaves patients with fatigue, functional impairment, reduced quality of life, and a decrease in survival rates. Cachexia occurs through an imbalance between protein degradation and protein synthesis (Brown et al., 2018), which is associated with inflammation and altered metabolic processes.
Several studies have investigated the effects ...
Toxicity Analysis Of 2’-Deoxyguanosine-N2-6-Aminopyrene And 2’-Deoxyguanosine-N2-8-Aminopyrene In Escherichia Coli, 2020 University of Connecticut
Toxicity Analysis Of 2’-Deoxyguanosine-N2-6-Aminopyrene And 2’-Deoxyguanosine-N2-8-Aminopyrene In Escherichia Coli, Emily Janeiro
Honors Scholar Theses
Cancer is a disease that stems from genomic errors that are not corrected properly by cellular repair mechanisms. Errors are more likely to form when organisms are subjected to DNA damage by mutagenic compounds. 1-Nitropyrene, a nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (nitro-PAH), has been shown to be a potent mutagen that causes cancer. Nitro-PAHs can arise from diesel exhaust products in the environment. Out of all nitro-PAHs, 1-nitropyrene is found in largest quantities in the environment. This poses a great need to study its effects biochemically in order to address its toxicity in DNA. Other nitropyrene derivatives, including 1,6-dinitropyrene and ...
Microglia-Neuron Interactions In A Mouse Model Of Low Grade Neuroepithelial Tumors, 2020 University of Connecticut
Microglia-Neuron Interactions In A Mouse Model Of Low Grade Neuroepithelial Tumors, Veolette Hanna
Honors Scholar Theses
Microglia are the macrophages of the brain and spinal cord, playing an important role in the immune response to disease states of the nervous system. This study conducts an investigation on the activity of microglia in response to low grade neuroepithelial tumors. Using mouse models and microglial markers, a qualitative and quantitative analysis of microglia activation, migration, and invasion within the brain cortex during early stages of tumor development was conducted. It was found that the presence of a low grade neuroepithelial tumor in the cortex of one hemisphere of the brain causes significant microglia activation in comparison to the ...
Evaluating Biogenesis Of 5’-Tailed Mirtrons, 2020 The University of Southern Mississippi
Evaluating Biogenesis Of 5’-Tailed Mirtrons, Jonathan D. Hoover
MicroRNAs are 22 nucleotide, non-coding RNAs that serve as substrates for Argonaute proteins to induce RNA interference pathways. Intron-derived miRNA precursors called “mirtrons” have been identified and classified primarily through deep sequencing methods. Unlike most miRNAs, mirtrons are derived from splicing events and also exhibit high levels of post-transcriptional nucleotide addition to hairpin precursors. Most relevant among these modifications is 3’ uridylation as it inhibits mirtron biogenesis in multiple model systems. Mirtrons may also possess additional nucleotides adjacent to the pre-miRNA hairpin at the 3’ and/or 5’ ends. These nucleotide “tails” are removed prior to Dicer cleaving the hairpin ...
Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells Are Sensitive To The Cytotoxicity Of Nitric Oxide: Biological Implications For Early Embryogenesis, 2020 The University of Southern Mississippi
Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells Are Sensitive To The Cytotoxicity Of Nitric Oxide: Biological Implications For Early Embryogenesis, Mckenzie C. Hargis
The early embryo, before implantation, is at a very vulnerable stage in development where it faces various inflammatory cytokines throughout the implantation process. In this stage, the cells in the blastocyst, the preimplantation stage embryo, must proliferate rapidly for tissue formation. However, it is known that inflammatory cytokines can inhibit cell proliferation. Previous studies have shown that embryonic stem cells (mESCs), the major cell component in the blastocyst, are unresponsive to treatments of tumor necrosis factor ⍺ (TNF⍺) and interferon 𝛾 (IFN𝛾), two inflammatory cytokines involved in the implantation process. Treatment of mESC-differentiated fibroblasts (mESC-FBs) with TNF⍺ and IFN𝛾 in combination ...
Investigating Roles For Rna Turnover Processes In Cell Signaling Through Drosophila Melanogaster Genetic Mosaics, 2020 The University of Southern Mississippi
Investigating Roles For Rna Turnover Processes In Cell Signaling Through Drosophila Melanogaster Genetic Mosaics, Sudiksha Rathan Kumar
The process of cell signaling is vital in organisms for proper development as it determines the fate and function of cells. This process is highly regulated by myriad interactions between signaling pathway components and gene expression mechanisms. RNA turnover is a type of RNA processing that degrades RNA. It plays an essential role in homeostasis and environmental changes; however, its influence on signaling pathways is currently unknown. In the present study, the effect of RNA turnover processes on cell signaling was analyzed using the genetic mosaics in Drosophila melanogaster. Fly mosaics were created by breeding RNAi lines targeting cellular ribonucleases ...
An Analysis Of Crispr-Cas Gene Editing In Agriculture, 2020 University of Connecticut
An Analysis Of Crispr-Cas Gene Editing In Agriculture, Ashley Laliberte
Honors Scholar Theses
The CRISPR-Cas system is a promising form of gene editing, especially for the agriculture industry. The ability to make single-nucleotide edits within a gene of interest, without the need to introduce foreign DNA, is a powerful tool for designing healthier and more efficient crops and food animals. This system provides opportunity for increased nutritional value, decreased food waste, and more economically and environmentally sustainable food production. Though this biotechnology is facing mechanistic limitations due to off-target effects and inefficient homology-directed repair, vast improvements have already been made to improve its efficacy. The CRISPR-Cas system is already the most advanced form ...
The Coordinate Actions Of Calcineurin And Hog1 Mediate The Stress Response Through Multiple Nodes Of The Cell Cycle Network, 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School
The Coordinate Actions Of Calcineurin And Hog1 Mediate The Stress Response Through Multiple Nodes Of The Cell Cycle Network, Cassandra M. Leech, Mackenzie J. Flynn, Heather E. Arsenault, Jianhong Ou, Haibo Liu, Lihua Julie Zhu, Jennifer A. Benanti
Open Access Articles
Upon exposure to environmental stressors, cells transiently arrest the cell cycle while they adapt and restore homeostasis. A challenge for all cells is to distinguish between stress signals and coordinate the appropriate adaptive response with cell cycle arrest. Here we investigate the role of the phosphatase calcineurin (CN) in the stress response and demonstrate that CN activates the Hog1/p38 pathway in both yeast and human cells. In yeast, the MAPK Hog1 is transiently activated in response to several well-studied osmostressors. We show that when a stressor simultaneously activates CN and Hog1, CN disrupts Hog1-stimulated negative feedback to prolong Hog1 ...
Sars-Cov-2 Receptor Ace2 Is An Interferon-Stimulated Gene In Human Airway Epithelial Cells And Is Detected In Specific Cell Subsets Across Tissues, Carly G. K. Ziegler, Yuming Cao, Zhiru Guo, Jennifer P. Wang, Robert W. Finberg, Manuel Garber, Alex K. Shalek, Jose Ordovas-Montanes, Hca Lung Biological Network
COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors
There is pressing urgency to understand the pathogenesis of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus clade 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes the disease COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein binds angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and in concert with host proteases, principally transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), promotes cellular entry. The cell subsets targeted by SARS-CoV-2 in host tissues and the factors that regulate ACE2 expression remain unknown. Here, we leverage human, non-human primate, and mouse single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) datasets across health and disease to uncover putative targets of SARS-CoV-2 among tissue-resident cell subsets. We identify ACE2 and TMPRSS2 co-expressing cells within lung ...
Exploring Occupational Disruption In Newly Diagnosed Individuals With Cancer With Minor (Dependent) Children, 2020 University of St. Augustine for Health Sciences
Exploring Occupational Disruption In Newly Diagnosed Individuals With Cancer With Minor (Dependent) Children, Riley S. Harrold
Student Capstone Projects
Background: According to the American Cancer Society (2019), there were more than 1.7 million new cases of cancer in 2019 alone. Individuals are being diagnosed at a young age with 22.4% of cases occurring in individuals 22-55 years old and whom are childrearing age (Shah et al., 2017). There are an estimated 2.85 million children under the age of 18 who are living with a parent who has cancer (Shah et al., 2017). Newly diagnosed individuals face changes in daily life, the threat of possible death, and fear of dying (Compas et al., 1994). Changes in shared ...
Comparative Study Of The Effects Of Light On Photophore Ultrastructure From Two Families Of Deep-Sea Decapod Crustaceans: Oplophoridae And Sergestidae, Jamie E. Sickles
HCNSO Student Theses and Dissertations
Counterillumination, the mechanism by which pelagic species produce bioluminescence to replace the light blocked by their bodies to hide their silhouettes, has been known for over 100 years. However, little is known about how these animals are able to so precisely replicate the intensity of downwelling light. The recent discovery of opsins in photophores (Bracken-Grissom et al. 2020) suggests that these autogenic organs (i.e. non-bacterial) may be sensitive to light, in addition to their function of emitting visible light. The study presented here is 1) the first ultrastructural assessment of photophores in species Systellaspis debilis, Janicella spinicauda, Parasergestes armatus ...
365— Clobetasol-Induced Quiescence In The Vulvar Carcinoma Cell Line Umscv-4 Can Be Overcome By Repeated Removal And Re-Exposure To This Ultrapotent Corticosteroid, Nolberto Jaramillo Jr., Nina Mustico
Vulvar cancer is rare, mostly afflicting women aged 60 and older. The cancer is often preceded by a common vulvar rash, Lichen sclerosis, that is usually treated with the ultra-potent corticosteroid, clobetasol propionate. This treatment may, in turn, be associated with vulvar carcinogenesis. Quiescence, a common characteristic of stem cells, is a reversible state of growth arrest. Our results suggest that clobetasol is causing UMSCV-4 vulvar carcinoma cells to enter quiescence, and may allow them to evade the standard treatments that target rapidly proliferating populations. Furthermore, when these cells are removed from clobetasol and re-exposed, they proliferate at higher levels ...
155— Analysis Of Her4.1 And Ascl1a In Gef Mutants, 2020 SUNY Geneseo
155— Analysis Of Her4.1 And Ascl1a In Gef Mutants, Rico Amato, Tessa Beiter, Christopher Lepore
Zebrafish are a model organism for studying developmental abnormalities, especially in the eye. The good effort (gef) mutant zebrafish have smaller eyes than wild-type embryos due to rapid retinal degeneration that becomes apparent only after two days post fertilization. The genetic problem arises from a deletion of intronic DNA sequence which leads to the loss of an exon and disrupts the coding region of the Cha1b protein. Chaf1b is a subunit of the Chromosome assembly factor 1 (CAF-1), a complex of three proteins which has a role in histone loading and chromatin regulation. This small eye phenotype has been hypothesized ...
147— The Effect Of A Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor On Pd-L1, Hla-Abc, Hla-E, And Hla-G On Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines, Nikhil Reddy, Alec Toufexis
Increased expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) allows tumor cells to be more easily detected by the immune system. In previous research, epigenetic modifiers including the histone deacetylase inhibitor 3 (HDAC3), RGFP966, has been shown to decrease PD-L1 expression. PD-L1 expression inhibits T cell cytotoxicity, and decreasing it can enhance the immune response. We hope to elucidate whether or not HLA-ABC expression similarly decreases upon exposure to the HDAC3 inhibitor which would be detrimental to immune detection. Two breast cancer cell lines that express HLA-ABC are MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. Our initial results show that HLA-ABC is expressed on the MDA-MB-231 ...
486— Cell Cycle Effect On Hla Expression In Htb-4 And Mrc-5, 2020 SUNY Geneseo
486— Cell Cycle Effect On Hla Expression In Htb-4 And Mrc-5, Nick Turnquist, Andrew Kareeparampil
Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) is a gene that codes for cell-surface proteins that are the basis of our bodies’ immune response. We observed two cell lines, HTB-4 and a non-cancerous cell line known as MRC-5. Our purpose for this experiment was to observe the effect of the cell cycle on HLA expression for these cell lines. Two flasks were prepared for each cell line: one confluent and one non-confluent. Flow cytometry analysis was performed for each of the four flasks. The flow cytometry results of the MRC-5 cells indicate increased HLA expression in the confluent flask, in the G1 phase ...
Evolutionary Bioethics Advanced By Ernest Everett Just: Implications For Biology, Ethics, And Theology, 2020 Southern Methodist University
Evolutionary Bioethics Advanced By Ernest Everett Just: Implications For Biology, Ethics, And Theology, Theodore Walker
Perkins Faculty Research and Special Events
Ernest Everett Just (1883-1941) is an acknowledged “pioneer” in biology, being honored with a Black Heritage postage stamp in 1996. Here we discover that Just also made pioneering contributions to general evolutionary bioethics (distinct from special medical bioethics) by advancing a cell-biology-rooted theory of the origin and continuing evolution of ethical behavior influenced by the “law of environmental dependence.”
See especially “The Origin of Man’s Ethical Behavior (1941, unpublished book manuscript) by Ernest Everett Just and Hedwig Schnetzler Just, discovered in 2018 among the collected papers of E.E. Just at the Moorland-Spingarn Research Center at Howard University.
Hers And His: Silk Glands Used In Egg Sac Construction By Female Spiders Potentially Repurposed By A 'Modern' Male Spider, 2020 University of New Hampshire
Hers And His: Silk Glands Used In Egg Sac Construction By Female Spiders Potentially Repurposed By A 'Modern' Male Spider, Mark A. Townley, Danilo Harms
Biological Sciences Scholarship
Cylindrical silk gland (CY) spigots distinguish a large clade of modern spiders, the CY spigot clade, which includes all entelegyne spiders and their closest relatives. Following a widespread paradigm, CYs and their spigots are only known to occur in female spiders and they produce silk used in the construction of egg sacs. Here we report the occurrence of a CY spigot or CY nubbin on each posterior median spinneret (PMS) in males (5th stadium and later) of the spider Australomimetus maculosus. Late juvenile males had a CY spigot on each PMS, whereas adult males either had a CY spigot or ...
Analysis Of Cyclin E In Fibrolamellar Hepatocellular Carcinoma, 2020 Concordia University St. Paul
Analysis Of Cyclin E In Fibrolamellar Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Hannah Gustafson, Katrina Vang, Tim Vogt, Sara Stickler
Research and Scholarship Symposium Posters
Fibrolamellar Hepatocellular Carcinoma (FL-HCC), a rare primary liver cancer, differs from the most common liver cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, as FL-HCC is not correlated with chronic liver diseases. Mayo Clinic conducted a proteomic screening and found the proline biosynthetic pathway to be dysregulated in FL-HCC patients. In liver cells, free proline has been shown to induce the mTOR pathway, which stimulates cell proliferation through upregulation of full-length Cyclin E (FL-E). In addition, FL-E can be partially cleaved by an enzyme called serine protease neutrophil elastase, creating low molecular weight cyclin E (LMW-E) that has been linked to tumorigenesis. To further investigate ...
Microrna Expression Profiling Of Normal And Malignant Human Colonic Stem Cells Identifies, 2020 Helen F Graham Cancer Center and Research Institute
Microrna Expression Profiling Of Normal And Malignant Human Colonic Stem Cells Identifies, Vignesh Viswanathan, Lynn Opdenaker, Shirin Modarai, Jeremy Z Fields, Gregory Gonye, Bruce M Boman
Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Faculty Papers
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have a critical role in regulating stem cells (SCs) during development, and because aberrant expression of miRNAs occurs in various cancers, our goal was to determine if dysregulation of miRNAs is involved in the SC origin of colorectal cancer (CRC). We previously reported that aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) is a marker for normal and malignant human colonic SCs and tracks SC overpopulation during colon tumorigenesis. MicroRNA expression was studied in ALDH-positive SCs from normal and malignant human colon tissues by Nanostring miRNA profiling. Our findings show that: (1) A unique miRNA signature distinguishes ALDH-positive CRC cells from ALDH-positive normal ...
Regulation Of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, 2020 The University of Western Ontario
Regulation Of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Sarah R. Chadwick
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used extensively to uncover the genetic mechanisms that control basic cellular processes, including survival, maintenance, and response to stressors. One metric of yeast survival is chronological lifespan (CLS), which is the amount of time non-dividing yeast cells can survive at stationary phase. Variations in CLS following genetic alteration are used to understand the function of specific genes and pathways in cellular aging. Many factors contribute to aging, including accumulation of toxic misfolded secretory proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress), to which the cell responds through activation of ER stress signaling pathways, such ...