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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Living On The Edge: Thermophysiology Of The Southern Flying Squirrel At Its Northern Range Margin, Vanessa R. Hensley May 2019

Living On The Edge: Thermophysiology Of The Southern Flying Squirrel At Its Northern Range Margin, Vanessa R. Hensley

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Climate change has the potential to upset entire ecological systems, making predictive models of the utmost importance. The incorporation of physiological parameters into predictive models not only bolsters their accuracy but also provides a mechanistic explanation for ecological changes already observed and those yet to come. North American flying squirrels, for example, have already experienced dramatic range shifts northward over recent decades, with climate change being the suspected driver. While other studies have focused on warming winter temperatures, I explored the hypothesis that rising summer temperatures were driving the observed range shifts. Unable to find a reliable population of the ...


The Spatial Ecology Of Predator-Prey Interactions: A Case Study Of Yellowstone Elk, Wolves, And Cougars, Michel T. Kohl May 2019

The Spatial Ecology Of Predator-Prey Interactions: A Case Study Of Yellowstone Elk, Wolves, And Cougars, Michel T. Kohl

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The loss of large apex predators, and their subsequent reintroduction, has been identified as a substantial driver on the structure and function of ecological communities through behavioral mediated trophic cascades (BMTCs). The reintroduction of wolves (Canis lupus) to Yellowstone National Park (YNP) has served as foundational case study of BMTCs. In our system, it has been suggested that wolves have established a ‘landscape of fear’ in which the primary prey, elk (Cervus elaphus), now avoid risky places, which ultimately led to the recovery of the vegetation community. Although this case is frequently cited as a well-understood example of a landscape ...


Impacts Of Cattle Grazing As A Tool To Control Phragmites Australis In Wetlands On Nitrogen, Phosphorus, And Carbon, Brittany L. Duncan May 2019

Impacts Of Cattle Grazing As A Tool To Control Phragmites Australis In Wetlands On Nitrogen, Phosphorus, And Carbon, Brittany L. Duncan

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Phragmites australis is a plant that is causing problems in wetlands by outcompeting native plants that provide food and shelter for millions of migratory birds. Currently, managers try to control Phragmites australis by spraying herbicide, burning, and mowing, but these methods are costly, time consuming, and have low levels of success. Adding grazing as a tool to control Phragmites australis provides a cheap and low labor alternative. However, there are many concerns regarding if grazing will cause nutrient loading in our wetlands that will decrease water quality and alter beneficial functions of wetlands.

To better understand the effects of grazing ...


Changes In Spring Arrival Times: Climate Change And The Phenology Of Spring Bird Migration, Aaron Svedlow Apr 2019

Changes In Spring Arrival Times: Climate Change And The Phenology Of Spring Bird Migration, Aaron Svedlow

Student Scholarship

Climate change and weather affect the phenology of bird migration; however, specific climatological factors associated with these observed effects have only recently been described. The relationship between local, regional, and global climate patterns and avian migration are increasingly important to understand due to the widespread, and potentially negative, implications (such as reduced fecundity) of rapid human induced climate change on bird populations. Migratory birds are under selective pressure to arrive at breeding areas at the optimal time to set up nesting territories and exploit seasonally abundant food resources, and because climate change has the potential to occur more rapidly than ...


A Review Of Orthochirus From Turkey, Iraq, And Iran (Khoozestan, Ilam, And Lorestan Provinces), With Descriptions Of Three New Species (Scorpiones: Buthidae), František Kovařík, Ersen A. Yağmur, Victor Fet, Fenik S. Hussen Feb 2019

A Review Of Orthochirus From Turkey, Iraq, And Iran (Khoozestan, Ilam, And Lorestan Provinces), With Descriptions Of Three New Species (Scorpiones: Buthidae), František Kovařík, Ersen A. Yağmur, Victor Fet, Fenik S. Hussen

Euscorpius

Three new species, Orthochirus fomichevi sp. n. from Turkey and Iraq, O. gantenbeini sp. n. from Iran (Khoozestan Province), and O. navidpouri sp. n. from Iran (Khoozestan and Lorestan Provinces) are described, compared with other Orthochirus species from the region, and fully illustrated with color photos. Lectotype of O. mesopotamicus Birula, 1918 stat. n. from Iran (Khoozestan Province) is designated. Emended diagnoses are given for O. iranus Kovařík, 2004, O. iraqus Kovařík, 2004, O. mesopotamicus Birula, 1918 stat. n., and O. zagrosensis Kovařík, 2004. A key and a distribution map are included.


Trypanothacus Gen. N., A New Genus Of Burrowing Scorpion From The Arabian Peninsula (Scorpiones: Buthidae), Graeme Lowe, František Kovařík, Mark Stockmann, František Šťáhlavský Feb 2019

Trypanothacus Gen. N., A New Genus Of Burrowing Scorpion From The Arabian Peninsula (Scorpiones: Buthidae), Graeme Lowe, František Kovařík, Mark Stockmann, František Šťáhlavský

Euscorpius

We define a new fossorial buthid genus Trypanothacus gen. n., similar to Buthacus Birula, 1908, differing primarily in telson shape, with a bulbous vesicle and aculeus shorter than the vesicle, and in heavier dentition on metasomal segments II–III and IV. The new genus includes two species: T. barnesi sp. n. from Oman and T. buettikeri (Hendrixson, 2006) comb. n. from Saudi Arabia, the latter transferred from Buthacus. We provide detailed illustrations of both species from preserved materials, and in vivo habitus and natural habitat are shown for T. barnesi sp. n.. Information is also provided on ecology and captive ...


Evolutionary Biology Of Diet, Aging, And Mismatch, Grant A. Rutledge, Laurence D. Mueller, Larry G. Cabral, Michael R. Rose Feb 2019

Evolutionary Biology Of Diet, Aging, And Mismatch, Grant A. Rutledge, Laurence D. Mueller, Larry G. Cabral, Michael R. Rose

Journal of Evolution and Health

No abstract provided.


Implications Of Evolutionary Mismatch In The Field Of Public Health, George M. Diggs Jr. Feb 2019

Implications Of Evolutionary Mismatch In The Field Of Public Health, George M. Diggs Jr.

Journal of Evolution and Health

No abstract provided.


Evidence On Chronic Ketosis In Traditional Arctic Populations, L. Amber O'Hearn Feb 2019

Evidence On Chronic Ketosis In Traditional Arctic Populations, L. Amber O'Hearn

Journal of Evolution and Health

No abstract provided.


Scorpions Of Iran (Arachnida, Scorpiones). Part X. Alborz, Markazi And Tehran Provinces With A Description Of Orthochirus Carinatus Sp. N. (Buthidae), Shahrokh Navidpour, František Kovařík, Michael Soleglad, Victor Fet Feb 2019

Scorpions Of Iran (Arachnida, Scorpiones). Part X. Alborz, Markazi And Tehran Provinces With A Description Of Orthochirus Carinatus Sp. N. (Buthidae), Shahrokh Navidpour, František Kovařík, Michael Soleglad, Victor Fet

Euscorpius

Nine species of scorpions belonging to two families are reported from the Alborz, Markazi and Tehran Provinces of Iran. Of these, Compsobuthus kaftani Kovařík, 2003 is recorded from Tehran Province for the first time; Compsobuthus matthiesseni (Birula, 1905) is recorded from Alborz Province for the first time; Hottentotta saulcyi (Simon, 1880) is recorded for Alborz and Markazi Provinces for the first time; Iranobuthus krali Kovařík, 1997 is recorded for Tehran Province for the first time; Mesobuthus eupeus eupeus (C. L. Koch, 1839) is recorded from Alborz, Markazi and Tehran Provinces for the first time; Odontobuthus doriae (Thorell, 1876) is recorded ...


The Legacy Of Natural Species And Substantial Form For Thomistic Evolution, James R. Hofmann Feb 2019

The Legacy Of Natural Species And Substantial Form For Thomistic Evolution, James R. Hofmann

Forum Lectures

Exploration of theistic evolution within a Thomistic framework has taken on the label of Thomistic evolution. Although the conceptual boundaries of this approach are not precise, a historical trajectory of its scholastic methodology can be traced back to the views of Aquinas himself. An enduring central concept in this tradition has been the idea of substantial form. For Aquinas, distinct substantial forms were associated with the kinds of animals and plants that have no prior ancestry and are ascribed to God's production during the Genesis days of adornment. Later in the tradition, the early twentieth century Jesuit Erich Wasmann ...


Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Part Xix. Pandiborellius Meidensis (Karsch, 1879) And Pandinurus Fulvipes Sp. N. (Scorpionidae) From Somaliland., František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe, Tomáš Mazuch Feb 2019

Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Part Xix. Pandiborellius Meidensis (Karsch, 1879) And Pandinurus Fulvipes Sp. N. (Scorpionidae) From Somaliland., František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe, Tomáš Mazuch

Euscorpius

The male of Pandiborellius meidensis (Karsch, 1879) is introduced for the first time and illustrated in detail with color photos, and sexual dimorphism and occurrence of the species are discussed. Pandinurus fulvipes sp. n. from Somaliland is described and fully complemented with color photos of live and preserved specimens, as well as of its habitat.


Chaerilus Alberti Sp. N. From Malaysia (Scorpiones: Chaerilidae), František Kovařík Feb 2019

Chaerilus Alberti Sp. N. From Malaysia (Scorpiones: Chaerilidae), František Kovařík

Euscorpius

Chaerilus alberti sp. n. from Malaysia (Cameron Highlands) is described and fully illustrated with color photographs of preserved specimens, as well as of their habitat. Males of C. alberti sp. n. have a unique shape of chela which is stout with the manus swollen anteriorly. They are compared to other species from Southeast Asia, from all of which C. alberti sp. n. differs by the shape of pedipalp chela parallel or swollen posteriorly or medially. Pedipalp chela is illustrated with color photographs of 21 of these species.


Wildfire Activity And Land Use Drove 20th‐Century Changes In Forest Cover In The Colorado Front Range, Kyle Rodman, Thomas T. Veblen, Sara Saraceni, Teresa B. Chapman Feb 2019

Wildfire Activity And Land Use Drove 20th‐Century Changes In Forest Cover In The Colorado Front Range, Kyle Rodman, Thomas T. Veblen, Sara Saraceni, Teresa B. Chapman

Geography Graduate Contributions

Recent shifts in global forest area highlight the importance of understanding the causes and consequences of forest change. To examine the influence of several potential drivers of forest cover change, we used supervised classifications of historical (1938–1940) and contemporary (2015) aerial imagery covering a 2932‐km2study area in the northern Front Range (NFR) of Colorado and we linked observed changes in forest cover with abiotic factors, land use, and fire history. Forest cover in the NFR demonstrated broad‐scale changes 1938–2015 and overall cover increased 7.8%, but there was notable spatial variability and many sites also experienced ...


Interacting Stressors Matter: Diet Quality And Virus Infection In Honeybee Health, Adam G. Dolezal, Jimena Carrillo-Tripp, Timothy M. Judd, W. Allen Miller, Bryony C. Bonning, Amy L. Toth Feb 2019

Interacting Stressors Matter: Diet Quality And Virus Infection In Honeybee Health, Adam G. Dolezal, Jimena Carrillo-Tripp, Timothy M. Judd, W. Allen Miller, Bryony C. Bonning, Amy L. Toth

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Honeybee population declines have been linked to multiple stressors, including reduced diet diversity and increased exposure to understudied viral pathogens. Despite interest in these factors, few experimental studies have explored the interaction between diet diversity and viral infection in honeybees. Here, we used a mixture of laboratory cage and small semi-field nucleus hive experiments to determine how these factors interact. In laboratory experiments, we found that high-quality diets (polyfloral pollen and high-quality single-source pollen) have the potential to reduce mortality in the face of infection with Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV). There was a significant interaction between diet and virus ...


The Diversity Of Population Responses To Environmental Change, Fernando Colchero, Anne M. Bronikowski, Et Al. Feb 2019

The Diversity Of Population Responses To Environmental Change, Fernando Colchero, Anne M. Bronikowski, Et Al.

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

The current extinction and climate change crises pressure us to predict population dynamics with ever‐greater accuracy. Although predictions rest on the well‐advanced theory of age‐structured populations, two key issues remain poorly explored. Specifically, how the age‐dependency in demographic rates and the year‐to‐year interactions between survival and fecundity affect stochastic population growth rates. We use inference, simulations and mathematical derivations to explore how environmental perturbations determine population growth rates for populations with different age‐specific demographic rates and when ages are reduced to stages. We find that stage‐ vs. age‐based models can produce markedly ...


A New Semidesert Microtityus Kjellesvig-Waering, 1966 (Scorpiones: Buthidae) From Southeast Cuba, Greater Antilles., Rolando Teruel Jan 2019

A New Semidesert Microtityus Kjellesvig-Waering, 1966 (Scorpiones: Buthidae) From Southeast Cuba, Greater Antilles., Rolando Teruel

Euscorpius

A new species of the buthid scorpion genus Microtityus Kjellesvig-Waering, 1966, is herein described from specimens of both sexes collected at three nearby localities in the western part of the Guantánamo Bay Area, southeast Cuba. It belongs in the "jaumei" species-group of the subgenus Microtityus (Parvabsonus) Armas, 1974 and is very peculiar not only by its external morphology (very distinct from its other Cuban congeners), but also by the unusual habitat where it occurs in and seems to be restricted to (dry and hot cactus scrub on volcanic sandy plain). The present contribution reinforces the position of this genus as ...


Concept Inventories As A Resource For Teaching Evolution, Robert E. Furrow, Jeremy L. Hsu Jan 2019

Concept Inventories As A Resource For Teaching Evolution, Robert E. Furrow, Jeremy L. Hsu

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Understanding evolution is critical to learning biology, but few college instructors take advantage of the body of peer-reviewed literature that can inform evolution teaching and assessment. Here we summarize the peer-reviewed papers on tools to assess student learning of evolutionary concepts. These published concept inventories provide a resource for instructors to design courses, gauge student preparation, identify key misconceptions in their student population, and measure the impact of a lesson, course, or broader curriculum on student learning. Because these inventories vary in their format, target audience, and degree of validation, we outline and explain these features. In addition to summarizing ...


Climate Change Within A Biome, Tyone Kruse, Lisa Forcier, Madhav P. Nepal, Larry B. Browning, Matthew L. Miller, P. Troy White Jan 2019

Climate Change Within A Biome, Tyone Kruse, Lisa Forcier, Madhav P. Nepal, Larry B. Browning, Matthew L. Miller, P. Troy White

iLEARN Teaching Resources

In this iLEARN lesson, students will investigate impacts of climate change on the native plants and animals, as well as the fisheries, agriculture, and forestry, within a biome of their choosing, and then develop and refine a solution for one of the impacts resulting from the climate change.


Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida, Scorpiones). Part Xviii. Gint Banfasae Sp. N. From Somaliland (Buthidae), František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe Jan 2019

Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida, Scorpiones). Part Xviii. Gint Banfasae Sp. N. From Somaliland (Buthidae), František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe

Euscorpius

Gint banfasae sp. n. from Somaliland is described and compared with other species of the genus. Additional information is provided on the taxonomy and distribution of the genus Gint, fully complemented with color photos of specimens of both sexes of the new species, as well as of their habitat. Included is a key for Gint.


Piscataqua Region Estuaries Partnership 2018 Annual Report, Piscataqua Region Estuaries Partnership Jan 2019

Piscataqua Region Estuaries Partnership 2018 Annual Report, Piscataqua Region Estuaries Partnership

PREP Reports & Publications

No abstract provided.


Fish Growth Changes Over Time In A Midwestern Usa Lake, Eric D. Katzenmeyer, Michael E. Colvin, Timothy W. Stewart, Clay L. Pierce, Scott E. Grummer Jan 2019

Fish Growth Changes Over Time In A Midwestern Usa Lake, Eric D. Katzenmeyer, Michael E. Colvin, Timothy W. Stewart, Clay L. Pierce, Scott E. Grummer

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Growth of Walleye Sander vitreus, Yellow Bass Morone mississippiensis, Common Carp Cyprinus carpio, and Black Bullhead Ameiurus melas was assessed in Clear Lake, Iowa, USA, over several decades and in relation to environmental variables. Growth of Common Carp was positively correlated with phytoplankton concentration. Recent Black Bullhead growth was faster than in the 1950s and 1990s, which may be a consequence of their recent decline in abundance. Growth of Common Carp and Yellow Bass was faster in the 1940s than in more recent time periods. Relative to their entire range, Common Carp first year growth was below average whereas length ...


A New Species And Synonymy In North American Phymatodes (Phymatodes) Mulsant, 1839 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae: Callidiini), James E. Wappes, Antonio Santos-Silva Jan 2019

A New Species And Synonymy In North American Phymatodes (Phymatodes) Mulsant, 1839 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae: Callidiini), James E. Wappes, Antonio Santos-Silva

Insecta Mundi

Phymatodes (Phymatodes) huetheri Wappes and Santos-Silva (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae: Callidiini) from upstate New York, USA and Canada is described and illustrated. Phymatodes (Phymatodes) rainieri Van Dyke, 1937 is placed in synonymy with Phymatodes (Phymatodes) fulgidus Hopping, 1928.


Description Of A New Species Of Melanesiandra Santos-Silva Et Al. (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Parandrinae) Found In Vanuatu, Shunsuke Kakinuma Jan 2019

Description Of A New Species Of Melanesiandra Santos-Silva Et Al. (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Parandrinae) Found In Vanuatu, Shunsuke Kakinuma

Insecta Mundi

Melanesiandra anatomensis Kakinuma, new species (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Parandrinae), found in Aneityum Island (Vanuatu), is described and illustrated. An updated key is presented to separate the six known species of the genus.


Descripción De Una Especie Nueva Y Dos Nuevos Registros De Paraleurolobus Sampson Y Drews (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) De Guatemala, José Francisco García Ochaeta, Oscar Ángel Sánchez-Flores Jan 2019

Descripción De Una Especie Nueva Y Dos Nuevos Registros De Paraleurolobus Sampson Y Drews (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) De Guatemala, José Francisco García Ochaeta, Oscar Ángel Sánchez-Flores

Insecta Mundi

Se describe Paraleurolobus evansi García-Ochaeta y Sánchez-Flores sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) de Guatemala. Se comentan los caracteres diferenciales de esta especie con sus congéneres. Se incluye una clave para determinar las especies de Paraleurolobus Sampson y Drews, y se reportan por primera vez para Guatemala a P. chamaedoreae Russell y P. imbricatus Sampson y Drews.

Paraleurolobus evansi García-Ochaeta y Sánchez-Flores sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is described from Guatemala. Differential characters between this and related species are discussed. A key is included to identify Paraleurolobus Sampson y Drews species, and P. chamaedoreae Russell and P. imbricatus Sampson y Drews are reported ...


Three New Madagascan Species Of Ochodaeus Dejean (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea: Ochodaeidae), M. J. Paulsen Jan 2019

Three New Madagascan Species Of Ochodaeus Dejean (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea: Ochodaeidae), M. J. Paulsen

Insecta Mundi

Adults of three known species of Ochodaeus Dejean (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea: Ochodaeidae) in Madagascar have a strongly granulate pronotum. Three new species are described herein that have a smooth or weakly granulate pronotum: Ochodaeus modopunctatus, O. polypollicatus, and O. meandrus. A key to the species of Ochodaeus from Madagascar is provided.


Analysis Of Mitochondrial Genomes Resolves The Phylogenetic Position Of Chinese Freshwater Mussels (Bivalvia, Unionidae), Rui-Wen Wu, Xiong-Jun Liu, Sa Wang, Kevin J. Roe, Shan Ouyang, Xiao-Ping Wu Jan 2019

Analysis Of Mitochondrial Genomes Resolves The Phylogenetic Position Of Chinese Freshwater Mussels (Bivalvia, Unionidae), Rui-Wen Wu, Xiong-Jun Liu, Sa Wang, Kevin J. Roe, Shan Ouyang, Xiao-Ping Wu

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

The Yangtze River basin is one of the most species-rich regions for freshwater mussels on Earth, but is gravely threatened by anthropogenic activities. However, conservation planning and management of mussel species has been hindered by a number of taxonomic uncertainties. In order to clarify the taxonomic status and phylogenetic position of these species, mitochondrial genomes of four species (Acuticosta chinensis, Schistodesmus lampreyanus, Cuneopsis heudei and Cuneopsis capitatus) were generated and analyzed along with data from 43 other mitogenomes. The complete F-type mitogenomes of A. chinensis, S. lampreyanus, C. heudei, and C. capitatus are 15652 bp, 15855 bp, 15892 bp, and ...


Shizen Nōhō: Restoring The Relationship Between Food, Nature, And People In Japan, Katharine Graham Jan 2019

Shizen Nōhō: Restoring The Relationship Between Food, Nature, And People In Japan, Katharine Graham

Scripps Senior Theses

In Japan’s postwar era, agriculture has become highly industrialized, involving heavy machinery, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides, all in the name of “progress.” Through employing such practices, humans have attempted to improve upon nature’s way of doing things, and in turn have degraded the soil’s fertility, natural ecosystems, and human health. In response to this, Shizen Nōhō has emerged in Japan as an alternative way of cultivating food. Shizen Nōhō practitioners challenge the notion that we need chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and machinery to farm successfully. Rather, they advocate for a way of growing food that functions seamlessly with ...


Brave Spaces: Augmenting Interdisciplinary Stem Education By Using Quantitative Data Explorations To Engage Conversations On Equity And Social Justice, John R. Jungck, Jon Manon Jan 2019

Brave Spaces: Augmenting Interdisciplinary Stem Education By Using Quantitative Data Explorations To Engage Conversations On Equity And Social Justice, John R. Jungck, Jon Manon

Numeracy

In workshops and courses involving in-service teachers, participating teachers can engage in problem posing and exploration of difficult issues when they are asked to quantitatively model alternative scenarios, statistically analyze complex data, and visualize these data in multiple formats. Subsequent to these activities, discussions of sensitive issues, some even considered taboo in classrooms, can open up “brave spaces” in these teachers’ classrooms. Without coaching through elaborate facilitation strategies, the in-service teachers grappled openly with the nuances of such difficult issues and raised many alternatives involving quantitative reasoning as well as considering biological, cultural, economic, social, and political factors influencing social ...


Characterizing Water Quality And Hydrologic Properties Of Urban Streams In Central Virginia, Rikki Lucas Jan 2019

Characterizing Water Quality And Hydrologic Properties Of Urban Streams In Central Virginia, Rikki Lucas

Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this study was to characterize water quality and hydrologic properties of urban streams in the Richmond metropolitan area. Water quality data were analyzed for six urban sites and two non-urban sites. Geomorphological surveys and conservative tracer studies were performed at four urban sites and one non-urban site to describe intra- and inter- site variability in transient storage, channel geomorphology, and related hydrologic parameters. Urban sites showed elevated concentrations of nitrogen and more variable TSS concentrations relative to reference sites. Urban channels were deeply incised with unstable banks and low sinuosity. Little Westham Creek exhibited the greatest transient ...