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Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

2014

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Articles 1 - 30 of 1054

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

The Status Of Fishes In The Missouri River, Nebraska: Shoal Chub (Macrhybopsis Hyostoma), Sturgeon Chub (M. Gelida), Sicklefin Chub (M. Meeki), Silver Chub (M. Storeriana), Flathead Chub (Platygobio Gracilis), Plains Minnow (Hybognathus Placitus), Western Silvery Minnow (H. Argyritis), And Brassy Minnow (H. Hankinsoni), Kirk D. Steffensen, Dane A. Shuman, Sam Stukel Dec 2014

The Status Of Fishes In The Missouri River, Nebraska: Shoal Chub (Macrhybopsis Hyostoma), Sturgeon Chub (M. Gelida), Sicklefin Chub (M. Meeki), Silver Chub (M. Storeriana), Flathead Chub (Platygobio Gracilis), Plains Minnow (Hybognathus Placitus), Western Silvery Minnow (H. Argyritis), And Brassy Minnow (H. Hankinsoni), Kirk D. Steffensen, Dane A. Shuman, Sam Stukel

Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies

Throughout the past century, the Missouri River has been highly modified which has negatively affected the native fish community. Previous research quantified the reduction of several native Cyprinidae species and made several recommendations to aid in recovery. However, these recommendations were not implemented. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to assess the current population trends of eight native cyprinid species and develop the current management objectives. Over 335,000 fish were collected from the Missouri River along Nebraska’s eastern border with mini-fyke nets and otter trawls from 2003 to 2012. Target Cyprinidae species consisted of less than five percent (n …


The Status Of Fishes In The Missouri River, Nebraska: Sauger (Sander Canadensis), Kirk D. Steffensen, Sam Stukel, Dane A. Shuman Dec 2014

The Status Of Fishes In The Missouri River, Nebraska: Sauger (Sander Canadensis), Kirk D. Steffensen, Sam Stukel, Dane A. Shuman

Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies

Early fisheries investigation of the Missouri River fish community indicated that Sauger were common throughout Nebraska, including all major Missouri River tributaries. However due to many factors, their current range is restricted to the Missouri River and the lower reaches of a few tributaries. Hesse (1994) recommended listing Sauger as a state endangered species but this recommendation was never implemented. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to reevaluate the current population status of Sauger in the Missouri River along Nebraska’s border. Over 2,100 Sauger have been captured from the Missouri River along Nebraska’s eastern border since 2003. Sauger were …


Modelling Non-Euclideanmovement And Landscape Connectivity In Highly Structured Ecological Networks, Chris Sutherland, Angela Fuller, J. Royle Dec 2014

Modelling Non-Euclideanmovement And Landscape Connectivity In Highly Structured Ecological Networks, Chris Sutherland, Angela Fuller, J. Royle

Environmental Conservation Faculty Publication Series

1. Movement is influenced by landscape structure, configuration and geometry, but measuring distance as perceived by animals poses technical and logistical challenges. Instead, movement is typically measured using Euclidean distance, irrespective of location or landscape structure, or is based on arbitrary cost surfaces. Arecently proposed extension of spatial capture-recapture (SCR)models resolves this issue using spatial encounterhistories of individuals to calculate least-cost paths (ecological distance: Ecology, 94, 2013, 287) thereby relaxingthe Euclidean assumption. We evaluate the consequences of not accounting for movement heterogeneity whenestimating abundance in highly structured landscapes, and demonstrate the value of this approach for estimatingbiologically realistic space-use patterns …


Modelling Non-Euclideanmovement And Landscape Connectivity In Highly Structured Ecological Networks, Chris Sutherland, Angela Fuller, J. Royle Dec 2014

Modelling Non-Euclideanmovement And Landscape Connectivity In Highly Structured Ecological Networks, Chris Sutherland, Angela Fuller, J. Royle

Chris Sutherland

1. Movement is influenced by landscape structure, configuration and geometry, but measuring distance as perceived by animals poses technical and logistical challenges. Instead, movement is typically measured using Euclidean distance, irrespective of location or landscape structure, or is based on arbitrary cost surfaces. A
recently proposed extension of spatial capture-recapture (SCR)models resolves this issue using spatial encounter
histories of individuals to calculate least-cost paths (ecological distance: Ecology, 94, 2013, 287) thereby relaxing
the Euclidean assumption. We evaluate the consequences of not accounting for movement heterogeneity when
estimating abundance in highly structured landscapes, and demonstrate the value of this approach for …


Baseline Survey For Street Dogs In Guam, John D. Boone Dec 2014

Baseline Survey For Street Dogs In Guam, John D. Boone

Stray and Feral Animal Populations Collection

As is the case for many inhabited islands in Pacific region, dogs are common, including freeroaming street dogs that may be owned or unowned. Reproduction among dogs is largely unchecked, and many owned dogs do not receive adequate levels of basic care in the home or veterinary care when needed. For all of these reasons, Humane Society International (HSI) is exploring options for improving the management of street dog populations and promoting better treatment and care of all dogs on Guam and on the nearby islands of Rota and Saipan. One of the initial steps in this process was to …


Winter Activity Of Bats In Southeastern Nebraska: An Acoustic Study, Jeremy A. White, Brett R. Andersen, Hans W. Otto, Cliff A. Lemen, Patricia W. Freeman Dec 2014

Winter Activity Of Bats In Southeastern Nebraska: An Acoustic Study, Jeremy A. White, Brett R. Andersen, Hans W. Otto, Cliff A. Lemen, Patricia W. Freeman

Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies

Many North American bats are active outside hibernacula in winter, but no information on winter activity has been reported for Nebraska. We recorded activity of bats during two winters (December-February 2012-2013 and 2013-2014) at one location in southeastern Nebraska with an acoustic detector. Bats were active throughout both winters and temperature at sunset was a good predictor of bat activity. Red bats (Lasiurus borealis) were active at our site in early December but were not recorded later in winter. We suspect these individuals were late migrants to more southern wintering sites. Big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) …


Predicted Changes In Climatic Niche And Climate Refugia Of Conservation Priority Salamander Species In The Northeastern United States, William B. Sutton, Kyle Barrett, Allison T. Moody, Cynthia S. Loftin, Phillip G. Demaynadier, Priya Nanjappa Dec 2014

Predicted Changes In Climatic Niche And Climate Refugia Of Conservation Priority Salamander Species In The Northeastern United States, William B. Sutton, Kyle Barrett, Allison T. Moody, Cynthia S. Loftin, Phillip G. Demaynadier, Priya Nanjappa

Agricultural and Environmental Sciences Faculty Research

Global climate change represents one of the most extensive and pervasive threats to wildlife populations. Amphibians, specifically salamanders, are particularly susceptible to the effects of changing climates due to their restrictive physiological requirements and low vagility; however, little is known about which landscapes and species are vulnerable to climate change. Our study objectives included, (1) evaluating species-specific predictions (based on 2050 climate projections) and vulnerabilities to climate change and (2) using collective species responses to identify areas of climate refugia for conservation priority salamanders in the northeastern United States. All evaluated salamander species were projected to lose a portion of …


High Intralocus Variability And Interlocus Recombination Promote Immunological Diversity In A Minimal Major Histocompatibility System, Anthony B. Wilson, Camilla M. Whittington, Angela Bahr Dec 2014

High Intralocus Variability And Interlocus Recombination Promote Immunological Diversity In A Minimal Major Histocompatibility System, Anthony B. Wilson, Camilla M. Whittington, Angela Bahr

Publications and Research

Background: The genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC/MH) have attracted considerable scientific interest due to their exceptional levels of variability and important function as part of the adaptive immune system. Despite a large number of studies on MH class II diversity of both model and non-model organisms, most research has focused on patterns of genetic variability at individual loci, failing to capture the functional diversity of the biologically active dimeric molecule. Here, we take a systematic approach to the study of MH variation, analyzing patterns of genetic variation at MH class IIα and IIβ loci of the seahorse, which …


Landmark Ruling On Whaling From The International Court Of Justice, Mark P. Simmonds Dec 2014

Landmark Ruling On Whaling From The International Court Of Justice, Mark P. Simmonds

Mark P. Simmonds, OBE

On 31 March 2014, the International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruled that Japan’s whaling activities in Antarctica did not comply with Article VIII of the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling (ICRW), which permits whaling for scientific purposes. Copious and confusing media commentary followed the decision. This included seemingly conflicting reports from within Japan, which initially indicated whole-hearted compliance with the ruling, which required this whaling to cease, but later suggested that implementation by Japan might be limited to a brief halt followed by a launch of a new Antarctic ‘research’ programme including lethal take.


The Fine-Scale Habitat Use Of Risso’S Dolphins Off Bardsey Island, Cardigan Bay (Uk), Marijke N. De Boer, Sonja Eisfeld, Mark P. Simmonds Dec 2014

The Fine-Scale Habitat Use Of Risso’S Dolphins Off Bardsey Island, Cardigan Bay (Uk), Marijke N. De Boer, Sonja Eisfeld, Mark P. Simmonds

Mark P. Simmonds, OBE

The main objectives of this study were (1) to estimate the population size of Risso’s dolphins off Bardsey Island using mark-recapture techniques (De Boer et al., 2013); and (2) to study habitat-use in relation to fine-scale oceanographic features. This work provides preliminary information on the habitat-use of Risso’s dolphins and will benefit future studies, along with the development of effective conservation measures for this species throughout the region.


Photo-Identification Methods Reveal Seasonal And Long-Term Site-Fidelity Of Risso’S Dolphins (Grampus Griseus) In Shallow Waters (Cardigan Bay, Wales), Marijke N. De Boer, Josephine Clark, Mardik F. Leopold, Mark P. Simmonds, Peter J.H. Reijnders Dec 2014

Photo-Identification Methods Reveal Seasonal And Long-Term Site-Fidelity Of Risso’S Dolphins (Grampus Griseus) In Shallow Waters (Cardigan Bay, Wales), Marijke N. De Boer, Josephine Clark, Mardik F. Leopold, Mark P. Simmonds, Peter J.H. Reijnders

Mark P. Simmonds, OBE

A photo-identification study on Risso’s dolphins was carried out off Bardsey Island in Wales (July to September, 1997-2007). Their local abundance was estimated using two different analytical techniques: 1) mark-recapture of well-marked dolphins using a “closed-population” model; and 2) a census technique based on the total number of iden-tified individual dolphins sighted over the study period. The mark-recapture estimates of 121 (left sides; 64 - 178, 95% CI; CV 0.24) and 145 dolphins (right sides; 78 - 213, 95% CI; CV 0.24) closely matched the census technique estimates (population size of 90 - 151). It was found that the dolphins …


Marine Noise Pollution - Increasing Recognition But Need For More Practical Action, Mark P. Simmonds, Sarah J. Dolman, Michael Jasny, E. C. M. Parsons, Lindy Weilgart, Andrew J. Wright, Russell Leaper Dec 2014

Marine Noise Pollution - Increasing Recognition But Need For More Practical Action, Mark P. Simmonds, Sarah J. Dolman, Michael Jasny, E. C. M. Parsons, Lindy Weilgart, Andrew J. Wright, Russell Leaper

Mark P. Simmonds, OBE

Over the last two decades, marine noise pollution has become increasingly recognized as an issue of major significance. The issue has become a primary focus of marine mammal research, but is also of concern to the public and policy makers. The result has been efforts involving a variety of disciplines, and relevant legislation and associated guidance are now in place in many parts of the world. Most current mitigation efforts are directed at reducing the risk of injury from exposure to intense noise, although the effectiveness of such mitigation measures in terms of risk reduction has rarely been quantified. Longer-term …


Cetaceans And Marine Debris: The Great Unknown, Mark Peter Simmonds Dec 2014

Cetaceans And Marine Debris: The Great Unknown, Mark Peter Simmonds

Mark P. Simmonds, OBE

Plastics and other marine debris have been found in the gastrointestinal tracts of cetaceans, including instances where large quantities of material have been found that are likely to cause impairment to digestive processes and other examples, where other morbidity and even death have resulted. In some instances, debris may have been ingested as a result of the stranding process and, in others, it may have been ingested when feeding. Those species that are suction or “ram” feeders may be most at risk. There is also evidence of entanglement of cetaceans in marine debris. However, it is usually difficult to distinguish …


Interactions Between Short-Beaked Common Dolphin (Delphinus Delphis) And The Winter Pelagic Pair-Trawl Fishery Ff Southwest England (Uk), Marijke N. De Boer, James T. Saulino, Mardik F. Leopold, Peter J.H. Reijnders, Mark P. Simmonds Dec 2014

Interactions Between Short-Beaked Common Dolphin (Delphinus Delphis) And The Winter Pelagic Pair-Trawl Fishery Ff Southwest England (Uk), Marijke N. De Boer, James T. Saulino, Mardik F. Leopold, Peter J.H. Reijnders, Mark P. Simmonds

Mark P. Simmonds, OBE

During offshore and onshore studies (2004 to 2009), the interactions between pair-trawls and short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) were studied to better understand the impact of bycatch. A ‘hotspot’ area where pair-trawls overlapped with high dolphin abundance was identified. We made comparisons between boat-based data collected in absence and presence of pair-trawlers. The relative abundance and group-size of dolphins was significantly higher in the presence of pair-trawlers. Dolphins were observed associating with towing and hauling procedures. Significantly, more carcasses occurred in areas with hauling-activity than those without. Body-temperatures obtained from carcasses found near operating pair-trawlers indicated that bycatch mostly occurred …


The Influence Of Topographic And Dynamic Cyclic Variables On The Distribution Of Small Cetaceans In A Shallow Coastal System, Marijke N. De Boer, Mark P. Simmonds, Peter J.H. Reijnders, Geert Aarts Dec 2014

The Influence Of Topographic And Dynamic Cyclic Variables On The Distribution Of Small Cetaceans In A Shallow Coastal System, Marijke N. De Boer, Mark P. Simmonds, Peter J.H. Reijnders, Geert Aarts

Mark P. Simmonds, OBE

The influence of topographic and temporal variables on cetacean distribution at a fine-scale is still poorly understood. To study the spatial and temporal distribution of harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena and the poorly known Risso’s dolphin Grampus griseus we carried out land-based observations from Bardsey Island (Wales, UK) in summer (2001–2007). Using Kernel analysis and Generalized Additive Models it was shown that porpoises and Risso’s appeared to be linked to topographic and dynamic cyclic variables with both species using different core areas (dolphins to the West and porpoises to the East off Bardsey). Depth, slope and aspect and a low variation …


Registration Of ‘Newell’ Smooth Bromegrass, K P. Vogel, R B. Mitchell, B L. Waldron, M R. Haferkamp, J D. Berdahl, D D. Baltensperger, Galen Erickson, T J. Klopfenstein Dec 2014

Registration Of ‘Newell’ Smooth Bromegrass, K P. Vogel, R B. Mitchell, B L. Waldron, M R. Haferkamp, J D. Berdahl, D D. Baltensperger, Galen Erickson, T J. Klopfenstein

Green Canyon Environmental Research Area, Logan Utah

No abstract provided.


A First Survey Of The Centipedes Of Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Joseph Desisto Dec 2014

A First Survey Of The Centipedes Of Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Joseph Desisto

Holster Scholar Projects

No abstract provided.


El Nino Southern Oscillation (Enso) Enhances Co2 Exchange Rates In Freshwater Marsh Ecosystems In The Florida Everglades, Sparkle L. Malone, Christina L. Staudhammer, Steven F. Oberbauer, Paulo Olivas, Michael G. Ryan, Jessica L. Schedlbauer, Henry W. Loescher, Gregory Starr Dec 2014

El Nino Southern Oscillation (Enso) Enhances Co2 Exchange Rates In Freshwater Marsh Ecosystems In The Florida Everglades, Sparkle L. Malone, Christina L. Staudhammer, Steven F. Oberbauer, Paulo Olivas, Michael G. Ryan, Jessica L. Schedlbauer, Henry W. Loescher, Gregory Starr

Biology Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


I Also Survived A Debate With A Creationist (With Reflections On The Perils Of Democratic Information), Kelly C. Smith Dec 2014

I Also Survived A Debate With A Creationist (With Reflections On The Perils Of Democratic Information), Kelly C. Smith

Kelly C Smith

A personal narrative is presented which explores the author's experience of debating with a creationist.


A Comparison Of Community Composition Analyses For The Assessment Of Responses To Wood-Ash Soil Amendment By Free-Living Nematodes, Paul B.L. George Dec 2014

A Comparison Of Community Composition Analyses For The Assessment Of Responses To Wood-Ash Soil Amendment By Free-Living Nematodes, Paul B.L. George

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Land-use changes can have far-reaching consequences for resident communities and ecosystem functioning. Developing appropriate assessment methods to observe and quantify this change is an important application of community ecology. Here I compare four methods of community assessment for free-living soil nematodes under forest harvesting disturbance and wood ash application. Neither morphological assessment (richness, abundance, diversity) nor molecular assessment (morpho-richness using T-RFLP) was responsive to experimental treatments. Trait-based approaches (Maturity Index (MI) and Body Size Spectra (BSS)) were more sensitive to forest harvest and wood-ash amendment treatments. The efficacy of these methods was also qualitatively compared. Of all methods, the BSS …


How The Presence Of Plastic In The North Pacific Gyre Affects The Growth Of Thalassiosira Through Remote Sensing And Laboratory Replication, Jordynn Brennan, Hesham El-Askary Dec 2014

How The Presence Of Plastic In The North Pacific Gyre Affects The Growth Of Thalassiosira Through Remote Sensing And Laboratory Replication, Jordynn Brennan, Hesham El-Askary

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

Through the use of remote sensing, we are able to determine the approximate location of the garbage patch in the North Pacific Gyre. Though remote sensing does not penetrate the surface of the ocean, monthly satellite images can be analyzed to determine the rate of growth or rate of decrease of certain parameters, such as atmospheric gases, phytoplankton, and dissolved organic matter. Over the past decade, data from the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (Giovanni program) has shown a significant increase in dissolved organic matter and chlorophyll a content in the area of the North Pacific Garbage …


Theatre For Development: “The Wanna Be”, Joshua Dominguez Dec 2014

Theatre For Development: “The Wanna Be”, Joshua Dominguez

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

The college experience in American culture is a popular topic that is being questioned throughout the media. It is being questioned on a weekly basis in today’s media and brings to light issues that have not been questioned for decades. Some of the main issues such as diversity within institutions, the "Greek System", and sexual assault are all being spotlighted and widely advertised as problems that need focusing on putting an end to. This new era of college students are being challenged to recognize these heavy, yet important issues that are effecting campuses across the nation. Through Theatre for Development …


The Role Of Mate Preference And Personality On Reproductive Performance In An Ex-Situ Conservation Breeding Program For The Giant Panda (Ailuropoda Melanoleuca), Meghan S. Martin Dec 2014

The Role Of Mate Preference And Personality On Reproductive Performance In An Ex-Situ Conservation Breeding Program For The Giant Panda (Ailuropoda Melanoleuca), Meghan S. Martin

Dissertations and Theses

Successful captive-breeding and re-introduction programs must have the ability to breed a surplus of genetically suitable animals for release into the wild. Unfortunately, many individuals in captive breeding programs often do not reproduce even when they are apparently healthy and presented with genetically appropriate mates. Mate choice can affect multiple parameters of reproductive sperformance, including mating success, offspring production, survival, and fecundity. We investigated the role of mate preference and personality on the reproductive performance of male and female giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) as measured by intromission success and litter production. We conducted these studies on giant pandas at the …


The Non-Lethal Effects Of Climate Change On The Territoriality Of Lottia Gigantea, Tracey Gunanto, Christina Chavez, Jessica Martinez, William G. Wright Dec 2014

The Non-Lethal Effects Of Climate Change On The Territoriality Of Lottia Gigantea, Tracey Gunanto, Christina Chavez, Jessica Martinez, William G. Wright

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

The intertidal zone has been described as ground zero for global warming. Here, the owl limpet, Lottia gigantea, adapted to the cool ocean temperatures, must withstand a few hours of baking sun during day-time low tides. This hardship is predicted to increase in frequency and severity in the future as the globe warms. Our research hypothesized that heat events compromise territorial behavior of L. gigantea. All observations and experiments were performed at Inspiration Point near Newport Beach, California. We measured the natural radiant temperature of tagged limpets during day-time low tides using a field-calibrated infrared “thermogun”. We also …


Differences In The Diversity Of Frogspecies Between Sierra Lloronaand El Valle, Panama, Kei Okabe Thurber Dec 2014

Differences In The Diversity Of Frogspecies Between Sierra Lloronaand El Valle, Panama, Kei Okabe Thurber

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Panama is home to the greatest diversity of species in all of Central America. It is home to 174 species of frogs, 35 of which are endemic to Panama. Frogs are a vital part of many ecosystems. They maintain insect populations and act as food sources for larger predators. Their job of maintaining insect populations is essential to curbing the spread of diseases. Additionally, scientists have found chemical compounds in the skin of frogs that can be used to treat pain and prevent infections. The main threat to the majority of frogs is the deadly fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), or …


Comparing Disease Prevalence In Hard Corals At Four Different Reefs Near The Island Of Narganá In The Guna Yala Comarca Of Panamá, Connor Hinton Dec 2014

Comparing Disease Prevalence In Hard Corals At Four Different Reefs Near The Island Of Narganá In The Guna Yala Comarca Of Panamá, Connor Hinton

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Coral reefs harbor much of the world’s known marine biodiversity. For a number of reasons, coral reefs are becoming increasingly threatened. Large portions of the world’s reefs have already been lost, and the number of degrading reefs is constantly on the rise. One cause for the destruction of coral reefs are coral diseases, ultimately causing coral mortality. With the death of corals, a key species is lost, endangering the entire reef ecosystem. Documenting the presence of such diseases could be useful in assessing current reef health and ameliorating the growing threat of coral diseases. In this project, 18 40m2 belt …


Evaluating The Progress Of A Mangrove Reforestation Project On Isla Galeta, Colon, Abigail Hope Outterson Dec 2014

Evaluating The Progress Of A Mangrove Reforestation Project On Isla Galeta, Colon, Abigail Hope Outterson

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Just off the Atlantic coast of Panama, a dynamic and self-renewing ecosystem takes advantage of the tropical climate and swampy conditions. Guarding Punta Galeta’s shores since before it was a U.S. navy base in the 1930’s, mangroves that have persisted here for centuries now draw scientists and tourists alike from all over the world to the Smithsonian Tropical Research Center. Once viewed as unproductive, distasteful environments, mangroves are increasingly recognized worldwide as critical habitat for endangered and commercially significant species, as well as for their ecological and aesthetic value. Uniquely adapted to survive in saline environments, mangroves combine methods of …


Biogeochemical Hotspots In Forested Landscapes: The Role Of Vernal Pools In Denitrification And Organic Matter, Krista A. Capps, Regina L. Rancatti, Nathan Tomczyk, Aram J K Calhoun, Malcolm L. Hunter Jr. Dec 2014

Biogeochemical Hotspots In Forested Landscapes: The Role Of Vernal Pools In Denitrification And Organic Matter, Krista A. Capps, Regina L. Rancatti, Nathan Tomczyk, Aram J K Calhoun, Malcolm L. Hunter Jr.

Publications

Quantifying spatial and temporal heterogeneity in ecosystem processes presents a challenge for conserving ecosystem function across landscapes. In particular, many ecosystems contain small features that play larger roles in ecosystem processes than their size would indicate; thus, they may represent ‘‘hotspots’’ of activity relative to their surroundings. Biogeochemical hotspots are characterized as small features within a landscape that show comparatively high chemical reaction rates. In northeastern forests in North America, vernal pools are abundant, small features that typically fill in spring with snow melt and precipitation and dry by the end of summer. Ephemeral flooding alters soil moisture and the …


Comparison Of Movement Patterns In Captive-Released Eastern Hellbenders (Cryptobranchus Alleganiensis Alleganiensis) Using Three Different Release Methods, Julie A. Boerner Dec 2014

Comparison Of Movement Patterns In Captive-Released Eastern Hellbenders (Cryptobranchus Alleganiensis Alleganiensis) Using Three Different Release Methods, Julie A. Boerner

Biology Theses

Eastern hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis) population size has declined throughout much of its range. Previous captive-release headstarting programs have resulted in minimal success, presumably due to movement of captive-released animals away from the release site. This study aimed to increase the success of hellbender headstarting programs by assessing the effectiveness of three release methods. Releases were conducted in two stream sites within the Allegheny River drainage. Streams were similar; however stream A contained a higher boulder density. In each site, three salamanders were placed individually in cages, three salamanders were placed individually in nest boxes with the entrance …


Cold Hardiness And Deacclimation Of Overwintering Papilio Zelicaon Pupae, Caroline M. Williams, Nicolai Annegret, Brent J. Sinclair, Laura V. Ferguson, Mark A. Bernards, Jessica J. Hellmann Dec 2014

Cold Hardiness And Deacclimation Of Overwintering Papilio Zelicaon Pupae, Caroline M. Williams, Nicolai Annegret, Brent J. Sinclair, Laura V. Ferguson, Mark A. Bernards, Jessica J. Hellmann

Biology Publications

Seasonally-acquired cold tolerance can be reversed at warm temperatures, leaving temperate ectotherms vulnerable to cold snaps. However, deacclimation, and its underlying mechanisms, has not been well-explored in insects. Swallowtail butterflies are widely distributed but in some cases their range is limited by low temperature and their cold tolerance is seasonally acquired, implying that they experience mortality resulting from deacclimation. We investigated cold tolerance and hemolymph composition of Anise swallowtail (Papilio zelicaon) pupae during overwintering in the laboratory, and after four days exposure to warm temperatures in spring. Overwintering pupae had supercooling points around − 20.5 °C and survived …