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Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

2020

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Articles 1 - 30 of 1240

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Population Density, Habitat Characteristics And Preferences Of Red Fox (Vulpes Vulpes) In Chakwal, Pakistan, Amir Naseer, Muhammad Bilal, Umar Naseer, Naureen Mustafa, Bushra Allah Rakha Dec 2020

Population Density, Habitat Characteristics And Preferences Of Red Fox (Vulpes Vulpes) In Chakwal, Pakistan, Amir Naseer, Muhammad Bilal, Umar Naseer, Naureen Mustafa, Bushra Allah Rakha

Journal of Bioresource Management

The Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is a least concern carnivore according to the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (2016). However, in Pakistan Red fox is considered as Near Threatened (NT), due to habitat destruction and depletion of food resources. The objective of the study was to identify habitat preferences and population density of Red fox in District Chakwal, Pakistan. Line transect census method was used to estimate the population density of Red fox through direct sighting and indirect method of burrow counting, presence of footprints and scats. A total of 10 transects were carried out at three …


Were Late Gomphotheres (Plio-Pleistocene) Of The Siwaliks At More Stress As Compared To Early Gomphotheres (Middle To Late Miocene)?, Muhammad Ameen, Abdul Majid Khan, Muhammad Tahir Waseem, Rana Manzoor Ahmad, Ayesha Iqbal, Amtur Rafeh, Muhammad Imran Dec 2020

Were Late Gomphotheres (Plio-Pleistocene) Of The Siwaliks At More Stress As Compared To Early Gomphotheres (Middle To Late Miocene)?, Muhammad Ameen, Abdul Majid Khan, Muhammad Tahir Waseem, Rana Manzoor Ahmad, Ayesha Iqbal, Amtur Rafeh, Muhammad Imran

Journal of Bioresource Management

Gomphotheres existed in the Siwaliks from the middle Miocene (14.2Ma) to the middle Pleistocene (0.8Ma) and became extinct later on. In this paper, we tried to discuss the reasons of such extinction of gomphotheres in the lower Pleistocene time span by considering Linear Enamel Hypoplasia (LEH) among 114 isolated tooth samples to assess whether ecological changes correlate with the stress factor in gomphotheres. For this purpose, the Siwalik gomphotheres were divided into two Groups viz. early gomphotheres (middle Miocene to late Miocene) and late gomphotheres (Pliocene to middle Pleistocene). We presented the hypothesis, that as the gomphotheres are characterized by …


A Preliminary Study On The Small Population Paradigm And Nesting Biology Of Rose-Ringed Parakeets (Psittacula Krameri) In Gujar Khan, Pakistan, Muhammad Bilal, Muhammad Huzaifa Zahid, Khalid Mahmood, Abdullah Ibrahim, Ali Hasnain Mosvi, Amir Naseer, Sadia Munir Dec 2020

A Preliminary Study On The Small Population Paradigm And Nesting Biology Of Rose-Ringed Parakeets (Psittacula Krameri) In Gujar Khan, Pakistan, Muhammad Bilal, Muhammad Huzaifa Zahid, Khalid Mahmood, Abdullah Ibrahim, Ali Hasnain Mosvi, Amir Naseer, Sadia Munir

Journal of Bioresource Management

Rose-ringed parakeet (P. krameri) is commonly found native psittacid in Pakistan. It is most popular companion bird in Pakistan. It is an unprotected species as per The Punjab Wildlife Act, 1974. The objectives of the present study were to study its population paradigm and basic nesting biology in the Gujar Khan, Punjab, Pakistan. Previously, no studies were carried out to assess its live and vacant nest cavities, nesting site, nest height, cavity position on substrate, and potential roosts in the area. Moreover, this study also assesses the potential threats and factors in this area and conservation of the …


Fungal Planet Description Sheets: 1112–1181, P. W. Crous, D. A. Cowan, G. Maggs-Kölling, N. Yilmaz, E. Larsson, C. Angelini, T. E. Brandrud, J. D. W. Dearnaley, B. Dima, F. Dovana, Et Al. Dec 2020

Fungal Planet Description Sheets: 1112–1181, P. W. Crous, D. A. Cowan, G. Maggs-Kölling, N. Yilmaz, E. Larsson, C. Angelini, T. E. Brandrud, J. D. W. Dearnaley, B. Dima, F. Dovana, Et Al.

Aspen Bibliography

Novel species of fungi described in this study include those from various countries as follows: Australia, Austroboletus asper on soil, Cylindromonium alloxyli on leaves of Alloxylon pinnatum, Davidhawksworthia quintiniae on leaves of Quintinia sieberi, Exophiala prostantherae on leaves of Prostanthera sp., Lactifluus lactiglaucus on soil, Linteromyces quintiniae (incl. Linteromyces gen. nov.) on leaves of Quintinia sieberi, Lophotrichus medusoides from stem tissue of Citrus garrawayi, Mycena pulchra on soil, Neocalonectria tristaniopsidis (incl. Neocalonectria gen. nov.) and Xyladictyochaeta tristaniopsidis on leaves of Tristaniopsis collina, Parasarocladium tasmanniae on leaves of Tasmannia insipida, Phytophthora aquae-cooljarloo from pond water, Serendipita whamiae as …


Evaluation Of The Diversity Of Durum Wheat Coleoptera (Triticum Durum Desf.) In The Region Of Sigus Oum El Bouaghi (Eastern Algeria), Amokrane Assia, Khammar Hichem, Hadjab Ramzi, Saheb Menouar Dec 2020

Evaluation Of The Diversity Of Durum Wheat Coleoptera (Triticum Durum Desf.) In The Region Of Sigus Oum El Bouaghi (Eastern Algeria), Amokrane Assia, Khammar Hichem, Hadjab Ramzi, Saheb Menouar

Journal of Bioresource Management

The Oum El Bouaghi region in Eastern Algeria, long considered as a cereal-growing area is nowadays a durum wheat production region par excellence. Although the damage caused by Coleoptera is very significant, studies on the knowledge of their diversity are few and remain limited for some entomological groups. Our work is the first step to evaluate the diversity of Coleoptera and the long-term impact of taking biological management measures against harmful fauna in favour of more environment friendly agriculture. To assess the beetle community, different sampling methods were combined (Barber trap, coloured traps, mowing net and sight hunting). Evaluation of …


Review Of The Speyeria Egleis Complex In Montana, With The Description Of Two New Subspecies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Heliconiinae), Steve Kohler Dec 2020

Review Of The Speyeria Egleis Complex In Montana, With The Description Of Two New Subspecies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Heliconiinae), Steve Kohler

The Taxonomic Report of the International Lepidoptera Survey

Four phenotypically and geographically distinct sets of populations of Speyeria egleis are identified in Montana. Two new subspecies are named from northwestern and northcentral Montana. Two existing names are recognized (S. e. macdunnoughi from southwestern Montana, southeastern Idaho, and northwestern Wyoming, and S. e. albrighti from central Montana. S. e. near macdunnoughi from Oregon and Washington is discussed.


A Historical Ecology Of Aridland Springs In Desert National Wildlife Refuge, Nuwu/Nuwuvi (Southern Paiute/Chemehuevi) Ancestral Territory, Nevada, Yarrow Sarah Valentine Geggus Dec 2020

A Historical Ecology Of Aridland Springs In Desert National Wildlife Refuge, Nuwu/Nuwuvi (Southern Paiute/Chemehuevi) Ancestral Territory, Nevada, Yarrow Sarah Valentine Geggus

Dissertations and Theses

Aridland springs are among the most threatened ecosystems in the world. Vital to desert ecologies and Indigenous cultures, these complex and individualistic ecosystems have layered histories. To inform management in the changing landscape of Desert National Wildlife Refuge, a 1.6 million acre protected area in Southern Nevada, I conducted a historical ecology study of a sample of ten upland springs. Through a six-part interdisciplinary methodology including interviews, archaeological survey, botanical survey, and archival research, I summarize findings into three broad eras: the Nuwu/Nuwuvi pre-Contact Era, the Settler Era, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Era.

For millennia, Nuwu/Nuwuvi drank …


Three New Species Of South American Checkered Beetles (Coleoptera: Cleridae: Clerinae), Weston Opitz Dec 2020

Three New Species Of South American Checkered Beetles (Coleoptera: Cleridae: Clerinae), Weston Opitz

Insecta Mundi

Three new species of Enoclerus Gahan (Coleoptera: Cleridae) are described and illustrated. They are: Enoclerus minas Opitz from Colombia and Brazil, E. salta Opitz from Argentina, and E. thomasi Opitz from Bolivia.

Corporaal (1950: 14) lists 185 species of Enoclerus Gahan (Coleoptera: Cleridae: Clerinae). I know of over 60 undescribed species. It is a daunting task to organize such a high number of species into some sort of taxonomic revision, which cannot be provided at this time. However, some of these new species can be described that will be added to a larger work at a later date. Such descriptive …


Michyrus, A New Genus Of Pleasing Fungus Beetles With Coarsely Faceted Eyes (Coleoptera: Erotylidae), Paul E. Skelley, Héctor Jaime Gasca-Álvarez Dec 2020

Michyrus, A New Genus Of Pleasing Fungus Beetles With Coarsely Faceted Eyes (Coleoptera: Erotylidae), Paul E. Skelley, Héctor Jaime Gasca-Álvarez

Insecta Mundi

Michyrus Skelley and Gasca-Álvarez, new genus, is a Neotropical Tritomini (Coleoptera: Ero­tylidae: Erotylinae) with many unusual characters, whose relationships are unclear. Two new species are described: M. thomasi Skelley and Gasca-Álvarez and M. yvineci Skelley and Gasca-Álvarez.

Resumen. Michyrus Skelley y Gasca-Álvarez, nuevo género, es un Tritomini Neotropical (Coleoptera: Ero­tylidae: Erotylinae: Tritomini) con muchos estados de carácter inusuales, cuyas relaciones no están claras. Se describen dos nuevas especies: M. thomasi Skelley y Gasca-Álvarez y M. yvineci Skelley y Gasca-Álvarez.

A resurgence of publications on foundational faunal works, descriptive and revisionary taxonomy, and nomen­clatural issues within the new …


Description Of Two New Genera And A Taxonomic Key To The World Genera Of Cybocephalidae (Coleoptera), Trevor Randall Smith Dec 2020

Description Of Two New Genera And A Taxonomic Key To The World Genera Of Cybocephalidae (Coleoptera), Trevor Randall Smith

Insecta Mundi

Abstract. The sixteen genera of Cybocephalidae (Coleoptera) occurring worldwide are listed and keyed. The genera included are Amedissia Kirejtshuk and Mantič, Apastillus Kirejtshuk and Mantič, Cybocepha­lus Erichson, Endrodiellus Endrödy-Younga, Eupastillus Lawrence, Hierronius Endrödy-Younga, Horadion Endrödy-Younga, Pacicephalus Kirejtshuk and Mantič, Pastillocenicus Kirejtshuk and Nel, Pastillodes En­drödy-Younga, Pastillus Endrödy-Younga, Pycnocephalus Sharp, Taxicephomerus Kirejtshuk, Theticephalus Kirejtshuk, a description of a new genus, Microthomas T. R. Smith, with one new species, M. brevicornis T. R. Smith, from Bolivia, and a new genus, Conglobatus T. R. Smith, with two …


In Memoriam: Michael C. Thomas. May 5, 1948–October 4, 2019, Paul E. Skelley, J. H. Frank Dec 2020

In Memoriam: Michael C. Thomas. May 5, 1948–October 4, 2019, Paul E. Skelley, J. H. Frank

Insecta Mundi

We honor the life and accomplishments of Michael C. Thomas with a short narrative of his professional life along with appendices listing his scientific artwork, bibliography and patronyms. This paper is the first of a Festschrift with contributed remembrances and separate papers honoring him with additional patronyms.

This and the following set of papers published in Insecta Mundi are dedicated to Michael C. Thomas, as tribute and thanks from a small number of those he mentored or assisted throughout his life. Mike’s contributions to the study of beetles and as a member of the Insecta Mundi Editorial Board, editing and …


New Family Record For The West Indies And Two New Species Of Glaresis Erichson (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea: Glaresidae) From Hispaniola, Oliver Keller, Paul E. Skelley Dec 2020

New Family Record For The West Indies And Two New Species Of Glaresis Erichson (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea: Glaresidae) From Hispaniola, Oliver Keller, Paul E. Skelley

Insecta Mundi

Glaresis franki Keller and Skelley new species and Glaresis thomasi Keller and Skelley new species (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea: Glaresidae) are described and illustrated. They represent the first record of the family for the West Indies. Both species are placed into the phoenicis species group. A key to the two West Indies species is presented.

Resumen. Se describe e ilustra Glaresis franki Keller y Skelley nueva especie y Glaresis thomasi Keller y Skelley nueva especie (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea: Glaresidae). Estas especies representan el primer record de la familia para las indias occidentales. Ambas especies se colocan en el grupo de especies de phoenicis. …


Aphelocerus Thomasi, A New Species Of Checkered Beetle (Coleoptera: Cleridae: Clerinae) From Mexico, Jacques Rifkind Dec 2020

Aphelocerus Thomasi, A New Species Of Checkered Beetle (Coleoptera: Cleridae: Clerinae) From Mexico, Jacques Rifkind

Insecta Mundi

Aphelocerus thomasi Rifkind, new species (Coleoptera: Cleridae: Clerinae), is described from the state of San Luis Potosí, Mexico. This beetle is named for the late Michael C. Thomas, in recognition of his lifetime of contributions to the study of Coleoptera.

Aphelocerus Kirsch (Coleoptera: Cleridae) is a moderately speciose genus (approx. 66 species) of predaceous beetle, broadly distributed across Mexico, Central America, and South America, that was recently revised by Opitz (2005). The Mexican Aphelocerus fauna includes approximately 25 described species (Opitz 2005), and several undescribed species are known. Endemism appears to be common, particularly in the tropical and subtropical highlands. …


A Review Of The Colaspis Suilla Species Group, With Description Of Three New Species From Florida (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Eumolpinae), E.G. Riley Dec 2020

A Review Of The Colaspis Suilla Species Group, With Description Of Three New Species From Florida (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Eumolpinae), E.G. Riley

Insecta Mundi

The Colaspis suilla species group (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Eumolpinae) is defined relative to other species of the genus Colaspis Fabricius occurring in the United States. The group is composed of five species, of which three from Florida are described as new species: C. ansa Riley from the Florida Panhandle, C. skelleyi Riley from Central Florida, and C. thomasi Riley from the southern Lake Wales Ridge. Colaspis suilla borealis Blake is reduced to a full synonym of C. suilla Fabricius, new synonymy. Comparative remarks, habitus images, images of male and female genitalia, range maps, specimen data, and a key to species …


Phyllobaenus Thomasi And P. Turnbowi, Two New Species From Mexico And Belize (Coleoptera: Cleridae: Hydnocerinae: Hydnocerini), John M. Leavengood, Jr. Dec 2020

Phyllobaenus Thomasi And P. Turnbowi, Two New Species From Mexico And Belize (Coleoptera: Cleridae: Hydnocerinae: Hydnocerini), John M. Leavengood, Jr.

Insecta Mundi

The two new species Phyllobaenus thomasi (Campeche, Oaxaca, Quintana Roo and Yucatán, Mexico, and Belize) and P. turnbowi (San Luis Potosi, Mexico), are described (Coleoptera: Cleridae: Hydnocerinae: Hydnocerini). The primary types are photographed and intrageneric relationships of the species are discussed.

Recent nomenclatural and descriptive work by Leavengood (2014), Leavengood and Garner (2014), Barr (2018) and Leavengood and Rifkind (2020) have made changes to the approximately 120 described species of New World Hydnocerini (i.e., Phyllobaenus Dejean, Isohydnocera Chapin and Wolcottia Chapin). Over 100 of these species comprise the genus Phyllobaenus. Mexico and Central America are home to about half …


A New Species Of Euxestoxenus Arrow (Coleoptera: Euxestidae) From Thailand, Adam Ślipiński Dec 2020

A New Species Of Euxestoxenus Arrow (Coleoptera: Euxestidae) From Thailand, Adam Ślipiński

Insecta Mundi

A new species of Euxestoxenus Arrow (Coleoptera: Euxestidae), E. thomasi Ślipiński, is described from northern Thailand. The species differs from all Oriental and most of African species of Euxestoxenus by a 10-segmented antenna and glabrous, polished dorsum.

Euxestidae is a small and poorly known family of Coccinelloidea that currently includes 11 genera and about 70 species distributed mostly in the Old-World tropics and subtropics but extending into temperate areas of North America and Australia (Ślipiński 1990). The biology of the Euxestidae is mostly unknown but it appears that all species are fungivores, commonly found in rotten wood, forest litter, in …


Dyslexia, A New Remarkable Genus Of Pleasing Fungus Beetles (Coleoptera: Erotylidae: Erotylinae) From The Andes, Paul E. Skelley, Héctor Jaime Gasca-Álvarez Dec 2020

Dyslexia, A New Remarkable Genus Of Pleasing Fungus Beetles (Coleoptera: Erotylidae: Erotylinae) From The Andes, Paul E. Skelley, Héctor Jaime Gasca-Álvarez

Insecta Mundi

Dyslexia Skelley and Gasca-Álvarez, new genus (Coleoptera: Erotylidae: Erotylinae: Erotylini), is described and illustrated. The genus is comprised of four new species, all described by Skelley and Gasca-Álvarez: D. belamyi, D. dathomirria, D. pulcricolor, and D. tomasi. The unique broad head structures of this genus are characterized and compared with other genera. Problems associated with the taxonomy of Erotylini are discussed.

Resumen. Se describe y se ilustra a Dyslexia Skelley y Gasca-Álvarez, nuevo género (Coleoptera: Erotyli­dae: Erotylinae: Erotylini). El género está formado por cuatro especies nuevas, todas descritas por …


New And Little Known Coleoptera (Silvanidae: Silvaninae) From Central And South America, David G. H. Halstead Dec 2020

New And Little Known Coleoptera (Silvanidae: Silvaninae) From Central And South America, David G. H. Halstead

Insecta Mundi

The following Silvaninae (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) are included: Synobius Sharp, 1899, with its spe­cies, Synobius lobicollis Sharp, 1899 and Synobius lobatus (Grouvelle, 1896); Neocorimus thomasi, new genus and new species; Austronausibius wagneri (Grouvelle) new combination, a species originally placed in Nau­sibius Lentz by Grouvelle (1913); a third species of Pensus Halstead, 1973, is described, Pensus hirtus new species, and a short key given for distinguishing it from the already known species, Pensus gilae (Casey) and Pensus guatemalenus (Sharp); also Coccidotrophus Schwarz and Barber, 1921, including Coccidotrophus socialis Schwarz and Barber, 1921, Coccidotrophus cordiae Barber, 1928, Coccidotrophus wheeleri …


A New Species Of Ataenius Harold (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Aphodiinae) From The Southeastern United States, With A Lectotype Designation, Kyle E. Schnepp, Krystal L. Ashman Dec 2020

A New Species Of Ataenius Harold (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Aphodiinae) From The Southeastern United States, With A Lectotype Designation, Kyle E. Schnepp, Krystal L. Ashman

Insecta Mundi

A new species of Ataenius Harold, Ataenius thomasi Schnepp and Ashman (Coleoptera: Scara­baeidae: Aphodiinae), from Florida, Georgia, and Mississippi, U.S.A. is described. The lectotype for Ataenius brevis Fall is designated.

In the United States and Canada the genus Ataenius Harold (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Aphodiinae) contains 46 species (Stebnicka 2007; Smith 2009). The most recent faunal review of this genus in these countries was completed by Cartwright (1974). However, several species in that paper have been moved to other genera or syn­onymized (Stebnicka 2007). Stebnicka and Lago (2005) provide a key and catalog to the Ataenius strigatus group. Specimens of a putative …


Review Of Carpophilus (Ecnomorphus) Motschulsky, 1858 (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae: Carpophilinae) In The West Indies, Gareth S. Powell, Kyle E. Schnepp Dec 2020

Review Of Carpophilus (Ecnomorphus) Motschulsky, 1858 (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae: Carpophilinae) In The West Indies, Gareth S. Powell, Kyle E. Schnepp

Insecta Mundi

Two new species of Carpophilus Stephens, 1829 in the subgenus Ecnomorphus Motschulsky, 1858 (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) were recovered in material from the Caribbean. Descriptions and detailed diagnoses are provided for Carpophilus (Ecnomorphus) jamaicensis Powell and Schnepp, new species and Carpophilus (Ecnomorphus) thomasi Powell and Schnepp, new species. A key to the Carpophilus (Ecnomor­phus) of the West Indies is appended.

The family Nitidulidae Latreille is distributed throughout the world and reported broadly throughout the West Indies (Blackwelder 1945). The family represents one of the most diverse lineages of cucujoid beetles; however, the group remains one of …


Two New Species Of Pharaxonotha Reitter Among The Early-Diverging Lineages, With A Key To The Species Of The Genus (Coleoptera: Erotylidae: Pharaxonothinae), Paul E. Skelley, William Tang Dec 2020

Two New Species Of Pharaxonotha Reitter Among The Early-Diverging Lineages, With A Key To The Species Of The Genus (Coleoptera: Erotylidae: Pharaxonothinae), Paul E. Skelley, William Tang

Insecta Mundi

Two species of the early-diverging lineages of Pharaxonotha Reitter (Coleoptera: Erotylidae: Pharaxonothinae) are described: Pharaxonotha taylori Skelley and Tang, new species, and Pharaxonotha thomasi Skelley and Tang, new species. A new key to described species of Pharaxonotha, based on previously unused characters, is presented.

In recent phylogenetic analyses of beetle diversity based on a large nuclear data set (McKenna et al. 2019) and on nuclear and mitochondrial legacy loci (Powell, pers. comm. 2020), the New World genus Pharaxonotha Reitter (Erotylidae: Pharaxonothinae) was shown to be sister to all remaining Erotylidae in a clade comprised of the Erotylidae+Phytophaga, …


African Land Mammal Ages, John Van Couvering, Eric Delson Dec 2020

African Land Mammal Ages, John Van Couvering, Eric Delson

Publications and Research

We define 17 African land mammal ages, or AFLMAs, covering the Cenozoic record of the Afro-arabian continent, the planet’s second largest land mass. While fossiliferous deposits are absent on the eroded plateau of the continent’s interior, almost 800 fossil genera from over 350 locations have now been identified in coastal deposits, karst caves, and in the Neogene rift valleys. Given a well-developed geochronologic framework, together with continuing revision to the fossil record—both stimulated by the story of human evolution in Africa—and also to compensate for the variation in fossil ecosystems across such great distances, the AFLMAs are biochronological units defined …


High-Resolution Sampling Of A Broad Marine Life Size Spectrum Reveals Differing Size- And Composition-Based Associations With Physical Oceanographic Structure, Adam T. Greer, John C. Lehrter, Benjamin M. Binder, Aditya R. Nayak, Ranjoy Barua, Ana E. Rice, Jonathan H. Cohen, Malcolm N. Mcfarland, Alexis Hagemeyer, Nicole D. Stockley, Kevin M. Boswell, Igor Shulman, Sergio Derada, Bradley Penta Dec 2020

High-Resolution Sampling Of A Broad Marine Life Size Spectrum Reveals Differing Size- And Composition-Based Associations With Physical Oceanographic Structure, Adam T. Greer, John C. Lehrter, Benjamin M. Binder, Aditya R. Nayak, Ranjoy Barua, Ana E. Rice, Jonathan H. Cohen, Malcolm N. Mcfarland, Alexis Hagemeyer, Nicole D. Stockley, Kevin M. Boswell, Igor Shulman, Sergio Derada, Bradley Penta

Faculty Publications

Observing multiple size classes of organisms, along with oceanographic properties and water mass origins, can improve our understanding of the drivers of aggregations, yet acquiring these measurements remains a fundamental challenge in biological oceanography. By deploying multiple biological sampling systems, from conventional bottle and net sampling to in situ imaging and acoustics, we describe the spatial patterns of different size classes of marine organisms (several microns to ∼10 cm) in relation to local and regional (m to km) physical oceanographic conditions on the Delaware continental shelf. The imaging and acoustic systems deployed included (in ascending order of target organism size) …


Ogre-Faced, Net-Casting Spiders Use Auditory Cues To Detect Airborne Prey, Jay A. Stafstrom, Gil Menda, Eya I. Nitzany, Eileen A. Hebets, Ronald R. Hoy Dec 2020

Ogre-Faced, Net-Casting Spiders Use Auditory Cues To Detect Airborne Prey, Jay A. Stafstrom, Gil Menda, Eya I. Nitzany, Eileen A. Hebets, Ronald R. Hoy

Eileen Hebets Publications

Prey-capture behavior among spiders varies greatly from passive entrapment in webs to running down prey items on foot. Somewhere in the middle are the ogre-faced, net-casting spiders (Deinopidae: Deinopis) that actively capture prey while being suspended within a frame web. Using a net held between their front four legs, these spiders lunge downward to ensnare prey from off the ground beneath them. This “forward strike” is sensorially mediated by a massive pair of hypersensitive, night-vision eyes. Deinopids can also intercept flying insects with a “backward strike,” a ballistically rapid, overhead back-twist, that seems not to rely on visual cues. Past …


Variation In Personality Among Semi-Wild Myanmar Timber Elephants, Sateesh Venkatesh Dec 2020

Variation In Personality Among Semi-Wild Myanmar Timber Elephants, Sateesh Venkatesh

Theses and Dissertations

This study examines two personality traits: exploration and neophobia, which could influence human-elephant conflicts. Thirty-one semi-wild elephants were tested over two trials using a custom novel puzzle tube containing three tasks and three rewards. Our studies show that elephants do vary significantly between individuals in both exploration and neophobia.


Tolerance Of Bearded Vultures To Human Activities: Response To Comor Et Al. (2019), Olivier Duriez, Antoni Margalida, Luc Albert, Beatriz Arroyo, Virginie Couanon, Hélène Loustau, Martine Razin, Jean-Baptiste Mihoub Dec 2020

Tolerance Of Bearded Vultures To Human Activities: Response To Comor Et Al. (2019), Olivier Duriez, Antoni Margalida, Luc Albert, Beatriz Arroyo, Virginie Couanon, Hélène Loustau, Martine Razin, Jean-Baptiste Mihoub

Human–Wildlife Interactions

The bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus) is listed as vulnerable in Europe on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List because of population declines over multiple generations. Vulture population declines have been attributed to shooting, use of toxicants, and changes in land use, which have resulted in habitat degradation and increased anthropogenic disturbances. Concomitantly, conservation authorities have restricted practices deemed harmful to the species and have established protection buffers around occupied vulture breeding sites to mitigate the impacts of anthropogenic disturbances on breeding success. Comor et al. (2019) compared bearded vulture breeding success over 6 years within …


Modeling Migratory Nongame Birds: A Plea For Data, George M. Linz Dec 2020

Modeling Migratory Nongame Birds: A Plea For Data, George M. Linz

Human–Wildlife Interactions

The Bird Damage Management Conference held February 10–13, 2020 in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA provided a forum for professionals from across the United States to discuss and share management approaches, research strategies, policy, and messaging regarding the management of blackbirds (Icteridae), starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), corvids (Corvidae), and vultures (Cathartidae). Mathematical models were presented at the conference and subsequently discussed in a special issue of Human–Wildlife Interactions. Rapidly changing landscape variables point to the need for detailed systematic population monitoring programs with specific objectives. Nationwide periodic monitoring would provide data about changes not only in bird populations …


Black Vulture Conflict And Management In The United States: Damage Trends, Management Overview, And Research Needs, Bryan M. Kluever, Morgan B. Pfeiffer, Scott C. Barras, Brett G. Dunlap, Lee A. Humberg Dec 2020

Black Vulture Conflict And Management In The United States: Damage Trends, Management Overview, And Research Needs, Bryan M. Kluever, Morgan B. Pfeiffer, Scott C. Barras, Brett G. Dunlap, Lee A. Humberg

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Contrary to rapid declines of many vulture (Accipitridae, Cathartidea) species worldwide, black vulture (Coragyps atratus) populations are increasing and expanding their range in North America. Vultures exhibit complex behaviors and can adapt to any human-dominated landscape or land use. These traits, combined with population growth and range expansion, have contributed to increased human–vulture conflicts. Our goal was to summarize the current status and trends in human–black vulture conflicts (hereafter human–vulture conflicts), review available management strategies, identify knowledge gaps, and provide recommendations to enhance management and understanding of this species and the associated conflicts. We found human–vulture conflicts are …


The Emerging Conflict Of Common Ravens Roosting On Electric Power Transmission Line Towers In Montana, Usa, Marco Restani, James S. Lueck Dec 2020

The Emerging Conflict Of Common Ravens Roosting On Electric Power Transmission Line Towers In Montana, Usa, Marco Restani, James S. Lueck

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Bird interactions with electric power lines can cause faults (e.g., disruption of electrical service). Faults on 500kV transmission lines in Montana, USA, which are integral to the Northwest USA power grid, became concerning during winter 2016–2017. In 2017 we found insulators contaminated with bird droppings and discovered a large nocturnal roost of common ravens (Corvus corax). To assess the potential magnitude of the impact of raven roosts on electric power transmission, we summarized fault data obtained from the Energy Management System and raven abundance data obtained from the Christmas Bird Count in central Montana from 2005 to 2020. …


A Cophylogenetic Analysis Of Fungus Gardening Ants And Their Symbiotic Fungi, Katherine Beigel Dec 2020

A Cophylogenetic Analysis Of Fungus Gardening Ants And Their Symbiotic Fungi, Katherine Beigel

Biology Theses

Fungus-growing ants (Tribe Attini) and their fungal cultivars share a 50-million-year coevolutionary history. Large scale phylogenetic analyses depict a strong co-phyletic signal among ants and their farmed fungi yet fungus sharing among unrelated ant lineages is somewhat widespread. An overview of sharing has been hampered by a lack of genetic markers that exhibit intraspecific variation and surveys across geographic regions. For example, previous studies have shown similar sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of fungus in different species of Trachymyrmex, suggesting that these ant species are farming the same fungal clone. To examine whether this was a …