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Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

2019

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Articles 1 - 30 of 1268

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Developmental Transcriptomic Analysis Of The Cave-Dwelling Crustacean, Asellus Aquaticus, Joshua B. Gross, Dennis A. Sun, Brian M. Carlson, Sivan Brodo-Abo, Meredith E. Protas Dec 2019

Developmental Transcriptomic Analysis Of The Cave-Dwelling Crustacean, Asellus Aquaticus, Joshua B. Gross, Dennis A. Sun, Brian M. Carlson, Sivan Brodo-Abo, Meredith E. Protas

Natural Sciences and Mathematics | Faculty Scholarship

Cave animals are a fascinating group of species often demonstrating characteristics including reduced eyes and pigmentation, metabolic efficiency, and enhanced sensory systems. Asellus aquaticus, an isopod crustacean, is an emerging model for cave biology. Cave and surface forms of this species differ in many characteristics, including eye size, pigmentation, and antennal length. Existing resources for this species include a linkage map, mapped regions responsible for eye and pigmentation traits, sequenced adult transcriptomes, and comparative embryological descriptions of the surface and cave forms. Our ultimate goal is to identify genes and mutations responsible for the differences between the cave and …


Review Of Megacormus Karsch, 1881, With Description Of A New Species (Scorpiones: Euscorpiidae), František Kovařík Dec 2019

Review Of Megacormus Karsch, 1881, With Description Of A New Species (Scorpiones: Euscorpiidae), František Kovařík

Euscorpius

Megacormus franckei sp. n. from Mexico is described and compared with all other species of the genus. Additional information is provided on the morphology, taxonomy and localities of genus Megacormus, mainly through color photographs of live and preserved specimens of all Megacormus species, as well as their habitats. Included is a key for all six known species of the genus Megacormus


Snowpack Properties Vary In Response To Burn Severity Gradients In Montane Forests, Jordan Maxwell, Samuel B. St. Clair Dec 2019

Snowpack Properties Vary In Response To Burn Severity Gradients In Montane Forests, Jordan Maxwell, Samuel B. St. Clair

Aspen Bibliography

Wildfires are altering ecosystems globally as they change in frequency, size, and severity. As wildfires change vegetation structure, they also alter moisture inputs and energy fluxes which influence snowpack and hydrology. In unburned forests, snow has been shown to accumulate more in small clearings or in stands with low to moderate forest densities. Here we investigate whether peak snowpack varies with burn severity or percent overstory tree mortality post-fire in a mid-latitude, subalpine forest. We found that peak snowpack across the burn severity gradients increased 15% in snow-water equivalence (SWE) and 17% in depth for every 20% increase in overstory …


Urbanization And Population Growth: Projected Impacts Of Growth On Ecological Resources In Ontario1, Laura J. Bozzelli Dec 2019

Urbanization And Population Growth: Projected Impacts Of Growth On Ecological Resources In Ontario1, Laura J. Bozzelli

International ResearchScape Journal

No abstract provided.


The Potential For Dickeya Dianthicola To Be Vectored By Two Common Insect Pests Of Potatoes, Jonas K. Insinga Dec 2019

The Potential For Dickeya Dianthicola To Be Vectored By Two Common Insect Pests Of Potatoes, Jonas K. Insinga

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Dickeya dianthicola (Samson) causing blackleg and soft rot was first detected in potatoes grown in Maine in 2014. Previous work has suggested that insects, particularly aphids, may be able to vector bacteria in this genus between plants, but no conclusive work has been done to confirm this theory. In order to determine whether insect-mediated transmission is likely to occur in potato fields, two model potato pests common in Maine were used: the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decimlineata Say) and the green peach aphids (Myzus persicae Sulzer). Olfactometry and recruitment experiments evaluated if either insect discriminates between infected and …


Acclimation, Long-Term Repeatability, And Phenotypic Correlations Of Aerobic Metabolic Traits In The Gulf Killifish, Fundulus Grandis, Jessica E. Reemeyer Dec 2019

Acclimation, Long-Term Repeatability, And Phenotypic Correlations Of Aerobic Metabolic Traits In The Gulf Killifish, Fundulus Grandis, Jessica E. Reemeyer

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

This research examined the effects of acclimation to lowered salinity, elevated temperature, and hypoxia on aerobic metabolism of the Gulf killifish, Fundulus grandis, a common estuarine resident of the Gulf of Mexico. Standard metabolic rate (SMR), maximum metabolic rate (MMR), absolute aerobic scope (AAS), and critical oxygen tension (Pcrit) were each influenced by one or more acclimation treatments. Assessing the consistency of these traits measured in the same individuals over time, all were found to be significantly repeatable with no indication that the repeatability of any traits was affected by acclimation conditions. Significant correlations were found between …


Green Strategic Planning Approach For International Shipping Activities, Xiaofang Wu, Luoping Zhang, Huan Feng Dec 2019

Green Strategic Planning Approach For International Shipping Activities, Xiaofang Wu, Luoping Zhang, Huan Feng

Department of Earth and Environmental Studies Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

Sustainability is a long-term and ultimate goal for international shipping, although it is slowly making progress. The shipping perspective that moves away from “port-to-port” operations to “door-to-door” services also requires international shipping to take a long-term and holistic view instead of fragmented efforts. How to achieve the long-term sustainability goal becomes a key issue for door-to-door international shipping. Hence, green strategic planning for door-to-door international shipping was proposed with green development that puts forward the eco-centric point of view as its basic theory for sustainability. This study used a strategic decision-making approach, a so-called multi-dimensional decision-making (MDDM), coupled with the …


A Model For The Prediction Of Antimicrobial Resistance In Escherichia Coli Based On A Comparative Evaluation Of Fatty Acid Profiles, Randal S. Stahl, Bledar Bisha, Sebabrata Mahapatra, Jeffrey C. Chandler Dec 2019

A Model For The Prediction Of Antimicrobial Resistance In Escherichia Coli Based On A Comparative Evaluation Of Fatty Acid Profiles, Randal S. Stahl, Bledar Bisha, Sebabrata Mahapatra, Jeffrey C. Chandler

USDA Wildlife Services: Staff Publications

Antimicrobial resistance is a threat to agricultural production and public health. In this proof-of-concept study, we investigated predicting antimicrobial sensitive/resistant (S/R) phenotypes and host sources of Escherichia coli (n = 128) based on differential fatty acid abundance. Myristic (14:0), pentadecanoic acid (15:0), palmitic (16:0), elaidic (18:19) and steric acid (18:0) were significantly different (α = 0.05) using a two-way ANOVA for predicting nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, aztreonam, cefatoxime, and ceftazidime S/R phenotypes. Additionally, analyses of palmitoleic (16:1), palmitic acid (16:0), methyl palmitate (i-17:0), and cis-9,10-methyleneoctadecanoic acid (19:0Δ) showed these markers were significantly different (α = 0.05) between isolates obtained from cattle …


Predation Effects On Mid-Marsh Ribbed Mussel Mortality, Cluster Size, And Facilitation Of Cordgrass Growth, Colten Winter, Keith Walters Dec 2019

Predation Effects On Mid-Marsh Ribbed Mussel Mortality, Cluster Size, And Facilitation Of Cordgrass Growth, Colten Winter, Keith Walters

Honors Theses

Reciprocal facilitation between Geukensia demissa, ribbed mussels, and Sporobolus alterniflorus, cordgrass, has a positive effect on salt marsh ecosystems. Mussel clusters enhance cordgrass growth and drought resistance and cordgrass provides attachment and shade for mussel aggregations. Along with benefits for both mussels and cordgrass, the mutualism facilitates increased biodiversity and shoreline stabilization and enhances marsh ecosystem functions. Aspects of mussel patch configuration including cluster size, perimeter and connectivity modulate the reciprocal facilitation effects of cordgrass and mussels on marsh ecosystems. In a northern South Carolina marsh system, mussel patch configuration positively influenced cordgrass biomass. Predation affected mussel patch …


A Landscape On The Threshold Of Change: Patterns Of Soil Microbial Ecology Along Dynamic Geomorphic And Hydrologic Features In A Polar Desert, Kelli L. Feeser, David J. Van Horn, Heather N. Buelow, Daniel R. Colman, Theresa A. Mchugh, Jordan G. Okie, Egbert Schwartz, Cristina D. Takacs-Vesbach, Becky A. Ball, Andrew G. Fountain, Michael N. Gooseff, Joseph S. Levy, Maciej K. Obryk Dec 2019

A Landscape On The Threshold Of Change: Patterns Of Soil Microbial Ecology Along Dynamic Geomorphic And Hydrologic Features In A Polar Desert, Kelli L. Feeser, David J. Van Horn, Heather N. Buelow, Daniel R. Colman, Theresa A. Mchugh, Jordan G. Okie, Egbert Schwartz, Cristina D. Takacs-Vesbach, Becky A. Ball, Andrew G. Fountain, Michael N. Gooseff, Joseph S. Levy, Maciej K. Obryk

Biology ETDs

The McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV) of Antarctica are on the threshold of widespread landscape scale change due to increasing temperature and solar radiation and altered hydrology: buried ice is melting, the soil active layer is thickening, thermokarst features are developing along streams, water tracks are expanding, and lake levels are rising. These changes will impact the microbial communities found in each of the affected habitats. The purpose of this work is to first, understand the spatial distribution of soil bacteria in the MDV, specifically investigating the scale-dependent effects of environmental heterogeneity, and second, to perform surveys and coupled experiments to …


An Evolving Epigenome That Determines Tissue And Cell Specificity, Renee Louise Sears Dec 2019

An Evolving Epigenome That Determines Tissue And Cell Specificity, Renee Louise Sears

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Understanding the mechanisms driving phenotypic variation is a major goal of biology that unifies classical genetics with the emerging fields of genomics and epigenomics. Human and mouse share over 90% of genes and global tissue-specific patterns of expression are maintained between the species. Thus, it is hypothesized that gene expression is influenced through distinctive regulation among species in order to account for the unmistakable phenotypic divergence. DNA methylation, histone modifications, open chromatin patterns, transcription factor binding, and other epigenetic factors are all associated with shaping, maintaining, and repressing regulatory regions which in turn coordinate gene expression. It is vital to …


Mojave Desert Ecosystem Recovery: Potency Of Biotic And Abiotic Restoration Methods In Low Elevation Plant Communities, Mary Amanda Balogh Dec 2019

Mojave Desert Ecosystem Recovery: Potency Of Biotic And Abiotic Restoration Methods In Low Elevation Plant Communities, Mary Amanda Balogh

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The historic and current state of land in the Mojave Desert, including land managed by the National Park Service with fundamental goals of natural resource conservation and preservation, been severely degraded by a variety of anthropogenic disturbances. Due to increasingly sporadic and unpredictable precipitation patterns, land managers struggle to implement restoration projects with high success rates and are resource-limited for post-treatment monitoring. In this study, I examined success rates of biotic (outplanting, seeding) and abiotic (soil manipulation, vertical mulch) restoration treatments on various disturbance types in the creosote-bursage (Larrea tridentata-Ambrosia dumosa), blackbrush (Coleogyne ramosissima), and Joshua tree woodland (Yucca brevifolia) …


Trade-Offs Between Survival And Reproduction In Starvation-Selected Drosophila Melanogaster, Tammara Beeghly Dec 2019

Trade-Offs Between Survival And Reproduction In Starvation-Selected Drosophila Melanogaster, Tammara Beeghly

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Evolutionary outcomes are demonstrated by traits that affect an organism’s schedule of reproduction and survival. These life history traits are reflected in an organism’s physiology, development and behavior. Environmental changes, such as availability of nutritional resources, can profoundly affect evolutionary outcomes of individuals and populations. When shortages arise, there will be trade-offs in the allocation of resources, where one trait prevails at the expense of another.

In the laboratory, we can mimic conditions in nature and study the specific effects of the conditions that we re-create. In our case, over 100 generations of Drosophila melanogaster have been selected for starvation …


Landscape Scale: Inter- And Intraspecific Variation In Plant Interactions Along A Stress Gradient In The Sheep Range Of Nevada, Jordan Dowell Dec 2019

Landscape Scale: Inter- And Intraspecific Variation In Plant Interactions Along A Stress Gradient In The Sheep Range Of Nevada, Jordan Dowell

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Impending threats to shrubland ecosystems, posed by climate change, necessitate niche modeling efforts to project vegetation range shifts. However, efforts often remain unguided by individual-scale interspecific plant interactions. The stress gradient hypothesis posits that facilitation should increase in areas of high abiotic stress, only if the individuals are able to ameliorate the surrounding area via functional traits. The Sheep Range of Nevada was used to assess the role of functional traits as predictors of plant association. Larrea tridentata, Coleogyne ramosissima, and Artemisia nova were selected as shrubs with variable life history strategies and ranges in order to identify general patterns …


Mojave Desert Plant Community Long-Term Response To Disturbance, Dominic M. Gentilcore Dec 2019

Mojave Desert Plant Community Long-Term Response To Disturbance, Dominic M. Gentilcore

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

All vegetation communities have been shaped by disturbances. This dissertation consists of three separate chapters: Blackbrush (Coleogyne ramosissima) natural regeneration in the Great Basin-Mojave Desert Transition Zone on two fires, Long-term Response to Fire in Eastern Mojave Desert semi-arid shrubland communities, and an Annotated Checklist of Gold Butte National Monument in the Mojave-Colorado Plateau Transition Zone. The section on blackbrush natural regeneration was a long-term dataset from two fires in Basin and Range National Monument that burned in 2008 with monitoring events in 2009, 2010, 2011, 2018 and 2019. The monitoring documented some of the strongest post-fire regeneration for the …


Pre-Juvenile Naked Goby (Gobiosoma Bosc) Age And Growth, Annamaria Deitz, Juliana Harding Dec 2019

Pre-Juvenile Naked Goby (Gobiosoma Bosc) Age And Growth, Annamaria Deitz, Juliana Harding

Honors Theses

Due to the abundance of larval naked gobies, Gobiosoma bosc, within the estuarine ichthyoplankton, it is important to understand their age and growth. Naked gobies are a largely distributed, both geographically and within an estuary, small, benthic fish species. There are 3 pairs of otoliths, calcium carbonate structures within the ear canal, that detect vibrations and record the age of the fish, both daily and annually. Using laboratory-reared gobies of a known age (Tremont et al. 2015), daily signatures on the sagittal otoliths were first validated to be daily, then a growth curve for the wild caught larvae was …


Not All Fuel-Reduction Treatments Degrade Biocrusts: Herbicides Cause Mostly Neutral To Positive Effects On Cover Of Biocrusts, Lea A. Condon, Margaret L. Gray Dec 2019

Not All Fuel-Reduction Treatments Degrade Biocrusts: Herbicides Cause Mostly Neutral To Positive Effects On Cover Of Biocrusts, Lea A. Condon, Margaret L. Gray

Ecology Center Publications

In response to increasing fire, fuel‐reduction treatments are being used to minimize large fire risk. Although biocrusts are associated with reduced cover of fire‐promoting, invasive grasses, the impact of fuel‐reduction treatments on biocrusts is poorly understood. We use data from a long‐term experiment, the Sagebrush Steppe Treatment Evaluation Project, testing the following fuel‐reduction treatments: mowing, prescribed fire, and the use of two herbicides: one commonly used to reduce shrub cover, tebuthiuron, and one commonly used to combat cheatgrass, imazapic. Looking at sites with high cover of biocrusts prior to treatments, we demonstrate positive effects of the herbicide, tebuthiuron on lichens …


California Stream Condition Index (Csci) Score Analysis Of Streams Sampled From 1998 To 2017 In The San Francisco Bay Region, Jenna Rais Dec 2019

California Stream Condition Index (Csci) Score Analysis Of Streams Sampled From 1998 To 2017 In The San Francisco Bay Region, Jenna Rais

Master's Projects and Capstones

Human impacts to California’s streams have altered the state’s riparian and hydrological landscape. This is a critical issue with regard to natural resources, including ecosystem services such as water availability and water quality. Regulations have a limited amount of impact on the improvement of this landscape and can also become complicated by politics. Scientific advances have developed ways to quantify and describe the quality of streams, this includes the development of the California Stream Condition Index (CSCI) which is based on benthic macroinvertebrate (BMI) population numbers and functions. This index allows scientists to not only score the quality of a …


The Best Management Practices For Addressing Human-Caused Riparian And Wetland Degradation, Aldo Lopez Dec 2019

The Best Management Practices For Addressing Human-Caused Riparian And Wetland Degradation, Aldo Lopez

Master's Projects and Capstones

Riparian and wetland ecosystems accomplish a variety of significant ecological purposes, especially in the State of California where a majority of these ecosystems have been removed, degraded, or altered due to human interferences. A large portion of this interference comes from a strong agricultural presence throughout the state. In order to combat further ecological loss, private and public entities have begun strong restorative and managerial efforts. This project reviews the effects of agriculture in riparian and wetland areas, and what are the best management practices focusing on the Santa Clara River Watershed and the Elkhorn Slough found in Monterey Bay. …


Detecting Tree Mortality With Landsat-Derived Spectral Indices: Improving Ecological Accuracy By Examining Uncertainty, Tucker J. Furniss, Van R. Kane, Andrew J. Larson, James A. Lutz Dec 2019

Detecting Tree Mortality With Landsat-Derived Spectral Indices: Improving Ecological Accuracy By Examining Uncertainty, Tucker J. Furniss, Van R. Kane, Andrew J. Larson, James A. Lutz

Ecology Center Publications

Satellite-derived fire severity metrics are a foundational tool used to estimate fire effects at the landscape scale. Changes in surface characteristics permit reasonably accurate delineation between burned and unburned areas, but variability in severity within burned areas is much more challenging to detect. Previous studies have relied primarily on categorical data to calibrate severity indices in terms of classification accuracy, but this approach does not readily translate into an expected amount of error in terms of actual tree mortality. We addressed this issue by examining a dataset of 40,370 geolocated trees that burned in the 2013 California Rim Fire using …


Preserving Evolutionary History With Improved Confidence, K. Bodie Weedop, A. Ø. Mooers, C. M. Tucker, William D. Pearse Dec 2019

Preserving Evolutionary History With Improved Confidence, K. Bodie Weedop, A. Ø. Mooers, C. M. Tucker, William D. Pearse

Ecology Center Publications

We thank Faith (2019) and Mindell (2019) for their insightful perspectives on our study of the impact of phylogenetic imputation on the assessment of evolutionary distinctiveness (ED; Isaac et al., 2007). As Mindell highlights, the finding that ED scores for species on a phylogeny are remarkably robust despite having species missing from that phylogeny is encouraging; our results suggest that we can be confident in moving forward with prioritization of the species for which we have data. This is important because in some cases, for example, it may take considerable time to obtain samples …


Future Climate Change Will Have A Positive Effect On Populus Davidiana In China, Jie Li, Guan Liu, Qi Lu, Yanru Zhang, Guoqing Li, Sheng Du Dec 2019

Future Climate Change Will Have A Positive Effect On Populus Davidiana In China, Jie Li, Guan Liu, Qi Lu, Yanru Zhang, Guoqing Li, Sheng Du

Aspen Bibliography

Since climate change significantly affects global biodiversity, a reasonable assessment of the vulnerability of species in response to climate change is crucial for conservation. Most existing methods estimate the impact of climate change on the vulnerability of species by projecting the change of a species’ distribution range. This single-component evaluation ignores the impact of other components on vulnerability. In this study, Populus davidiana (David’s aspen), a tree species widely used in afforestation projects, was selected as the research subject under four future climate change scenarios (representative concentration pathway (RCP)2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0, and RCP8.5). Exposure components of range change as well …


Revision Of The Genus Reddyanus From Southeast Asia, With Description Of Five New Species From Cambodia, Malaysia, Thailand And Vietnam (Scorpiones: Buthidae), František Kovařík, František Šťáhlavský Dec 2019

Revision Of The Genus Reddyanus From Southeast Asia, With Description Of Five New Species From Cambodia, Malaysia, Thailand And Vietnam (Scorpiones: Buthidae), František Kovařík, František Šťáhlavský

Euscorpius

Five new species are described: Reddyanus furai sp. n. from Vietnam, R. hofereki sp. n. and R. majkusi sp. n. from Malaysia, R. rolciki sp. n. from Vietnam and Cambodia, and R. schwotti sp. n. from Thailand and Cambodia, fully complemented with color photographs of live and preserved specimens, as well as their habitats. New species are compared with all other species from this region. In addition to the analysis of external morphology, we also describe the karyotypes of R. furai sp. n. (2n=14), R. majkusi sp. n. (2n=16), R. rolciki sp. n. (2n=14), and R. schwotti (2n=11). …


Past Management Spurs Differential Plant Communities Within A Giant Single-Clone Aspen Forest, Paul C. Rogers, Jan ŠEbesta Dec 2019

Past Management Spurs Differential Plant Communities Within A Giant Single-Clone Aspen Forest, Paul C. Rogers, Jan ŠEbesta

Ecology Center Publications

Sustainable aspen ecosystems hold great promise for global biodiversity conservation. These forests harbor relatively high species diversity, yet are threatened by fire suppression, land development, timber-focused management, extended droughts, and chronic herbivory. “Pando” is a high-profile quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) forest in Utah, USA which is putatively the ‘largest living organism on earth.’ Pando comprises an estimated 47,000 genetically identical stems, but is threatened by human impacts. Our interest in the present study is whether changes to the giant organism were affecting understorey vegetation and whether discrete zones are displaying divergent community compositions. For instance, recent research has demonstrated strong …


A Male-Female Genotype-By-Genotype Interaction Mediates The Effect Of Mating On Female Immunity In Decorated Crickets, Kylie J. Hampton Dec 2019

A Male-Female Genotype-By-Genotype Interaction Mediates The Effect Of Mating On Female Immunity In Decorated Crickets, Kylie J. Hampton

Theses and Dissertations

Sexually antagonistic coevolution should lead to the rapid divergence of male and female genotypes related to the effects of ejaculatory substances on female physiology. Hence, the outcome of mating should depend on an interaction between male and female genotypes. Although mating has been shown to influence female immune responses in diverse insect taxa, a male-female genotype-by-genotype effect on female immunity post-mating remains largely unexplored. Here, we investigate both the effects of mating on female immunity and the potential for a male-by-female genotype interaction on the form and magnitude of this response in decorated crickets. Females from three distinct genotypic backgrounds …


Fish Passage And Hydropower: Investigating Resource Agency Decision-Making During The Ferc Hydropower Relicensing Process, Sarah Vogel Dec 2019

Fish Passage And Hydropower: Investigating Resource Agency Decision-Making During The Ferc Hydropower Relicensing Process, Sarah Vogel

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Hydropower dams represent a significant challenge for the successful migration of sea-run fish, many species of which are in decline. Most hydropower dams in the United States are regulated by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), an independent federal agency responsible for granting 30 to 50-year licenses to projects for their continued operation. Licenses typically include conditions for the conservation of sea-run fish such as fish passage construction, operational changes, monitoring of effectiveness, and other mitigative conditions. While FERC remains the primary authority in licensing, the current regulatory framework stipulates input from other federal and state resource and regulatory agencies, …


Watching Grass Grow: How Soil Moisture Affects Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizae And Growth In Little Bluestem, Laura M. Jones Dec 2019

Watching Grass Grow: How Soil Moisture Affects Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizae And Growth In Little Bluestem, Laura M. Jones

Honors Scholar Theses

Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) are an ancient mutualism in which soil-dwelling fungi enhance plant absorption of phosphorus and nitrogen in exchange for photosynthates. VAM are sensitive to changes in soil moisture and nutrient content, fluctuating between mutualism and parasitism depending on conditions of drought stress and nutrient deficiency. Understanding how VAM respond to precipitation changes is crucial for both conservation and agricultural purposes. To test how soil moisture changes the effects of VAM colonization and growth in little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium), a common prairie grass, I planted 300 seeds in a greenhouse in sterilized soil and soil inoculated with …


Reconstructing Energy Flow Through Modern And Historical Marine Communities: Insights From Amino Acid Isotope Analysis, Emma A. Elliott Smith Dec 2019

Reconstructing Energy Flow Through Modern And Historical Marine Communities: Insights From Amino Acid Isotope Analysis, Emma A. Elliott Smith

Biology ETDs

The fundamental currency of life is energy. Organisms need energy to grow, to survive and to reproduce. Understanding the acquisition of energy by consumers is thus a foundational aspect of biological research. This is especially important in the modern era, as impacts of ongoing anthropogenic effects will be mediated or amplified through food webs. Here, I explore how isotopic analysis of individual amino acids – a technique new to ecological studies – can be used to trace energy flow through animal communities in modern and ancient time periods. In particular, I focus on kelp forest food webs, which are nearshore …


Local‐Regional Similarity In Drylands Increases During Multiyear Wet And Dry Periods And In Response To Extreme Events, Matthew D. Petrie, D. P.C. Peters, N. D. Bruss, W. Ji, H. M. Savoy Dec 2019

Local‐Regional Similarity In Drylands Increases During Multiyear Wet And Dry Periods And In Response To Extreme Events, Matthew D. Petrie, D. P.C. Peters, N. D. Bruss, W. Ji, H. M. Savoy

Life Sciences Faculty Research

Climate change is predicted to impact ecosystems through altered precipitation (PPT) regimes. In the Chihuahuan Desert, multiyear wet and dry periods and extreme PPT pulses are the most influential climatic events for vegetation. Vegetation responses are most frequently studied locally, and regional responses are often unclear. We present an approach to quantify correlation of PPT and vegetation responses (as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index [NDVI]) at the Jornada ARS‐LTER site (JRN; 550 km2 area) and the surrounding dryland region (from 0 to 500 km distance; 400,000 km2 study area) as a way to understand regional similarity to locally observed patterns. We …


Invasive Phragmites Australis Management Outcomes And Native Plant Recovery Are Context Dependent, Christine B. Rohal, Chad R. Cranney, Eric L. G. Hazelton, Karin M. Kettenring Dec 2019

Invasive Phragmites Australis Management Outcomes And Native Plant Recovery Are Context Dependent, Christine B. Rohal, Chad R. Cranney, Eric L. G. Hazelton, Karin M. Kettenring

Ecology Center Publications

The outcomes of invasive plant removal efforts are influenced by management decisions, but are also contingent on the uncontrolled spatial and temporal context of management areas. Phragmites australis is an aggressive invader that is intensively managed in wetlands across North America. Treatment options have been understudied, and the ecological contingencies of management outcomes are poorly understood. We implemented a 5‐year, multi‐site experiment to evaluate six Phragmites management treatments that varied timing (summer or fall) and types of herbicide (glyphosate or imazapyr) along with mowing, plus a nonherbicide solarization treatment. We evaluated treatments for their influence on Phragmites and native plant …