Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

2023

Institution
Keyword
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 875

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Reducing Food Scarcity: The Benefits Of Urban Farming, S.A. Claudell, Emilio Mejia Dec 2023

Reducing Food Scarcity: The Benefits Of Urban Farming, S.A. Claudell, Emilio Mejia

Journal of Nonprofit Innovation

Urban farming can enhance the lives of communities and help reduce food scarcity. This paper presents a conceptual prototype of an efficient urban farming community that can be scaled for a single apartment building or an entire community across all global geoeconomics regions, including densely populated cities and rural, developing towns and communities. When deployed in coordination with smart crop choices, local farm support, and efficient transportation then the result isn’t just sustainability, but also increasing fresh produce accessibility, optimizing nutritional value, eliminating the use of ‘forever chemicals’, reducing transportation costs, and fostering global environmental benefits.

Imagine Doris, who is …


A Revision Of Dyscolotaxia Horn, 1890 (Coleoptera: Eucnemidae: Macraulacinae: Macraulacini), With The Description Of Amazotaxia New Genus From South America, Robert L. Otto Dec 2023

A Revision Of Dyscolotaxia Horn, 1890 (Coleoptera: Eucnemidae: Macraulacinae: Macraulacini), With The Description Of Amazotaxia New Genus From South America, Robert L. Otto

Insecta Mundi

Abstract

The Neotropical eucnemid genus, Dyscolotaxia Horn, is revised following the examination of specimens from five collections, examination of the published original description of Plesiofornax tetratoma Chassain, and from images provided by Fernanda Salazar-Buenaño (QCAZI). Dyscolotaxia championi Horn is redescribed with included descriptions of the male genitalia and a female specimen. Three new species of false click beetles (Coleoptera: Eucnemidae) are described from the Neotropical region. These new species are: Dyscolotaxia chiriquiensis (Panama), Dyscolotaxia hispaniolensis (Dominican Republic), and Dyscolotaxia picea (Ecuador). Amazotaxia new genus is described from South America for Plesiofornax tetratoma Chassain, creating Amazotaxia tetratoma (Chassain) new combination. Morphology …


Melittological Notes From Guatemala (Hymenoptera: Anthophila), 1. New Country Records For Centris Fabricius (Apidae) And Zikanapis Moure (Colletidae), Silas Bossert, José Monzón-Sierra, Richard S. Zack, Ana Cristina García, Elizabeth A. Murray Dec 2023

Melittological Notes From Guatemala (Hymenoptera: Anthophila), 1. New Country Records For Centris Fabricius (Apidae) And Zikanapis Moure (Colletidae), Silas Bossert, José Monzón-Sierra, Richard S. Zack, Ana Cristina García, Elizabeth A. Murray

Insecta Mundi

Abstract

Three species of bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Colletidae) are newly recorded for Guatemala: Centris obscurior Michener, Centris vidua Mocsáry, and Zikanapis inbio (Michener, Engel and Ayala). We discuss aspects of their biology and circumstances of the collecting events and provide information on their presently known distribution.

Resumen

Se registran por primera vez tres especies de abejas (HymenopteraN: Apidae, Colletidae) para Guatemala: Centris obscurior Michener, Centris vidua Mocsáry, y Zikanapis inbio (Michener, Engel y Ayala). Discutimos aspectos de su biología, circunstancias bajo las cuáles fueron colectadas y se provee información en la distribución conocida actualmente.


Description Of Sivalhippus (Equidae: Perissodactyla) From The Late Miocene Siwalik Sub-Group Of Pakistan, Muhammad Tahir Waseem, Ayesha Iqbal, Sania Zubaid, Abdul Majid Khan, Muhammad Ammar Dec 2023

Description Of Sivalhippus (Equidae: Perissodactyla) From The Late Miocene Siwalik Sub-Group Of Pakistan, Muhammad Tahir Waseem, Ayesha Iqbal, Sania Zubaid, Abdul Majid Khan, Muhammad Ammar

Journal of Bioresource Management

New fossil mandible as well as isolated upper and lower dentitions of the late Miocene Hipparionine species, have been discovered from a locality of Chakwal, Punjab, Pakistan. By using morphometric and morphologic analysis, we have deduced that these specimens belong to Sivalhippus theobaldi. The body size of this species was intermediate between Sivalhippus perimensis and Hipparion antilopinum while its hypsodonty indicates that this species was a grazer to a larger extent which existed in mosaic of woodland and grassland in the Latest Miocene. However, the comparison with the recent horse (Equus caballus) mandible indicates some differences in …


Adaptation Reshapes The Distribution Of Fitness Effects, Diego Tenoch Morales Lopez Dec 2023

Adaptation Reshapes The Distribution Of Fitness Effects, Diego Tenoch Morales Lopez

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The process of adaptation has been of interest since the XIX century, when Darwin first proposed the idea of natural selection. Since then, there has been a myriad of theoretical and empirical works that have expanded the field. From the many evolutionary insights these works have produced, a foundational idea is that spontaneous mutations in the genome of organisms can produce changes to their reproductive success that might confer an advantage for the mutant organisms with respect to their peers. Therefore, mutations drive adaptive evolution by virtue of their heritable effects on fitness. Empirical measures of the distribution of these …


Protocol For An Agent-Based Model Of Recombination In Bacteria Playing A Public Goods Game, Isaiah Paolo A. Lee, Omar T. Eldakar, J. Peter Gogarten, Cheryl P. Andam Dec 2023

Protocol For An Agent-Based Model Of Recombination In Bacteria Playing A Public Goods Game, Isaiah Paolo A. Lee, Omar T. Eldakar, J. Peter Gogarten, Cheryl P. Andam

Biology Faculty Articles

Agent-based models are composed of individual agents coded for traits, such as cooperation and cheating, that interact in a virtual world based on defined rules. Here, we describe the use of an agent-based model of homologous recombination in bacteria playing a public goods game. We describe steps for software installation, setting model parameters, running and testing models, and visualization and statistical analysis. This protocol is useful in analyses of horizontal gene transfer, bacterial sociobiology, and game theory.

For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Lee et al.1


Interactive Effects Of Sublethal Concentrations Of Fracking Biocides And Abandoned Mine Drainage On Amphipod Behavior, Kelly Lenhart Dec 2023

Interactive Effects Of Sublethal Concentrations Of Fracking Biocides And Abandoned Mine Drainage On Amphipod Behavior, Kelly Lenhart

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis examined the sublethal effects of three pollutants, namely glutaraldehyde, 4,4-dimethyloxazolidine (DMO), and abandoned mine drainage (AMD), on amphipods. The primary objective was to investigate their combined effects on amphipods. The three pollutants, despite having the potential to combine in the environment, have not been studied to determine their potential for detrimental interactive effects which could result in unexpected environmental damage.

The research employed a series of experimental setups involving controlled exposure of amphipods to varying, putatively sublethal, concentrations of the chemicals of interest. Subsequently, effects were assessed via both behavioral and feeding assessments. To facilitate this analysis, novel …


Mitochondrial Metabolism In Blood More Reliably Predicts Whole-Animal Energy Needs Compared To Other Tissues, Stefania Casagrande, Maciej Dzialo, Lisa Trost, Kasja Malkoc, Edyta T. Sadowska, Michaela Hau, Barbara J. Pierce, Scott R. Mcwilliams, Ulf Bauchinger Dec 2023

Mitochondrial Metabolism In Blood More Reliably Predicts Whole-Animal Energy Needs Compared To Other Tissues, Stefania Casagrande, Maciej Dzialo, Lisa Trost, Kasja Malkoc, Edyta T. Sadowska, Michaela Hau, Barbara J. Pierce, Scott R. Mcwilliams, Ulf Bauchinger

Biology Faculty Publications

Understanding energy metabolism in free-ranging animals is crucial for ecological studies. In birds, red blood cells (RBCs) offer a minimally invasive method to estimate metabolic rate (MR). In this study with European starlings Sturnus vulgaris, we examined how RBC oxygen consumption relates to oxygen use in key tissues (brain, liver, heart, and pectoral muscle) and versus the whole-organism measured at basal levels. The pectoral muscle accounted for 34-42% of organismal MR, while the heart and liver, despite their high mass-specific metabolic rate, each contributed 2.5-3.0% to organismal MR. Despite its low contribution to organismal MR (0.03-0.04%), RBC MR best predicted …


Targeting Macrophytes: Increased Water Quality Through Optimized Vegetation Considerations For Constructed Wetlands, Austin Mcbrady Dec 2023

Targeting Macrophytes: Increased Water Quality Through Optimized Vegetation Considerations For Constructed Wetlands, Austin Mcbrady

Masters Theses

This study of constructed wetland design investigated relationships between macrophyte species selection and planting density for water quality improvement. A lab-scale wetland was compared against a pilot-scale wetland in San Antonio, Texas at Mitchell Lake to measure differences in effluent water quality improvement using three native macrophyte species. Using a novel, two-phase method, a targeting macrophyte was identified from among other species based on its marked capability for improving water quality factors, then was planted in varied majority densities to compare differences in treatment effectiveness. The results of this study showed that this complimentary approach to wetland design displayed significant …


Regeneration Response To Salvage Logging Following Tornado Disturbance, Colby K. Bosley-Smith Dec 2023

Regeneration Response To Salvage Logging Following Tornado Disturbance, Colby K. Bosley-Smith

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In an era of increasing natural disturbances, successful tree regeneration has grown more difficult to achieve. Salvage logging, a common management response to disturbance, may further impede regeneration success, although published literature currently remains inconclusive. In 2013, a rare tornado in northcentral Maine, USA, and subsequent salvage operation created three clear ‘treatments’ for evaluation of post-disturbance regeneration: blowdown, blowdown followed by salvage logging and an undisturbed control. In the summers of 2022 and 2023, (nine and ten) years post-tornado, we revisited this site to examine regeneration outcomes.

During the summer of 2022, we evaluated stand structure and regeneration success of …


Habitat And Demography Of The Ozark Chinquapin (Castanea Ozarkensis) At Roaring River State Park In Barry County, Missouri, Danielle Evilsizor Dec 2023

Habitat And Demography Of The Ozark Chinquapin (Castanea Ozarkensis) At Roaring River State Park In Barry County, Missouri, Danielle Evilsizor

Electronic Theses & Dissertations

The Ozark chinquapin, Castanea ozarkensis Ashe, is a chestnut tree with a range concentrated in the Interior Highlands of North America. Like other North American members of Castanea, it was reduced from an overstory tree to an understory shrub by the invasive chestnut blight fungus (Cryphonectria parasitica [Murrill] M.E. Barr) during the early 20th century. However, relatively little is known about the habitat of this species or its health and reproductive capability post chestnut blight. Chapter one of this study analyzed the habitat of this species through a random forest species distribution model (SDM) to predict where …


Assessing The Role Of The Microbiome, Parasite Infections, And Movement In Avian Health, Olivia N. Choi Dec 2023

Assessing The Role Of The Microbiome, Parasite Infections, And Movement In Avian Health, Olivia N. Choi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Avian health encompasses the physical, physiological, and behavioral well-being of birds. Assessing avian health is not only important for the conservation and management of wild birds and the recreational economy, but also for the management of infectious diseases that threaten public health and agriculture. Birds, comprising approximately 10,000 species and an estimated 50 billion individuals worldwide, are known to be involved in the spread of pathogens, some of which are zoonotic (from animals to humans), such as avian influenza and West Nile viruses. Individual measures of avian health may include physical measurements (e.g., body mass, wing length), pathogen infection status, …


Population Trends And Trophic Ecology Of The Invasive Peacock Eel (Macrognathus Siamensis) In The Florida Everglades, Grace Kahmann Dec 2023

Population Trends And Trophic Ecology Of The Invasive Peacock Eel (Macrognathus Siamensis) In The Florida Everglades, Grace Kahmann

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Invasive species threaten the ecological integrity of ecosystems worldwide, including the Florida Coastal Everglades. This study investigated the ecological role of the peacock eel (Macrognathus siamensis) within this ecosystem, emphasizing its population trends and the environmental factors that affect its population performance, and the potential for interactions with native fish assemblages and coastal food webs. I used 19 years of electrofishing data to investigate the population trends of peacock eels at the marsh-mangrove ecotone of the Shark River Estuary, Everglades National Park (Florida, USA). I found that peacock eel populations have increased since their first detection in 2002, and their …


Investigating The Soil Mycobiome Of American Ginseng, Rachel Amelia Rajsp Dec 2023

Investigating The Soil Mycobiome Of American Ginseng, Rachel Amelia Rajsp

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) is a perennial herbaceous plant cultivated for its medicinal properties. Growers report that when ginseng is replanted in a field previously used to cultivate ginseng, it soon succumbs to disease, known as ginseng replant disease. I examined changes in composition in the ginseng mycobiome throughout cultivation in a newly planted garden and beyond (i.e., 3–14 years post-harvest) with a third-generation metabarcoding approach (Pacific Biosciences, single-molecule real-time sequencing). Amplicons of about 600 nucleotides from the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and translation elongation factor 1-α gene were chosen to help discriminate between closely …


Freezing Tolerance Of Herbaceous Legumes Within Southwestern Ontario: Evidence Of Disproportionate Freezing Sensitivity, Samuel L. Rycroft Dec 2023

Freezing Tolerance Of Herbaceous Legumes Within Southwestern Ontario: Evidence Of Disproportionate Freezing Sensitivity, Samuel L. Rycroft

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Legumes (Fabaceae) represent a diverse and ecologically significant plant taxon; most described legumes form mutualisms with diazotrophic rhizobia, potentially fixing substantial quantities of nitrogen within habitats where they are well-established. Stressors causing lethal or sub-lethal impacts in legumes or rhizobial symbionts may therefore impact the nitrogen dynamics of such habitats. In recent decades, variability of winter temperatures, precipitation, and soil freeze-thaw cycling has increased in temperate regions. Without adequate snow cover to insulate roots and shoot bases, herbaceous plants will likely be exposed to more frequent or severe freezing. In southwestern Ontario, a pattern of disproportionate freezing sensitivity relative to …


Genomic Analysis Reveals New Species And Subspecies Of Butterflies, Jing Zhang, Qian Cong, Jinhui Shen, Leina Song, Nick V. Grishin Dec 2023

Genomic Analysis Reveals New Species And Subspecies Of Butterflies, Jing Zhang, Qian Cong, Jinhui Shen, Leina Song, Nick V. Grishin

The Taxonomic Report of the International Lepidoptera Survey

Large-scale genomic sequencing of butterfly taxa reveals new findings that are presented here. While we focus on detecting species by comparative genomics and define subspecies as groups of populations genetically differentiated from each other but not as strongly as species (that is, subspecies as species in the making), we report other adjustments to butterfly classification. As a result, 4 subgenera, 11 species, and 6 subspecies are proposed as new. New subgenera are: Rapis Grishin, subgen. n. (type species Papilio rapae Linnaeus, 1758, genus Pieris Schrank, 1801) in Pieridae Swainson, 1820 and Callitera Grishin, subgen. n. (type species Eurygona? pulcherrima …


Volatiles And Interspecific Competition, Stephen T. Trumbo Dec 2023

Volatiles And Interspecific Competition, Stephen T. Trumbo

EEB Articles

No abstract provided.


On Some Teratological Scorpions In The Natural History Museum, London And Checklist Of The Scorpiological Literature On Morphological Anomalies (Arachnida: Scorpiones), Danniella Sherwood, Luis F. De Armas Dec 2023

On Some Teratological Scorpions In The Natural History Museum, London And Checklist Of The Scorpiological Literature On Morphological Anomalies (Arachnida: Scorpiones), Danniella Sherwood, Luis F. De Armas

Euscorpius

Whilst undertaking curation in the collections of the Natural History Museum, London, the senior author came across a jar of scorpions marked ‘scorpions with curled feet’. Further investigation showed this jar was full of scorpions with teratological anatomy. We hereby document and illustrate all of the specimens and discuss their respective anomalies. Furthermore, a comprehensive checklist of the literature on anomalies in scorpions, including giving the life stage and sex where known, is compiled for the benefit of future workers.


Reassessment Of Amblyscirtes Hegon (Hesperiidae) As A Complex Of Four Distinct Species Revealed By Genomic Analysis, Harry Pavulaan, Ricky Patterson, Nick V. Grishin Dec 2023

Reassessment Of Amblyscirtes Hegon (Hesperiidae) As A Complex Of Four Distinct Species Revealed By Genomic Analysis, Harry Pavulaan, Ricky Patterson, Nick V. Grishin

The Taxonomic Report of the International Lepidoptera Survey

After the discovery of a unique phenotype in the southern United States with a different ventral ground color than nominotypical Amblyscirtes hegon (Scudder, 1863), which occurs in the northeastern United States, genomic analysis revealed that A. hegon is a species complex. Phenotypic, genitalic, and genomic differences of the complex are presented here. Four species are identified: A. hegon; A. nemoris (W. H. Edwards, 1864), stat. rest.; A. matheri Patterson, Pavulaan & Grishin, sp. n. (TL: USA, Mississippi, Warren County); and A. gelidus Grishin, Patterson & Pavulaan, sp. n. (TL: USA, Michigan, Van Buren County).


Addressing Water Hyacinth (Pontederia Crassipes) Impacts On Aquatic Biota In Lake Okeechobee, Joseph Salerno Dec 2023

Addressing Water Hyacinth (Pontederia Crassipes) Impacts On Aquatic Biota In Lake Okeechobee, Joseph Salerno

All HCAS Student Capstones, Theses, and Dissertations

The incursion of water hyacinth, Pontederia crassipes in Lake Okeechobee has resulted in management systems to be implemented to reduce the coverage of the invasive macrophyte. Its residence in the Lake Okeechobee ecosystem and the effects it has on organisms in the lake, whether it be positive or harmful is unknown. This study attempted to assess the potential effects that water hyacinth has on aquatic biota in Lake Okeechobee. Biotic data were collected on open water, water hyacinth covered, and native vegetation covered habitats via hook-and-line fishing, electrofishing, baited minnow traps, and the sampling of plant roots over a thirteen-month …


Habitat Utilization Of Marsh And Adjacent Submerged Landscape By Fish And Macroinvertebrates In A Gulf Of Mexico Tidal Oligohaline Environment, Tia Offner Dec 2023

Habitat Utilization Of Marsh And Adjacent Submerged Landscape By Fish And Macroinvertebrates In A Gulf Of Mexico Tidal Oligohaline Environment, Tia Offner

Theses and Dissertations

Estuarine habitats are considered nursery habitats for fishes and invertebrates, but oligohaline environments are critically understudied. Using a seine net and fyke nets, we sampled Back Bay, Mississippi (USA), a low salinity estuary, once a month for a year to explore the temporal use of the marsh and adjacent submerged landscape by nekton species. We also looked at whether there is evidence of habitat preference in the most numerous nekton species. We used a novel habitat usage index (HUI) to compare seine and fyke net catches of our top 10 species, and evaluated catch size in relation to maturation size. …


Towards Understanding The Interactions Between Ospreys And Human-Made Structures In The Tennessee River Valley, Natasha Karina Murphy Dec 2023

Towards Understanding The Interactions Between Ospreys And Human-Made Structures In The Tennessee River Valley, Natasha Karina Murphy

Theses and Dissertations

Raptor nests on human-built structures represent a significant source of conflict as they can result in bird mortality, fires, structure damage, service distribution, or power outages when falling nest materials or animals connect with energized conductors. Power companies, such as the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), wish to mitigate these conflicts to avoid service disruptions. In this dissertation, I present my work towards understanding and mitigating the interactions between Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) and human-made structures. To achieve this, I explored multiple elements of conflict identification, monitoring, and basic ecology of the target species to better inform conflict mitigation. In Chapter I, …


Snail Races: An Inquiry-Based Approach To Learn Invasive Species Ecology, Emma Grindle, Heather E. Bergan-Roller, Ashton Johnson, Grace Lunaburg, Jennifer A.H. Koop Dec 2023

Snail Races: An Inquiry-Based Approach To Learn Invasive Species Ecology, Emma Grindle, Heather E. Bergan-Roller, Ashton Johnson, Grace Lunaburg, Jennifer A.H. Koop

Faculty Peer-Reviewed Publications

Inquiry-based lessons allow learning that is hands-on and student-driven, fostering engagement and retention of knowledge in any discipline. Here, we use this learning framework to engage students in exploring the effects of biotic and abiotic factors on animal dispersal as a means of connecting students to multiple ecological concepts. Instructors are provided with a guided lecture on key ecological concepts including the impacts of invasive species, dispersal mechanisms, and species interactions with the environment. Furthermore, the interactive lecture introduces students to the snail study system and explains the experimental process, which involves low-cost, readily available materials (e.g., kiddie pools). Students …


Psammocora Stellata Distribution At Devil's Crown, Floreana Island, Galápagos Islands, Ecuador, María José Guarderas Sevilla Dec 2023

Psammocora Stellata Distribution At Devil's Crown, Floreana Island, Galápagos Islands, Ecuador, María José Guarderas Sevilla

All HCAS Student Capstones, Theses, and Dissertations

In the Galápagos Archipelago, the free-living nodular coral Psammocora stellata is a common species that does not form reef structures. However, it is a key component of the ecosystem by increasing habitat complexity and, consequently, species diversity. This species experienced a drastic decline in Devil’s Crown channel, Floreana Island, where it disappeared after the 1982-83 El Niño-Southern Oscillation, presumably by displacement of unattached colonies by strong surface waves and currents. This assemblage has now recovered to pre-impact levels. A combination of underwater photoquadrats from 2007 and 2009 and recent (2023) orthomosaics were used to determine changes in coral densities and …


Impacts Of Environmental Stressors On Native South Dakota Amphibian Physiology And Survival, Danielle Jean Galvin Dec 2023

Impacts Of Environmental Stressors On Native South Dakota Amphibian Physiology And Survival, Danielle Jean Galvin

Dissertations and Theses

Amphibian populations around the world are declining, with some of the most likely drivers behind these declines including emerging infectious diseases and environmental contaminants. To address major gaps in the current literature, I sought to evaluate the effect of two major environmental stressors on various aspects of amphibian physiology: emerging infectious diseases and environmental contaminants. Emerging infectious diseases of amphibians include fungal, viral, and parasitic pathogens which have expanded in host range, either geographically or in competent host species. Environmental contaminants include chemicals which may be naturally occurring in the environment, or which may be introduced to the environment, often …


Developing Next-Generation Ecoinformatics Tools For Advancing Global Change Science, Ifeanyi H. Nwigboji Dec 2023

Developing Next-Generation Ecoinformatics Tools For Advancing Global Change Science, Ifeanyi H. Nwigboji

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Ecosystems are responding to a variety of human-induced, interlinked stressors that have emerged from changing climate, alteration to the global water cycle, sea-level rise, and land use and land cover change, among others. Quantifying these changes and their associated impacts on ecosystems requires a huge amount of long-term data. Due to advances in data collection techniques, such as remote sensing platforms, environmental sensors, synthesized datasets, and various software technologies, the volume and variety of long-term ecological data being collected has tremendously increased. Although there are several complex models and analyses that are increasingly parametrized with data from such sensors, there …


Lizard Communities In A Shifting Landscape: The Current State Of Insectivorous Lizard Communities In The Jornada Basin Between Grassland, Mesquite Dune, And Creosote Bush Habitats In A Semi-Arid Landscape Undergoing Shrubification, Julie Marie Schlichte Dec 2023

Lizard Communities In A Shifting Landscape: The Current State Of Insectivorous Lizard Communities In The Jornada Basin Between Grassland, Mesquite Dune, And Creosote Bush Habitats In A Semi-Arid Landscape Undergoing Shrubification, Julie Marie Schlichte

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Lizard communities in arid lands can act as model systems of how diversity and abundance are impacted in the face of ongoing climate variability and change, as they are sensitive to shifts in precipitation, temperature, and changing vegetation structure. The main research question we hope to answer is how the community composition of lizards varies between dominant vegetation types (Mesquite dunes, grasslands, and Creosote Bush flats). Nine sites (3 of each dominant vegetation type) with 16 pitfall traps each (n = 144) were surveyed from June 2016 -- June 2017. 12 lizard species were captured, consisting of 923 total captures …


Evolution Of Forest Bitis (Macrocerastes) In Africa: Phylogeography, Population Genetics, And Potential As A Model For Batesian Mimicry, Eugene Richard Vaughan Dec 2023

Evolution Of Forest Bitis (Macrocerastes) In Africa: Phylogeography, Population Genetics, And Potential As A Model For Batesian Mimicry, Eugene Richard Vaughan

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The major biogeographical patterns characterizing the diversification of widely distributed species in the African rainforest remain poorly understood because of the low number of well-sampled studies that are focused on this region. I examine the phylogeography and population genetics of two broadly sympatric sister lineages of large African forest vipers (genus Bitis, subgenus Macrocerastes), the rhinoceros viper (B. nasicornis) and the Gaboon vipers (B. gabonica and B. rhinoceros). Despite their close relationship, these two lineages have notably different patterns of divergence in time and space. A time-calibrated phylogeny with sequence data from five genes, and population structure and PCA analyses …


Activity Patterns Of Whiptail Lizards (Aspidoscelis) Found In The Northern Chihuahuan Desert, Guillermo Alvarez Dec 2023

Activity Patterns Of Whiptail Lizards (Aspidoscelis) Found In The Northern Chihuahuan Desert, Guillermo Alvarez

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Traditional lizard pitfall traps were modified to allow organisms to escape, while collecting valuable ecological data. Modified camera traps were capable of detecting the same species as traditional traps in a semi-arid environment, without posing the associated mortality risks. Pitfall-camera traps were used to sample the activity of the Side-blotched Lizard (Uta stansburiana) and the Southwestern Fence Lizard (Sceloporus cowlesi) in an urban wetland during four continuous years. Evaluations on activity pattern and the activity overlap between the two species revealed extensive overlap, with minor but significant seasonal shifts mediating coexistence. Traps were also effective at detecting other reptiles, invertebrates, …


Evaluation Of Evapotranspiration Estimates Using An Existing Hybrid Machine Learning Model In A Natural And A Managed Dryland Site, Katya Esquivel Herrera Dec 2023

Evaluation Of Evapotranspiration Estimates Using An Existing Hybrid Machine Learning Model In A Natural And A Managed Dryland Site, Katya Esquivel Herrera

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Evapotranspiration (ET) is a critical component of the hydrologic cycle, encompassing both evaporative water loss from surfaces and transpiration through plant stomata. The environmental factors influencing ET include water and energy availability, atmospheric capacity for water uptake, and various meteorological variables. ET serves as a unique climate variable linking water, energy, and carbon cycles. In agroecosystems, accurate ET quantification is vital for optimizing water use efficiency, irrigation management, and crop yield. Traditional methods for ET estimation involve direct measurements and indirect models, with both presenting limitations.

Recent years have witnessed the integration of remote sensing and machine learning (ML) algorithms …