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Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

2022

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Articles 1 - 30 of 1088

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Ecological Diagnosis And Diversity Structure Of The Forest Birds Community In Machroha Forest (Souk Ahras – Northeastern Algeria), Abdelhak Boucif, Mouslim Bara, Moussa Houhamdi Dec 2022

Ecological Diagnosis And Diversity Structure Of The Forest Birds Community In Machroha Forest (Souk Ahras – Northeastern Algeria), Abdelhak Boucif, Mouslim Bara, Moussa Houhamdi

Journal of Bioresource Management

Machroha forest is a large hot spot of biodiversity of northeastern region of Algeria. It is dominated by several species of oak tree that can contribute to the conservation of many animals such as birds. Our study was carried out from February 2019 to July 2021, in order to diagnosis the ecological status of forest birds and their dynamics. Our results reported that this forest was including 19.21% of the Algerian avifauna diversity. We recorded 78 species of birds classified in 32 families. The main species were sedentary with an insectivorous trophic categories and terrestrial guild. Three species observed in …


Nicotiana Glauca Graham (Solanaceae) Bioactivity And Toxic Effects On Mortality, Feeding Behavior And Pupation Choice Of Drosophila Melanogaster Larvae (Diptera: Drosophilidae), Abir Bouzar, Sarra Habbachi, Ibtissem Samai, Makarem Rahat, Nour El Imene Boublata, Saadane Fatma Zohra, Wafa Habbachi, Benhissen Saliha, Abdelkrim Tahraoui Dec 2022

Nicotiana Glauca Graham (Solanaceae) Bioactivity And Toxic Effects On Mortality, Feeding Behavior And Pupation Choice Of Drosophila Melanogaster Larvae (Diptera: Drosophilidae), Abir Bouzar, Sarra Habbachi, Ibtissem Samai, Makarem Rahat, Nour El Imene Boublata, Saadane Fatma Zohra, Wafa Habbachi, Benhissen Saliha, Abdelkrim Tahraoui

Journal of Bioresource Management

Nicotiana glauca is a medicinal plant used by traditional healers as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and anti-inflammatory medicines. The leaves of N. glauca are very rich in indolic alkaloids which give it a larvicidal power which allows us to use it as a bio-insecticide.In the present study we were perfomed in the direct (mortality) and indirect (food attractiveness and pupation) toxic effects of the aqueous extract of N. glauca on the mortality and feeding behavior of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. The treatment was administered to 2nd instar larvae (L2) and the mortality rate was monitored for 15 days. Similarly we …


A Comparison Of Seasonal Reproductive Pattern In Two Sympatric Darters Of The Simoperca Clade, Etheostoma Duryi And Etheostoma Simoterum, Tiffany Bell, Elizabeth Cantrell, Bruce Stallsmith Dec 2022

A Comparison Of Seasonal Reproductive Pattern In Two Sympatric Darters Of The Simoperca Clade, Etheostoma Duryi And Etheostoma Simoterum, Tiffany Bell, Elizabeth Cantrell, Bruce Stallsmith

Southeastern Fishes Council Proceedings

We present results from an examination of the seasonal reproductive patterns of two closely related sympatric darter species of the Simoperca clade, Etheostoma duryi and Etheostoma simoterum. Most members of the genus Etheostoma exhibit striking sexual dimorphism, making reproductive strategy a logical point of study. Monthly collections of specimens over a one-year period were performed at a single site on the Flint River near Huntsville, Alabama. Standard length and gross somatic mass were measured for all individuals. Sex ratio was examined for possible skew. Measures of reproductive effort were monthly means of gonadosomatic index of both sexes, total oocyte count, …


Isolation And Characterization Of Cellulose Degrading Microorganisms Generating Electricity Using Microbial Fuel Cell, Lama Fayad, Rania Amer, Ahmad Abd El Nabi, Ali Hammoud, Hoda Yusef Dec 2022

Isolation And Characterization Of Cellulose Degrading Microorganisms Generating Electricity Using Microbial Fuel Cell, Lama Fayad, Rania Amer, Ahmad Abd El Nabi, Ali Hammoud, Hoda Yusef

BAU Journal - Science and Technology

Global warming and the accumulation of organic waste constitute a serious environmental problem. Therefore, microbial fuel cells (MFC) are an eco-friendly device that have significant capability for the production of electricity using biodegradable waste as fuel. Microorganisms used as catalysts in the anode compartment, execute a principal function in operating MFCs. The present study was conducted to isolate and to screen potential bioelectricity generating microorganisms from dumpsite soil samples and also to construct a domestic dual-chambered microbial fuel cell (MFC). Streptomyces fimicarius was found to be the best isolate for the degradation of cellulose and the production of bioelectricity. The …


Effects Of Riverine Barriers On Avian Evolution In The Amazon Basin, Andre Eugene Moncrieff Dec 2022

Effects Of Riverine Barriers On Avian Evolution In The Amazon Basin, Andre Eugene Moncrieff

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

The high biodiversity found in the Amazon Basin has long captivated the attention of naturalists and evolutionary biologists seeking to explain its origins. Early observations by Alfred Wallace highlighted the role of rivers in delimiting the geographic ranges of many species; furthermore, where rivers narrow towards their headwaters, he noted that some species cross rivers freely. A major goal of this dissertation is to investigate how these and other observations about riverine barriers might inform our understanding of how speciation unfolds in Amazonia. My approach involved generating genomic data with dense geographic sampling for manakins in the genus Lepidothrix, …


Tree Biomass – A Fragile Carbon Storage In Old-Growth Birch And Aspen Stands In Hemiboreal Latvia, Laura Ķēniņa, Didzis Elferts, Ieva Jaunslaviete, Endijs Bāders, Guntars Šņepsts, Āris Jansons Dec 2022

Tree Biomass – A Fragile Carbon Storage In Old-Growth Birch And Aspen Stands In Hemiboreal Latvia, Laura Ķēniņa, Didzis Elferts, Ieva Jaunslaviete, Endijs Bāders, Guntars Šņepsts, Āris Jansons

Aspen Bibliography

Birch (Betula pendula Roth, Betula pubescens Ehrh.) and European aspen (Populus tremula L.) stands dominate the deciduous forests of Northern Europe. Due to increasing forest protections, more deciduous stands will reach the old-growth stage. Thus, data on the carbon storage potential in such areas are essential. We aimed to establish a benchmark for carbon stocks of the main carbon pools in old-growth deciduous hemiboreal stands. Carbon pools were calculated from measurements in forty old-growth (104–148 years-old) deciduous stands in forests on fertile mineral soil. The carbon stock in these stands is distributed across tree biomass (~ 60%), mineral soil (~ …


Methods For Drone Trajectory Analysis Of Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus), Jillian D. Bliss Dec 2022

Methods For Drone Trajectory Analysis Of Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus), Jillian D. Bliss

Theses and Dissertations

With the increase in the use of UAS (Unmanned Aerial Systems) for marine mammal research, there is a need for the development of methods of analysis to transform UAS high resolution video into quantitative data. This study sought to develop a preliminary method of analysis that would quantify and present a way to visualize the dynamics and relative spatial distribution and changes in distribution of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the waters of Turneffe Atoll, Belize. This approach employs a previously developed video tracking program ‘Keypoint Tracking’ that enables manual tracking of individual dolphins and the creation of …


Aspen Leaves As A "Chemical Landscape" For Fungal Endophyte Diversity - Can Nitrogen And Herbivory Shape The Community Composition In Controlled Conditions?, Johanna Witzell, Vicki Huizu Guo Decker, Marta Agostinelli, Carmen Romeralo Tapia, Michelle Cleary, Benedicte Riber Albrectsen Dec 2022

Aspen Leaves As A "Chemical Landscape" For Fungal Endophyte Diversity - Can Nitrogen And Herbivory Shape The Community Composition In Controlled Conditions?, Johanna Witzell, Vicki Huizu Guo Decker, Marta Agostinelli, Carmen Romeralo Tapia, Michelle Cleary, Benedicte Riber Albrectsen

Aspen Bibliography

The endophytic microbiome may influence the ecological performance of plants, including forest trees. Various abiotic and biotic factors may shape the endophyte communities directly but also indirectly, by modifying the quality of host plants as a substrate. We hypothesized that potentially antifungal or fungistatic condensed tannins (CTs) would determine the quality of aspen (Populus tremula) leaves as a substrate for endophytic fungi. By subjecting the plants to nitrogen fertilization (N) or herbivory (H; leaf beetles) we aimed to change the internal “chemical landscape”, especially the CT levels, in aspen leaves. We expected that this would lead to changes in the …


A Report Of Intraguild Predation By Orthochirus Sp. On Hottentotta Tamulus (Scorpiones: Buthidae) In Maharashtra, India, Mihir Joshi, Shubhankar Deshpande Dec 2022

A Report Of Intraguild Predation By Orthochirus Sp. On Hottentotta Tamulus (Scorpiones: Buthidae) In Maharashtra, India, Mihir Joshi, Shubhankar Deshpande

Euscorpius

We report an event of intraguild predation by Orthochirus sp. feeding on a juvenile individual of Hottentotta tamulus (Fabricius,1798) from Maharashtra, India. This is the first report of intraguild predation among Indian scorpions.


The Genus Barbaracurus In Saudi Arabia (Scorpiones: Buthidae), With Description Of A New Species, František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe, František Šťáhlavský, Pavel Just Dec 2022

The Genus Barbaracurus In Saudi Arabia (Scorpiones: Buthidae), With Description Of A New Species, František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe, František Šťáhlavský, Pavel Just

Euscorpius

The genus Barbaracurus (Scorpiones: Buthidae) is recorded for the first time from Saudi Arabia. B. yemenensis Kovařík et al., 2018 was found in the extreme southwest of the country, near its border with Yemen. The diagnosis of the species is emended based on the finding of adult males and a large adult female. The proximal margins of the pedipalp fingers of male B. yemenensis are strongly undulate, leaving a gap with the fingers closed. This character differentiates it from all other species of Barbaracurus in the Arabian Peninsula. A second species, B. kabateki sp. n. from Saudi Arabia is described …


Niche Modeling Of Eight Crayfish Species In Texas, Nathan Schubert Dec 2022

Niche Modeling Of Eight Crayfish Species In Texas, Nathan Schubert

Biology Theses

Freshwater species make up ~10% of all known species and occupy less than one percent of earth’s habitat, which is being degraded by human usage. Crayfish have a large impact on their aquatic or terrestrial environment and can serve as a health indicator of aquatic environments, as they generally require undegraded environments. In many habitats, crayfish make up more than half of the macroinvertebrate biomass, and play important ecological roles, as a food resource for both aquatic and terrestrial species, as predators of fish and invertebrates, and as bioprocessors of vegetation and detritus. The objective of this project was to …


A Tree-Ring Record Of Historical Fire Activity In A Piedmont Longleaf Pine (Pinus Palustris Mill.) Woodland In North Carolina, Usa, Monica T. Rother, Thomas W. Patterson, Paul A. Knapp, Tyler J. Mitchell, Nell Allen Dec 2022

A Tree-Ring Record Of Historical Fire Activity In A Piedmont Longleaf Pine (Pinus Palustris Mill.) Woodland In North Carolina, Usa, Monica T. Rother, Thomas W. Patterson, Paul A. Knapp, Tyler J. Mitchell, Nell Allen

Faculty Publications

CO2 capture from industrial point source waste streams represents an important need for achieving the global goal of carbon-neutrality. Compared with conventional liquid sorbents, solid sorbents can exhibit several distinct advantages, including enhanced lifetime and reduced energy consumption for sorbent regeneration. Considering that reducing CO2 emission is a great challenge, reaching approximately 37 billion metric tons just in 2021, ideal sorbent solutions should not only exhibit a high capture performance but also enable large scale manufacturing using low-cost precursors and simple processes. In this work, we demonstrate the use of a commodity polymer, polystyrene-block-polyisoprene-block-polystyrene …


Establishment Of The Invasive Cactus Moth, Cactoblastis Cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) In Pakistan: A Potential Threat To Cultivated, Ornamental And Wild Opuntia Spp. (Cactaceae), Muhammad Ather Rafi, Harry Pavulaan, Muhammad Islam, Muhammad Ashfaq, Haseeb Kamran, Walija Fayaz, Gul Naz Parveen, Riffat Sultana, Ahmad Zia, Waqar Ahmed, Qudrat Ullah, Muhammad Qasim, Falak Naz, Nazeer Ahmed, Muhammad Tariq Khan, Muhammad Saeed, Jalal Hayat Khan Dec 2022

Establishment Of The Invasive Cactus Moth, Cactoblastis Cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) In Pakistan: A Potential Threat To Cultivated, Ornamental And Wild Opuntia Spp. (Cactaceae), Muhammad Ather Rafi, Harry Pavulaan, Muhammad Islam, Muhammad Ashfaq, Haseeb Kamran, Walija Fayaz, Gul Naz Parveen, Riffat Sultana, Ahmad Zia, Waqar Ahmed, Qudrat Ullah, Muhammad Qasim, Falak Naz, Nazeer Ahmed, Muhammad Tariq Khan, Muhammad Saeed, Jalal Hayat Khan

The Taxonomic Report of the International Lepidoptera Survey

Subsequent to the significant accomplishment of biological control of Opuntia weeds in Australia, the larvae of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (native to parts of South America), were released in many countries for the biological control of native Opuntia species (Simmonds and Bennett, 1966). Inauspiciously, larvae were also released in the Caribbean, where the moth spread naturally and by the human support all over the region (García-Turudi et al., 1971). Its enhanced dissemination rate and the biological potential for invasiveness, suggests that the cactus moth is likely to become an invasive pest of Opuntia in the Southeast United States, Mexico, …


Phytoplankton Community Of Boalia Khal Tributary Of The Halda River, Chattogram, Bangladesh, Md. Shafiqul Islam, M.A. Azadi, Munira Nasiruddin Dec 2022

Phytoplankton Community Of Boalia Khal Tributary Of The Halda River, Chattogram, Bangladesh, Md. Shafiqul Islam, M.A. Azadi, Munira Nasiruddin

Journal of Bioresource Management

Boalia Khal is one of the important tributaries of the River Halda. The productivity of the Boalia Khal tributary of the Halda River mainly depends on the phytoplankton diversity. A study was conducted for two years period from January 2017 to December 2018 to identify the phytoplankton community of the Boalia Khal tributary. A total of 61 species of phytoplankton under 37 genera belonging to 8 classes were recorded. The dominant group of phytoplankton was 25 species of Diatoms (40.98 %) followed by 18 species of Green Algae (29.5 %), 9 species of Euglenophytes (14.75 %), 7 species of Blue …


Selection Strategy Of Small Mammalian Preys By The Common Genet Genetta Genetta Between Natural And Anthropized Environments In Edough Forest Massif (Northeastern Algeria), Fatma Belbel, Mehdi Boukheroufa, Camelia Hesni Benotmane, Rym Sakraoui, Lina Rania Ikram Henada, Feriel Sakraoui Dec 2022

Selection Strategy Of Small Mammalian Preys By The Common Genet Genetta Genetta Between Natural And Anthropized Environments In Edough Forest Massif (Northeastern Algeria), Fatma Belbel, Mehdi Boukheroufa, Camelia Hesni Benotmane, Rym Sakraoui, Lina Rania Ikram Henada, Feriel Sakraoui

Journal of Bioresource Management

We analyzed fluctuations in of small mammals’ biodiversity through the winter diet of the common genet Genetta genetta (Linnaeus, 1958), to deduce the predator - adopted strategy according to the habitat conditions in which it occurs, particularly in anthropogenic environments. The field sampling was conducted during the 2020 winter season, in two contrasting environments of the Edough mountain range: natural site (Ain Boukal), and anthropized site (Bouzizi landfill). The analysis of 30 collected excrements in each of the two sites, allowed us to identify different food categories including small mammals. The result shows that the common genet is an excellent …


Length-Weight Relationships Of The Bream Abramis Brama (Linnaeus, 1758) In Beni- Haroun Dam Of Mila City (North-East Of Algeria), Tolba Mounia, Hadjab Ramzi, Chikara Bouziani Mohamed, Berrouk Houda, Kaouachi Nouha Dec 2022

Length-Weight Relationships Of The Bream Abramis Brama (Linnaeus, 1758) In Beni- Haroun Dam Of Mila City (North-East Of Algeria), Tolba Mounia, Hadjab Ramzi, Chikara Bouziani Mohamed, Berrouk Houda, Kaouachi Nouha

Journal of Bioresource Management

The study of fish growth is a valuable tool in providing good understanding on the general biology and growth of fish populations, in addition to the comparison of the same fish species populations living in remote geographic areas. Thus, the present work was designed to study the age and growth of Abramis brama species newly introduced in Beni-Haroun dam (Mila department, Northeast Algeria). Here, the study was conducted on sampling of 141 individuals from July 2015 to October 2016. The age of fishes was determined according to scalimetric method, since the fish sex was determined by macroscopic method, showing that …


Nitrogen Transfer From Cover Crops To The Subsequent Grain Crop And The Influence Of Variability In Winter Conditions, Spencer Heuchan Dec 2022

Nitrogen Transfer From Cover Crops To The Subsequent Grain Crop And The Influence Of Variability In Winter Conditions, Spencer Heuchan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Cover crops, which are used to provide ground cover after the harvest of the grain crop, can potentially improve the sustainability of agroecosystems by reducing nutrient losses. However, few data are available to document the extent to which cover crops improve both the retention of soil nitrogen (N) and the transfer of this N to the grain crop. The efficiency of this N transfer may be further influenced by variation in winter soil temperature; for example, reduced snow cover can increase the frequency and intensity of soil freezing, which can affect the survival of cover crops and the timing of …


Eavesdropping On Animals: Can Bioacoustics Help Save Species?, Zoe Grueskin Dec 2022

Eavesdropping On Animals: Can Bioacoustics Help Save Species?, Zoe Grueskin

Capstones

Around the world, scientists are using sound to study the natural world in a growing field called bioacoustics. Researchers are eavesdropping on frogs and fish, elephants and earthworms, and many hope what they hear can inform and inspire conservation action around the world. From the field’s auspicious beginning with accidentally-recorded whales, to researchers today listening to locations as diverse as the Arctic seafloor and India’s Western Ghats mountain range, this capstone project explores the potential — and limitations — of conservation bioacoustics. Read the story, see photos and listen to audio pieces featuring three bioacousticians and their field recordings here: …


Understanding The Impacts Of Anthropogenic Effects An Habitat Variability Interactions On Maine's Rocky Intertidal Ecosystem, Laura Braun Dec 2022

Understanding The Impacts Of Anthropogenic Effects An Habitat Variability Interactions On Maine's Rocky Intertidal Ecosystem, Laura Braun

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The rocky intertidal ecosystem is an important ecological and cultural aspect of the picturesque Maine coast, playing a vital role in not only Maine’s coastal ecosystem, but also to Maine’s economy. It’s distinct community structure along the sharp elevational gradient and the presence of daily stressors (wave action, heat, and desiccation), make the rocky intertidal ecosystem an important model ecosystem to monitor for effects from anthropogenic impacts. In this thesis, I describe attempts to monitor and understand the impacts of two of these anthropogenic impacts on this system: climate change and industrial harvesting of Ascophyllum nodosum along Maine’s coast. For …


Quantitative Silviculture Of Northern Conifers, David G. Ray Dec 2022

Quantitative Silviculture Of Northern Conifers, David G. Ray

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Quantitative tools used to guide the management of important northern conifer species require updating and refinement to address changes in the contemporary resource and evolving objectives of ownership. This work builds on an extensive body of knowledge about stand density management and innovates some new approaches. In sum, the three chapters presented herein: 1) seek to strengthen and more fully articulate arguments for adopting relative density as a primary metric of stand density assessment, 2) quantify minimum stand densities to achieve full site occupancy and argue for more parity with treatment of maximum stand density, and 3) present an empirically …


Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Deadwood In Forests Of The Northeastern United States, Zoe Read Dec 2022

Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Deadwood In Forests Of The Northeastern United States, Zoe Read

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

As the climate changes, understanding the sources and sinks of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) is increasingly important. However, several components of the carbon cycle within forests remain poorly understood. For example, knowledge gaps exist in our understanding of CO2 emissions from coarse woody material (CWM; logs and stumps), including how emissions change over time, how they are influenced by environmental variables, and how they compare to soil and ecosystem-level CO2 emissions.

To fill these knowledge gaps, we examined CO2 emissions from CWM at three sites. We sampled 18 red spruce (Picea …


A Sky Island Perspective: New England Alpine Plant Distributions Across The Region, Andrea Tirrell Dec 2022

A Sky Island Perspective: New England Alpine Plant Distributions Across The Region, Andrea Tirrell

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Alpine ecosystems around the globe are at risk due to climate change, human disturbance, and habitat loss. New England alpine zones are small and fragmented, which could make them vulnerable to global change. However, the persistence of tundra relics throughout the Holocene suggests the persistence of these communities in microclimate refugia. Assessing the near-term vulnerability of alpine plant communities is challenged by a lack of standardized, repeat surveys and long-term monitoring data, which presents a challenge for the many agencies monitoring New England’s alpine zones. Island biogeography theory predicts that alpine species richness is a function of area, but this …


Description Of A New Species Of Aleuroparadoxus Quaintance And Baker (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) From Guatemala, José Francisco García Ochaeta, Anil Kumar Dubey Dec 2022

Description Of A New Species Of Aleuroparadoxus Quaintance And Baker (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) From Guatemala, José Francisco García Ochaeta, Anil Kumar Dubey

Insecta Mundi

Puparia of a new whitefly, Aleuroparadoxus marisae García-Ochaeta and Dubey, new species (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), collected on leaves of Brosimum alicastrum Sw. in Santa Ana, Petén, Guatemala, and on Pimenta dioica (L). Merr. in Calzada Mopán, Dolores, Petén are described and illustrated. Drawings of morphological structures and differential diagnosis of the puparium are provided, and differences from congeners are discussed. A key to puparia of the Aleuroparadoxus Quaintance and Baker species is included.


Review Of The Physical And Chemical Properties Of Seagrass Soils, Nerea Piñeiro-Juncal, Oscar Serrano, Miguel Ángel Mateo, Elena Diaz-Almela, Carmen Leiva-Dueñas, Antonio Martinez-Cortizas Dec 2022

Review Of The Physical And Chemical Properties Of Seagrass Soils, Nerea Piñeiro-Juncal, Oscar Serrano, Miguel Ángel Mateo, Elena Diaz-Almela, Carmen Leiva-Dueñas, Antonio Martinez-Cortizas

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Seagrasses are a polyphyletic group of angiosperms that colonized marine environments more than 30 million years ago and currently inhabit coastal soft and rocky substrates in all continents except Antarctica. Due to their evolution from terrestrial plants, seagrasses have belowground organs that interact with the substrate, transforming it through chemo-physical processes analogous to terrestrial soil formation. Although seagrass substrates provide valuable ecosystem services including carbon and coastal stabilization, they have been largely regarded as sediments by marine scientists and neglected in soil science research. However, over the last decades, the increasing interest in carbon accumulation by seagrasses has generated multiple …


Cooperation And Conflict In The Social Amoeba Dictyostelium Discoideum And Its Paraburkholderia Endosymbionts, James Medina Dec 2022

Cooperation And Conflict In The Social Amoeba Dictyostelium Discoideum And Its Paraburkholderia Endosymbionts, James Medina

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A big question in biology is how organisms compete in an environment of competitors for scarce resources. Part of the answer lies in distinguishing friend from foe and in forging cooperative bonds in the face of cheaters. The social amoeba – bacteria system I have studied here is an excellent place to explore these tensions. The first part of my thesis research involves a review of cooperation and conflict in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum and a study of the limits on obligate social cheating in this species. The second part focuses on the benefits of associating with D. discoideum …


Inferring Adaptation In Social Microbes From Experimental Evolution Under Relaxed Selection, Tyler John Larsen Dec 2022

Inferring Adaptation In Social Microbes From Experimental Evolution Under Relaxed Selection, Tyler John Larsen

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Microbes exist against a backdrop of other organisms, and the interactions between microbes have major consequences on their traits, their evolution, and their impact on the world. Microbial interactions and the adaptations that enable them are extremely diverse – they can unlock abilities beyond the reach of individual cells or lead to a population’s destruction, they can be temporary or permanent, they can be between genetically identical cells or different species entirely. The first chapter of this dissertation reviews microbial interactions and the related concept of the evolution of conflict and cooperation.To be certain a trait is an adaptation at …


Roles Of Behavioral Novelty And Organismal Energetics In The Evolution Of Extreme Encephalization, Erika Laurie Schumacher Dec 2022

Roles Of Behavioral Novelty And Organismal Energetics In The Evolution Of Extreme Encephalization, Erika Laurie Schumacher

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Brains and their component brain regions vary widely in size and structure across vertebrates. However, extreme increases in total brain size relative to body size (extreme encephalization) and increases in specific major brain region sizes independent of other brain regions (mosaic brain evolution) are relatively rare. There are several hypotheses as to why, but the energetic cost of increased brain tissue and the regional interconnectedness in both brain development and function likely constrain how brains are able to change in response to selection. In this dissertation, I sought to address both how behavioral novelty relates to evolutionary changes in brain …


Using Stable Isotope Techniques To Complement Existing Northern Pintail Management., Dariusz Wojtaszek Dec 2022

Using Stable Isotope Techniques To Complement Existing Northern Pintail Management., Dariusz Wojtaszek

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The Northern Pintail (Anas acuta) is a waterfowl game species with North American population levels consistently below long-term management goals. Native habitat loss to agriculture likely reduced recruitment and limits population growth. My objective was to provide a proof-of-concept approach to using stable isotope ratios (δ2H, δ13C, δ15N) in feathers to infer spatial origins and habitat selection to complement existing pintail management. I found 46% of all sampled pintails had likely moult origins in the boreal biome, compared to 32% estimated by breeding population survey and 55% of recruitment of young …


Influence Of Environmental Factors On Surface Activity Of Paruroctonus Marksi (Scorpiones: Vaejovidae) In The Mojave Desert, Zia Nisani, Destiny Frederick, Alejandro Garcia-Plascencia, Daian Lopez, Robert Miller, Linhsan Trinh-Nguyen Dec 2022

Influence Of Environmental Factors On Surface Activity Of Paruroctonus Marksi (Scorpiones: Vaejovidae) In The Mojave Desert, Zia Nisani, Destiny Frederick, Alejandro Garcia-Plascencia, Daian Lopez, Robert Miller, Linhsan Trinh-Nguyen

Euscorpius

Many environmental factors may influence the activity pattern of scorpions in arid ecosystems. We investigated the seasonal variations of Paruroctonus marksi scorpion activity in the Mojave Desert (California, USA). Black light surveys were carried out within two 100 ×100 m plots from August 2017 to September 2018. The majority (85%) of scorpions were found in open areas compared with being in vegetation. The presence of P. marksi was positively correlated with both water vapor pressure and soil temperature, while moon illumination had no significant effect on P. marksi foraging behavior. Scorpions might be using humidity as an indicator of prey …


Microplastic Accumulation In The Digestive Tract Of Young-Of-Year Atlantic Sharpnose Sharks (Rhizoprionodon Terraenovae) In The Grand Strand, Sc, Andrew Curtis Sitlinger Dec 2022

Microplastic Accumulation In The Digestive Tract Of Young-Of-Year Atlantic Sharpnose Sharks (Rhizoprionodon Terraenovae) In The Grand Strand, Sc, Andrew Curtis Sitlinger

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study focused on the presence and accumulation of microplastic fibers in the digestive tract and livers of young-of-year Atlantic Sharpnose Sharks (Rhizopriondon terraenovae) from two sampling locations along the Grand Strand of South Carolina. R. terraenovae is a small, mesopredatory elasmobranch found abundantly along northwestern Atlantic Ocean coastlines. Thirty specimens of R. terraenovae were collected from May through August of 2020. Microplastics were found in all specimens. A total of 672 plastic particles were identified over the course of the study, with an average of 22.4 ± 10.5 (SD) plastics per specimen. The majority of the plastics were classified …