Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Labor Relations Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Human Resources Management

Institution
Keyword
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 31 - 60 of 753

Full-Text Articles in Labor Relations

Organizational Performance In Services, Rosemary Batt, Virginia Doellgast Aug 2017

Organizational Performance In Services, Rosemary Batt, Virginia Doellgast

Virginia Doellgast

The question of performance in service activities and occupations is important for several reasons. First, over two-thirds of employment in advanced economies is in service activities. Second, productivity growth in services is historically low, lagging far behind manufacturing, and as a result, wages in production-level service jobs remain low. In addition, labor costs in service activities are often over 50% of total costs, whereas in manufacturing they have fallen to less than 25% of costs. This raises the question of whether management practices that have improved performance in manufacturing, such as investment in the skills and training of the workforce ...


Introduction To A Special Issue On Inequality In The Workplace (“What Works?), Pamela S. Tolbert, Emilio J. Castilla Jul 2017

Introduction To A Special Issue On Inequality In The Workplace (“What Works?), Pamela S. Tolbert, Emilio J. Castilla

Pamela S Tolbert

[Excerpt] While overt expressions of racial and gender bias in U.S. workplaces have declined markedly since the passage of the original Civil Rights Act and the creation of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission a half century ago (Eagly and Chaiken 1993; Schuman, Steeh, Bobo, and Krysan 1997; Dobbin 2009), a steady stream of research indicates that powerful, if more covert forms of bias persist in contemporary workplaces (Greenwald and Banaji 1995; Pager, Western, and Bonikowski 2009; England 2010; Heilman 2012). In line with this research, high rates of individual and class-based lawsuits alleging racial and gender discrimination suggest that ...


Examining Strategic Fit And Misfit In The Management Of Knowledge Workers, Christopher J. Collins, Rebecca Kehoe Jul 2017

Examining Strategic Fit And Misfit In The Management Of Knowledge Workers, Christopher J. Collins, Rebecca Kehoe

Christopher J Collins

This study advances research on strategic human resource management by examining whether better firm performance depends on the alignment between an organization’s human resources (HR) system and its innovation strategy. The authors argue that the unique problems underlying exploration innovation strategies and exploitation innovation strategies require core workers to engage in different types of knowledge-search and -combination behaviors. Alternative HR systems theoretically produce different knowledge-search and -combination behaviors by way of their effect on employees’ ability, motivation, and opportunity structures at work. Drawing on a field study of 230 software firms, the authors demonstrate that alternative HR systems support ...


Work-Unit Absenteeism: Effects Of Satisfaction, Commitment, Labor Market Conditions, And Time, John Hausknecht, Nathan J. Hiller, Robert J. Vance Jun 2017

Work-Unit Absenteeism: Effects Of Satisfaction, Commitment, Labor Market Conditions, And Time, John Hausknecht, Nathan J. Hiller, Robert J. Vance

John Hausknecht

Prior research is limited in explaining absenteeism at the unit level and over time. We developed and tested a model of unit-level absenteeism using five waves of data collected over six years from 115 work units in a large state agency. Unit-level job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and local unemployment were modeled as time-varying predictors of absenteeism. Shared satisfaction and commitment interacted in predicting absenteeism but were not related to the rate of change in absenteeism over time. Unit-level satisfaction and commitment were more strongly related to absenteeism when units were located in areas with plentiful job alternatives.


When Does Employee Turnover Matter? Dynamic Member Configurations, Productive Capacity, And Collective Performance, John Hausknecht, Jacob A. Holwerda Jun 2017

When Does Employee Turnover Matter? Dynamic Member Configurations, Productive Capacity, And Collective Performance, John Hausknecht, Jacob A. Holwerda

John Hausknecht

In theory, employee turnover has important consequences for groups, work units, and organizations. However, past research has not revealed consistent empirical support for a relationship between aggregate levels of turnover and performance outcomes. In this paper, we present a novel conceptualization of turnover to explain when, why, and how it affects important outcomes. We suggest that greater attention to five characteristics—leaver proficiencies, time dispersion, positional distribution, remaining member proficiencies, and newcomer proficiencies—will reveal dynamic member configurations that predictably influence productive capacity and collective performance. We describe and illustrate the five properties, explain how particular member configurations exacerbate or ...


Justice As A Dynamic Construct: Effects Of Individual Trajectories On Distal Work Outcomes, John Hausknecht, Michael C. Sturman, Quinetta M. Roberson Jun 2017

Justice As A Dynamic Construct: Effects Of Individual Trajectories On Distal Work Outcomes, John Hausknecht, Michael C. Sturman, Quinetta M. Roberson

John Hausknecht

Despite an amassing organizational justice literature, few studies have directly addressed the temporal patterning of justice judgments and the effects that changes in these perceptions have on important work outcomes. Drawing from Gestalt characteristics theory (Ariely & Cannon, 2000, 2003), we examine the concept of justice trajectories (i.e., levels and trends of individual fairness perceptions over time) and offer empirical evidence to highlight the value of considering fairness within a dynamic context. Participants included 523 working adults who completed surveys about their work experiences on 4 occasions over the course of 1 year. Results indicate that justice trends explained additional ...


Causes And Consequences Of Collective Turnover: A Meta-Analytic Review, Angela L. Heavey, Jacob A. Holwerda, John Hausknecht Jun 2017

Causes And Consequences Of Collective Turnover: A Meta-Analytic Review, Angela L. Heavey, Jacob A. Holwerda, John Hausknecht

John Hausknecht

Given growing interest in collective turnover (i.e., employee turnover at unit and organizational levels), the authors propose an organizing framework for its antecedents and consequences and test it using meta-analysis. Based on analysis of 694 effect sizes drawn from 82 studies, results generally support expected relationships across the 6 categories of collective turnover antecedents, with somewhat stronger and more consistent results for 2 categories: human resource management inducements/investments and job embeddedness signals. Turnover was negatively related to numerous performance outcomes, more strongly so for proximal rather than distal outcomes. Several theoretically grounded moderators help to explain average effect-size ...


Retaking Ability Tests In A Selection Setting: Implications For Practice Effects, Training Performance, And Turnover, John Hausknecht Jun 2017

Retaking Ability Tests In A Selection Setting: Implications For Practice Effects, Training Performance, And Turnover, John Hausknecht

John Hausknecht

This field study investigated the effect of retaking identical selection tests on subsequent test scores of 4,726 candidates for law enforcement positions. For both cognitive ability and oral communication ability selection tests, candidates produced significant score increases between the 1st and 2nd and the 2nd and 3rd test administrations. Furthermore, the repeat testing relationships with posthire training performance and turnover were examined in a sample of 1,515 candidates eventually selected into the organization. As predicted from persistence and continuance commitment rationales, the number of tests necessary to gain entry into the organization was positively associated with training performance ...


Unions And The Labor Market For Managers, John Dinardo, Kevin F. Hallock, Jörn-Steffen Pischke Jun 2017

Unions And The Labor Market For Managers, John Dinardo, Kevin F. Hallock, Jörn-Steffen Pischke

Kevin F Hallock

We examine the relationship between the employment and compensation of managers and CEOs and the presence of a unionized workforce. We develop a simple efficiency wage model, with a tradeoff between higher wages for workers and more monitoring, which requires more managers. The model also assumes rent sharing between workers, managers and the owners of the firm. Unions, by redistributing rents towards the workers, lead to lower employment and lower pay for managers. Using a variety of data sets, we examine the implications of the model for the relationship between the employment and wages of managers and unionization. We find ...


The Value Of Stock Options To Non-Executive Employees, Kevin F. Hallock, Craig A. Olson Jun 2017

The Value Of Stock Options To Non-Executive Employees, Kevin F. Hallock, Craig A. Olson

Kevin F Hallock

This study empirically investigates the value employees place on stock options using information from the option exercise behavior of individuals. Employees hold options for another period if the value from holding them and reserving the right to exercise them later is higher than the value of exercising them immediately and collecting a profit equal to the stock price minus the exercise price. This simple model implies the hazard describing employee exercise behavior reveals information about the value to employees of holding options another time period. We show the parameters of this model are identified with data on multiple option grants ...


Job Loss And The Fraying Of The Implicit Employment Contract, Kevin F. Hallock Jun 2017

Job Loss And The Fraying Of The Implicit Employment Contract, Kevin F. Hallock

Kevin F Hallock

[Excerpt] Most workers have one employment contract that is explicit and another one that is implicit. The explicit employment contract specifies working hours, compensation, and job tasks. The implicit contract involves expectations about the extent to which the employment relationship is not just a payment for labor on the spot market but instead is likely to continue over time. The possibility of a longer-term commitment between an employer and its employees in turn has a number of implications: for example, whether firms will seek to avoid mass layoffs unless or until absolutely necessary; whether firms may cushion the wages and ...


Estimating Pay Gaps For Workers With Disabilities: Implications From Broadening Definitions And Data Sets, Kevin F. Hallock, Xin Jin, Linda Barrington Jun 2017

Estimating Pay Gaps For Workers With Disabilities: Implications From Broadening Definitions And Data Sets, Kevin F. Hallock, Xin Jin, Linda Barrington

Kevin F Hallock

Purpose: To compare pay gap estimates across 3 different national survey data sets for people with disabilities relative to those without disabilities when pay is measured as wage and salary alone versus a (total compensation) definition that includes an estimate of the value of benefits.

Method: Estimates of the cost to the employers of employee benefits at the occupational level from an employer survey data set are matched to individual-level data in each of the 3 data sets. Multiple regression techniques are applied to estimate wage and salary and total compensation gaps between full-time men with and without disabilities.

Results ...


Discrimination By Gender And Disability Status: Do Worker Perceptions Match Statistical Measures?, Kevin F. Hallock, Wallace Hendricks, Emer Broadbent Jun 2017

Discrimination By Gender And Disability Status: Do Worker Perceptions Match Statistical Measures?, Kevin F. Hallock, Wallace Hendricks, Emer Broadbent

Kevin F Hallock

We explore whether perceptions of discrimination are related to ordinary statistical measures. The majority of disabled respondents report feeling some discrimination due to their disability, the majority of women feel some discrimination because of their gender, and a surprising number of men also report some discrimination. We do not find a strong link between perceptions of discrimination and measured discrimination perhaps because those who perceive discrimination feel that it occurs along other dimensions than pay. However, we do find a connection between whether a person feels his or her income is inadequate and measured discrimination for all groups studied.


Data Improvement And Labor Economics, Kevin F. Hallock Jun 2017

Data Improvement And Labor Economics, Kevin F. Hallock

Kevin F Hallock

The expansion of available data for research has transformed empirical labor economics over the past generation. This paper briefly highlights some of the changes and describes a few examples of papers that illustrate the advances. It also documents the changing ways data have been used in the Journal of Labor Economics over the past 30 years, including a trend toward a higher fraction of papers using any data and, among those papers using any data, a higher fraction using nonpublic data, a higher fraction using international data, and more frequent use of multiple data sources. Finally, this paper describes work ...


Fundamental Issues With Hr Auditing, Chris Andrews Jun 2017

Fundamental Issues With Hr Auditing, Chris Andrews

Dr Chris Andrews

Extract:

What entitles us to correctly call an evaluation of human resources an “HR Audit?” Professor Susan Nutley (2000) observed that ‘defining what an audit is and, conversely, what it is not’ was fraught with difficulties. Professor Alan Clardy (2004) observed that the term audit was used ‘rather indiscriminately’ in the literature so that ‘most any kind of study of human resources is considered an audit.’ Clearly, a human resource audit needs to be properly defined and separated from those activities that are not auditing. Clouding this is the auditing profession itself; for example, they widely use the term ‘review ...


Assessment Of Under-Declared Employment In Croatia, Colin C. Williams, Miroslav Radvansky, Miroslav Stefanik Jun 2017

Assessment Of Under-Declared Employment In Croatia, Colin C. Williams, Miroslav Radvansky, Miroslav Stefanik

Colin C Williams

This report evaluates ‘under-declared employment’, which is the practice where a formal employer pays a formal employee an official declared wage but also an additional undeclared (envelope) wage in order to evade the full social insurance and tax liabilities owed. The aim is to evaluate the prevalence, characteristics and distribution of this fraudulent wage practice in Croatia, to explain its existence, and to provide an evidence-based evaluation of the different policy approaches for tackling it, and a set of policy recommendations. 


A Quantitative Examination Of The Relationship Between Perceived Job Satisfaction And Organizational Commitment In Small Business Employees In The Lynchburg Metropolitan Statistical Area, Tammy Brown May 2017

A Quantitative Examination Of The Relationship Between Perceived Job Satisfaction And Organizational Commitment In Small Business Employees In The Lynchburg Metropolitan Statistical Area, Tammy Brown

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The Lynchburg Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) has an average turnover that exceeds the national and regional average. Organizational turnover unfavorably influences productivity and has the potential to adversely affect, not only the Lynchburg MSA, but also the regional, state, and national economy. This quantitative non-experimental, correlational research examined the relationship between perceived job satisfaction and organizational commitment in the Lynchburg MSA. The results of this research supports earlier research and demonstrated a statistically significant positive relationship existed between perceived job satisfaction and organizational commitment in small business employees in the Lynchburg MSA. The results may serve as beneficial to small ...


Are Bonus Pools Driven By Their Incentive Effects? Evidence From Fluctuations In Gainsharing Incentives, Alan Benson, Sima Sajjadiani Apr 2017

Are Bonus Pools Driven By Their Incentive Effects? Evidence From Fluctuations In Gainsharing Incentives, Alan Benson, Sima Sajjadiani

Institute for Compensation Studies

Shared bonus pools, in which a worker’s bonus depends both on a worker’s share of the pool (which serves as the incentive) and on the size of the pool (which is largely outside of the worker’s control), are a common method for distributing bonus pay. Using variation in the size of the bonus pool generated by a manufacturing plant’s gainsharing plan, which varies incentives for quality and worker engagement, we evaluate the conditions under which incentives distributed from bonus pools have incentive effects. Overall, results are cautionary: the evidence suggests gainsharing’s benefits operate outside of ...


Sports, Inc. Volume 9, Issue 2, Ilr Cornell Sports Business Society Apr 2017

Sports, Inc. Volume 9, Issue 2, Ilr Cornell Sports Business Society

Sports, Inc.

The ILR Cornell Sports Business Society magazine is a semester publication titled Sports, Inc. This publication serves as a space for our membership to publish and feature in-depth research and well-thought out ideas to advance the world of sport. The magazine can be found in the Office of Student Services and is distributed to alumni who come visit us on campus. Issues are reproduced here with permission of the ILR Cornell Sports Business Society.


When Job Performance Is All Relative: How Family Motivation Energizes Effort And Compensates For Intrinsic Motivation, Jochen I. Menges, Danielle V. Tussing, Andreas Wihler, Adam M. Grant Apr 2017

When Job Performance Is All Relative: How Family Motivation Energizes Effort And Compensates For Intrinsic Motivation, Jochen I. Menges, Danielle V. Tussing, Andreas Wihler, Adam M. Grant

Management Papers

Supporting one’s family is a major reason why many people work, yet surprisingly little research has examined the implications of family motivation. Drawing on theories of prosocial motivation and action identification, we propose that family motivation increases job performance by enhancing energy and reducing stress, and it is especially important when intrinsic motivation is lacking. Survey and diary data collected across multiple time points in a Mexican maquiladora generally support our model. Specifically, we find that family motivation enhances job performance when intrinsic motivation is low—in part by providing energy, but not by reducing stress. We conclude that ...


Institutional Ethnography: Utilizing Battered Women’S Standpoint To Examine How Institutional Relations Shape African American Battered Women’S Work Experiences In Christian Churches, Ursula Tiershatha Wright Mar 2017

Institutional Ethnography: Utilizing Battered Women’S Standpoint To Examine How Institutional Relations Shape African American Battered Women’S Work Experiences In Christian Churches, Ursula Tiershatha Wright

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the collected papers dissertation was to critically examine the individual and institutional conditions that shaped battered women’s work experiences in church organizations. The studies in the collected papers shared the provision of using a methodological and analytic tool, institutional ethnography (IE), that offers a strategic and comprehensive means of investigating issues related to institutions and institutional processes that merge a macro and micro view. The first paper was a conceptual paper that emphasized the socio-political context in which adult vocation education is practiced and shared a practical means of using IE to uncover the interconnected and ...


How To Conduct A Mini-Ethnographic Case Study: A Guide For Novice Researchers, Patricia I. Fusch Ph.D., Gene E. Fusch, Lawrence R. Ness Mar 2017

How To Conduct A Mini-Ethnographic Case Study: A Guide For Novice Researchers, Patricia I. Fusch Ph.D., Gene E. Fusch, Lawrence R. Ness

The Qualitative Report

The authors present how to construct a mini-ethnographic case study design with the benefit of an ethnographic approach bounded within a case study protocol that is more feasible for a student researcher with limited time and finances. The novice researcher should choose a design that enables one to best answer the research question. Secondly, one should choose the design that assists the researcher in reaching data saturation. Finally, the novice researcher must choose the design in which one can complete the study within a reasonable time frame with minimal cost. This is particularly important for student researchers. One can blend ...


Examining Strategic Fit And Misfit In The Management Of Knowledge Workers, Christopher J. Collins, Rebecca Kehoe Mar 2017

Examining Strategic Fit And Misfit In The Management Of Knowledge Workers, Christopher J. Collins, Rebecca Kehoe

Articles and Chapters

This study advances research on strategic human resource management by examining whether better firm performance depends on the alignment between an organization’s human resources (HR) system and its innovation strategy. The authors argue that the unique problems underlying exploration innovation strategies and exploitation innovation strategies require core workers to engage in different types of knowledge-search and -combination behaviors. Alternative HR systems theoretically produce different knowledge-search and -combination behaviors by way of their effect on employees’ ability, motivation, and opportunity structures at work. Drawing on a field study of 230 software firms, the authors demonstrate that alternative HR systems support ...


Global Diversity & Inclusion At Microsoft, Joe Lawless Jan 2017

Global Diversity & Inclusion At Microsoft, Joe Lawless

MICCSR Case Studies

This case discusses diversity and inclusion initiatives at Microsoft, as well as criticisms of the state of industry efforts to increase diversity in the tech sector. Students are asked to develop ideas that leverage current efforts at Microsoft and come up with new ideas that should be considered.


Organizational Innovators: A Study Of Workplace Intra-Employee Conflict Management Strategies, David Nash, Deborah Hann Jan 2017

Organizational Innovators: A Study Of Workplace Intra-Employee Conflict Management Strategies, David Nash, Deborah Hann

Conflict and its Resolution in the Changing World of Work: A Conference and Special Issue Honoring David B. Lipsky

[Excerpt] Whilst the issue of intra-employee conflict is clearly one that impacts today’s organization, it is less clear how this conflict is addressed and resolved in contemporary workplaces. Previous research has often treated workplace conflict as homogeonous, but it is important that different conflicts should be treated separately (Jehn and Bendersky 2003). The purpose of this article is to contribute to our understanding of the management of conflict in the workplace by examining this under-researched form of conflict and perhaps more importantly how organizations address this prevalent form of workplace dispute, if they do so at all. Soecifically, by ...


Librarians And Compensation Negotiation In The Library Workplace, Shannon L. Farrell, Aliqae Geraci Jan 2017

Librarians And Compensation Negotiation In The Library Workplace, Shannon L. Farrell, Aliqae Geraci

Articles and Chapters

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to report on survey results from a study about librarians’ experience with compensation (salary and benefits) negotiation in the library workplace in order to provide data that will inform professional discourse and practice.

Design/methodology/approach - A primarily quantitative survey instrument was administered via Qualtrics Survey Software and distributed through listservs and social media channels representing a range of library types and sub-disciplines. The survey was explicitly addressed to librarians for participation and asked them questions related to their work history and experience with negotiating for salary and benefits.

Findings - A total of ...


New York City Collective Bargaining Law: 50 Years (1967-2017), Office Of Collective Bargaining Jan 2017

New York City Collective Bargaining Law: 50 Years (1967-2017), Office Of Collective Bargaining

Monographs

[Excerpt] The NYCCBL was preceded by a tumultuous period of employee organization and labor unrest that culminated in 1965, when the City’s Welfare Department workers held a month-long strike. During that strike, unions were fined, union officials were arrested and jailed, and employees received termination notices. The 1965 strike, its negotiated resolution, and the support of Mayors Robert F. Wagner and John V. Lindsay, helped to lay the groundwork for a structure and procedure to govern public sector collective bargaining. The hard work and commitment of neutrals and representatives of labor and management resulted in the Tripartite Agreement, which ...


What Do Newer Entrants Into The Workforce Really Want?, Amelia Tsui Jan 2017

What Do Newer Entrants Into The Workforce Really Want?, Amelia Tsui

Student Works

Companies have had to evolve continuously to remain competitive in today’s marketplace. Technological advancements, shifting in social dynamics, and the changing demographics all impact how companies attract and retain talent. As more information becomes available on the internet, and as more generations are in the workforce at the same time, it becomes increasingly challenging for companies to develop cost effective and attractive benefits schemes.


Nonprofit Pay In A Competitive Market: Wage Penalty Or Premium?, Christian King, Gregory B. Lewis Jan 2017

Nonprofit Pay In A Competitive Market: Wage Penalty Or Premium?, Christian King, Gregory B. Lewis

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Two competing theories argue that the nonprofit sector pays differently: Nonprofit employees may accept lower pay to be able to do meaningful work for a good cause, or they may earn higher pay due to nonprofit organizations’ tax exemptions and weaker incentives to hold down wages. To test these opposing expectations, we use the 2005-2013 American Community Surveys to examine pay differences among registered nurses working for nonprofit, for-profit, and public hospitals. We also test hypotheses that public and nonprofit hospitals have smaller pay disparities by gender, race, and relationship status. We find that pay is highest in nonprofit hospitals ...


Introduction To A Special Issue On Inequality In The Workplace (“What Works?), Pamela S. Tolbert, Emilio J. Castilla Jan 2017

Introduction To A Special Issue On Inequality In The Workplace (“What Works?), Pamela S. Tolbert, Emilio J. Castilla

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] While overt expressions of racial and gender bias in U.S. workplaces have declined markedly since the passage of the original Civil Rights Act and the creation of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission a half century ago (Eagly and Chaiken 1993; Schuman, Steeh, Bobo, and Krysan 1997; Dobbin 2009), a steady stream of research indicates that powerful, if more covert forms of bias persist in contemporary workplaces (Greenwald and Banaji 1995; Pager, Western, and Bonikowski 2009; England 2010; Heilman 2012). In line with this research, high rates of individual and class-based lawsuits alleging racial and gender discrimination suggest that ...