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Human Resources Management

2013

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Full-Text Articles in Labor Relations

New York State Teacher Salary Report, Alexander Colvin, Sally Klingel, Simon Boehme, Susanne Donovan Dec 2013

New York State Teacher Salary Report, Alexander Colvin, Sally Klingel, Simon Boehme, Susanne Donovan

Scheinman Institute on Conflict Resolution

Teachers are central to the success of any education system and the salaries paid to teachers are among the most important issues for both school districts and the unions that represent teachers. For school districts, teacher salaries are a major com- ponent of district budgets. Teacher salary levels are also a crucial factor in attracting and retaining quality educators. This report presents data on teacher salary levels based on teacher contracts throughout New York State. In addition to reporting overall statewide salary levels, it also documents the wide variation in teacher salary levels across New York State.

This New York ...


The Benefits Of Climate For Inclusion For Gender-Diverse Groups, Lisa Hisae Nishii Dec 2013

The Benefits Of Climate For Inclusion For Gender-Diverse Groups, Lisa Hisae Nishii

Articles and Chapters

I introduce the construct of climate for inclusion, which involves eliminating relational sources of bias by ensuring that identity group status is unrelated to access to resources, creating expectations and opportunities for heterogeneous individuals to establish personalized cross-cutting ties, and integrating ideas across boundaries in joint problem solving. I show that within inclusive climates, interpersonal bias is reduced in such a way that gender diversity is associated with lower levels of conflict. In turn, the negative effect that group conflict typically has on unit-level satisfaction disappears. This has important implications, as unit-level satisfaction is negatively associated with turnover in groups.


Reflections On The Metamorphosis At Robben Island: The Role Of Institutional Work And Positive Psychological Capital, Wayne F. Cascio, Fred Luthans Dec 2013

Reflections On The Metamorphosis At Robben Island: The Role Of Institutional Work And Positive Psychological Capital, Wayne F. Cascio, Fred Luthans

Management Department Faculty Publications

Nelson Mandela and other political prisoners from South Africa were imprisoned on notorious Robben Island from the mid-1960s until the end of the apartheid regime in 1991. The stark conditions and abusive treatment of these prisoners has been widely publicized. However, upon reflection and in retrospect, over the years, a type of metamorphosis occurred. Primarily drawing from firsthand accounts of the former prisoners and guards, it seems that Robben Island morphed from the traditional oppressive prison paradigm to one where the positively oriented prisoners disrupted the institution with a resulting climate of learning and transformation that eventually led to freedom ...


Manpower Training And Public Sector Job Creation Under Ceta: The Experience In Maine And New Hampshire, Allen Thompson, Richard W. Hurd Oct 2013

Manpower Training And Public Sector Job Creation Under Ceta: The Experience In Maine And New Hampshire, Allen Thompson, Richard W. Hurd

Richard W Hurd

On December 28, 1973 President Nixon signed Public Law 93-203, the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA). The new law represents a significant shift in the roles played by federal, state, and local officials in the expenditure of federal money for manpower services. The key characteristics of CETA are often described as "decentralization" and "decategorization." Prior to the passage of CETA the manpower system was almost exclusively under the control of federal officials. Under CETA, authority has, to some extent, been decentralized as state and local governments have been given block grants of money to be spent on manpower services ...


An Analysis Of Safety Culture & Safety Training: Comparing The Impact Of Union, Non-Union, And Right To Work Construction Venues, Harry Miller Csp, Tara Hill, Kris Mason, John S. Gaal Edd Oct 2013

An Analysis Of Safety Culture & Safety Training: Comparing The Impact Of Union, Non-Union, And Right To Work Construction Venues, Harry Miller Csp, Tara Hill, Kris Mason, John S. Gaal Edd

Online Journal for Workforce Education and Development

The construction industry is one of the most dangerous sectors of the US economy. As such, the safety attitudes and climate within small (residential) contracting firms may play a role in providing a safe culture and working environment. The intent of this practitioner-based research study is to compare and determine if there is a difference in safety practices—based on documented field inspections and their related original number of violations observed by OSHA—between union residential carpentry contractors in the St. Louis area and:

1) non-union residential carpentry contractors in the St. Louis area;

2) non-union residential carpentry contractors across ...


Sports, Inc. Volume 6, Issue 1, Ilr Cornell Sports Business Society Oct 2013

Sports, Inc. Volume 6, Issue 1, Ilr Cornell Sports Business Society

Sports, Inc.

The ILR Cornell Sports Business Society magazine is a semester publication titled Sports, Inc. This publication serves as a space for our membership to publish and feature in-depth research and well-thought out ideas to advance the world of sport. The magazine can be found in the Office of Student Services and is distributed to alumni who come visit us on campus. Issues are reproduced here with permission of the ILR Cornell Sports Business Society.


Women In The Workforce: An In-Depth Analysis Of Gender Roles And Compensation Inequity In The Modern Workplace, Rebecca L. Ziman Oct 2013

Women In The Workforce: An In-Depth Analysis Of Gender Roles And Compensation Inequity In The Modern Workplace, Rebecca L. Ziman

Honors Theses and Capstones

This paper explores the increase in participation and education of American women in the workforce with a special focus on women in business and accounting roles. The paper then goes on to discuss the wage gap between genders, how to remedy inequality in the workplace, and highlights several reasons why pursing a solution to gender inequality is beneficial for both the employee and the company.


The Great Regression’S Impact On Construction Training Programs: Multi-Level Analyses Of Recruiting & Retention Concepts, John S. Gaal Edd Sep 2013

The Great Regression’S Impact On Construction Training Programs: Multi-Level Analyses Of Recruiting & Retention Concepts, John S. Gaal Edd

Online Journal for Workforce Education and Development

The intent of this practitioner-based research study is to determine if there is a difference in the attitudes of construction industry professionals—at local and international levels—towards various training-related recruiting and retention concepts. In light of the global economic malaise, training programs are being held to higher standards and, thusly, different metrics than in the past. In today’s environment, outcomes-based designs (versus outputs-based) have gained attention from both private and public funders of such training programs. Thusly, programs must adapt to the needs of the industry rather than rely on outdated materials and methods. To this end, a ...


Distributional Preferences, Reciprocity-Like Behavior, And Efficiency In Bilateral Exchange, Daniel J. Benjamin Aug 2013

Distributional Preferences, Reciprocity-Like Behavior, And Efficiency In Bilateral Exchange, Daniel J. Benjamin

Institute for Compensation Studies

Under what conditions do distributional preferences, such as altruism or a concern for fair outcomes, generate efficient trade? I analyze theoretically a simple bilateral exchange game: each player sequentially takes an action that reduces his own material payoff but increases the other player’s. Each player’s preferences may depend on both his/her own material payoff and the other player’s. I identify two key properties of the second-mover’s preferences: indifference curves kinked around “fair” material-payoff distributions, and materials payoffs entering preferences as “normal goods.” Either property can drive reciprocity-like behavior and generate a Pareto efficient outcome.


Thinking Win-Win: Boosting Profitability Through Gender-Balanced Flex-Time, Gabriela Steier Aug 2013

Thinking Win-Win: Boosting Profitability Through Gender-Balanced Flex-Time, Gabriela Steier

Cornell HR Review

[Excerpt] Setting working mothers free from the gridlock of inflexible “all-or-nothing” workplaces[1] can unleash the tremendous potential of female leadership qualities and create win-win[2] situations for both employers and employees. When human resources managers create such win-win situations, they can boost efficiency, productivity, profitability, and ultimately increase their company’s bottom line. The key to this strategy consists of attracting and maintaining female talent in the market by implementing mother-friendlier time management. This article analyses the business case for women in terms of gender-balanced leadership, and evaluates flex-time block-schedules as a corporate management strategy to achieve the goals ...


Hr As A Strategic Partner In Redefining And Reexamining Supply Chain Labor Standards, Hilori Kaloti Aug 2013

Hr As A Strategic Partner In Redefining And Reexamining Supply Chain Labor Standards, Hilori Kaloti

Cornell HR Review

[Excerpt] In today’s global marketplace, organizations no longer operate with linear supply chains or manufacturing models. The issue of global labor standards has been a debated topic since the 1990’s and industry supply chains continue to provoke discussions around labor standards and improving worker conditions[i]. Nike presents the classic example of an organization that exploited its outsourcing model and was ultimately forced to take accountability for its actions in the 1990’s. Today’s millennial generation alongside consumer groups is now addressing Steve Job’s legacy, Apple and its primary supplier, Foxconn. On June 14th 2012, a ...


Voice Without Say: Why Capital-Managed Firms Aren’T (Genuinely) Participatory, Justin Schwartz Aug 2013

Voice Without Say: Why Capital-Managed Firms Aren’T (Genuinely) Participatory, Justin Schwartz

Justin Schwartz

Why are most capitalist enterprises of any size organized as authoritarian bureaucracies rather than incorporating genuine employee participation that would give the workers real authority? Even firms with employee participation programs leave virtually all decision-making power in the hands of management. The standard answer is that hierarchy is more economically efficient than any sort of genuine participation, so that participatory firms would be less productive and lose out to more traditional competitors. This answer is indefensible. After surveying the history, legal status, and varieties of employee participation, I examine and reject as question-begging the argument that the rarity of genuine ...


Do Mlb Hitters Boost Performance In Their Contract Year?, Heather M. O'Neill Aug 2013

Do Mlb Hitters Boost Performance In Their Contract Year?, Heather M. O'Neill

Business and Economics Faculty Publications

This study focuses on 256 MLB free agent hitters playing under the 2006-2011 CBA to determine whether they boost their offensive performance in their contract year. Prior studies’ results are mixed, depending on the econometric technique used and the choice of the offensive performance measure.

Having multiple year observations per player, one can incorporate the unobserved traits of the players (ability, risk aversion, work ethic, etc.) by using Fixed Effects (FE) estimation. Since these unmeasured player traits are likely to be correlated with observed predictors of performance (games played, playoff contention, age, etc.), traditionally used Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) and ...


Quality Over Quantity: Reexamining The Link Between Entrepreneurship And Job Creation, Adam Seth Litwin, Philip H. Phan Jul 2013

Quality Over Quantity: Reexamining The Link Between Entrepreneurship And Job Creation, Adam Seth Litwin, Philip H. Phan

Articles and Chapters

Although much has been written about the quantity of jobs created by entrepreneurs, scholars have yet to examine the quality of these jobs. In this article, the authors begin to address this important issue by examining nearly 5,000 businesses that began operations in 2004. They investigate the extent to which nascent employers provide what many think of as quality jobs—those offering health care coverage and a retirement plan. The authors find that because of small scale, constrained resources, and protection from institutional pressures, start-up companies do not provide their employees with either of these proxies for job quality ...


Merit Pay For School Superintendents?, Ronald G. Ehrenberg, Richard P. Chaykowski, Randy A. Ehrenberg Jun 2013

Merit Pay For School Superintendents?, Ronald G. Ehrenberg, Richard P. Chaykowski, Randy A. Ehrenberg

Ronald G. Ehrenberg

Given the important role that school district administrators play in the educational process, one might expect their 'performance" to be of fundamental importance in determining both how much students learn and the cost of public education to taxpayers. Yet, while public debate has considered the issue of merit pay plans for teachers, virtually no attention has been directed to the methods by which school administrators are compensated. This paper provides evidence on whether school superintendents are explicitly or implicitly rewarded for their "performance" by higher compensation and/or greater opportunities for mobility. We analyze panel data from over 700 school ...


The Baby Boom Bust: Strategies To Overcome Retirement Brain Drain, Joe Redlitz Jun 2013

The Baby Boom Bust: Strategies To Overcome Retirement Brain Drain, Joe Redlitz

Cornell HR Review

[Excerpt] As Corporate America struggles to emerge from the depths of the recession, another crisis awaits them over the horizon with the imminent retirement of the baby boomers. In 2011, this generation’s oldest members turned 65 with approximately 10,000 more expected to join them every day over the next two decades[1]. Current estimates state that 25 million baby boomers will be retiring by 2020, representing 40% of the U.S. workforce. While these figures seem overwhelming, the greatest shock comes from the fact that many companies have not assessed how this will affect their business. In a ...


Telecommunications: Collective Bargaining In An Era Of Industry Reconsolidation, Jeffrey Keefe, Rosemary Batt Jun 2013

Telecommunications: Collective Bargaining In An Era Of Industry Reconsolidation, Jeffrey Keefe, Rosemary Batt

Rosemary Batt

[Excerpt] In this paper, we examine the reconsolidation of the industry, between 1995 and 2001, focusing on the merger, acquisition, and business strategies of the major corporate players; union responses to those strategies; and the resulting evolution of union-management relations and collective bargaining outcomes. We argue that the nature of the industry and technology, coupled with its institutional legacy, provides incentives for consolidation and recentralization of the ownership structure. In this process over the last decade, former Bell affiliates have sought union support before regulatory commissions, and the unions have leveraged their political power to make important gains in collective ...


Changes In Employment And Working Conditions Among Technical And Professional Workers, Rosemary Batt, Danielle Van Jaarsveld Jun 2013

Changes In Employment And Working Conditions Among Technical And Professional Workers, Rosemary Batt, Danielle Van Jaarsveld

Rosemary Batt

Recent organizing drives and strike activity among technical and professional employees raise the question of whether the employment conditions of these workers are deteriorating more generally. To consider this question, this paper reviews empirical research and national surveys on trends in employment contracts and working conditions of technical and professional employees. On average, we find that employment security and benefits have deteriorated, more pay is at risk, and hours of work have increased, negatively spilling over from work to family life.


Labor Market Outcomes Of Deregulation In Telecommunications Services, Rosemary Batt, Michael Strausser Jun 2013

Labor Market Outcomes Of Deregulation In Telecommunications Services, Rosemary Batt, Michael Strausser

Rosemary Batt

[Excerpt] This paper examines the labor market outcomes of deregulation in the telecommunications industry, focusing specifically on changes in union density, real wages, wage inequality, and employment levels. Deregulation of telecommunications long distance and equipment markets began in 1984 with the dismantling of the highly unionized Bell System into AT&T (the long distance and equipment provider) and seven Regional Bell Operating Companies (RBOCs, the local service providers). Deregulation of local service has proceeded fitfully: while Congress intended to increase local competition with the passage of the 1996 Telecommunications Act, the RBOCs continue largely as monopoly providers. Despite only partial deregulation, however, former Bell System companies have fundamentally restructured their operations to compete with a growing number of new nonunion entrants; and they have focused heavily on cutting labor costs. Labor-management relations, cooperative under the prior regulated regime, have deteriorated substantially; and unions have had minimal influence on managerial strategies in the deregulated era (Keefe and Batt 1997). In this paper, we focus on three questions. First, what are the overall ...


Changing Internal Labor Markets In Service And Sales Occupations, Rosemary Batt Jun 2013

Changing Internal Labor Markets In Service And Sales Occupations, Rosemary Batt

Rosemary Batt

[Excerpt] In this paper, I address the question of how deregulation in the telecommunications industry has altered the internal labor market structure of clerical and sales jobs—that is, the traditionally female-dominated operator, service, and sales jobs in the industry. This question is important for several reasons. First, from the perspective of the internal labor market literature, the Bell System represented a classic example of a highly developed and stable system. Given growing conventional wisdom that internal labor markets are disintegrating, the telecommunications industry provides a useful case for examining the extent to which corporate responses to deregulation have led ...


Labor Market Institutions And Restructuring In U.S. Deregulated Telecommunications Services, Rosemary Batt Jun 2013

Labor Market Institutions And Restructuring In U.S. Deregulated Telecommunications Services, Rosemary Batt

Rosemary Batt

[Excerpt] This chapter summarizes some of the recent literature concerning the changing nature of markets, technology, and employment relations in deregulated telecommunications services in the United States. It draws on arguments and evidence from a series of studies over the last five years, most of which were undertaken by researchers at Cornell, MIT, and Rutgers universities in the United States. The research focuses on the relationship between market deregulation and technology change on the one hand, and changing business strategy, organizational structure, union relations, and work organization on the other. This chapter focuses on the extent to which labor market ...


Deregulation And Restructuring In Telecommunications Services In The United States And Germany, Rosemary Batt, Owen Darbishire Jun 2013

Deregulation And Restructuring In Telecommunications Services In The United States And Germany, Rosemary Batt, Owen Darbishire

Rosemary Batt

[Excerpt] Because of the slower pace of reform, however, Telekom also stands to learn from the mistakes made in the United States, where deregulation has led to increased inequality among consumers and workers. For consumers, the restructuring has benefited businesses because they no longer pay rates that subsidize universal residential service. Both business and high-end retail customers can take advantage of falling prices for long-distance calling, high-speed networks, or enhanced features such as voice messaging. For lower-income consumers, however, the basic costs of local service have risen, and these consumers are less likely to be able to take advantage of ...


Outcomes Of Self-Directed Work Groups In Telecommunications Services, Rosemary Batt Jun 2013

Outcomes Of Self-Directed Work Groups In Telecommunications Services, Rosemary Batt

Rosemary Batt

[Excerpt] The purpose of my presentation is to consider whether the use of self-directed teams enhances competitiveness in services. In the context of heightened competition brought about by deregulation and the internationalization of service markets, do "team-based" work systems produce higher quality service and customer satisfaction? Do workers benefit as well? Should unions as well as management support this innovation? If so, under what conditions and why? This presentation complements that of the other panelists in this session in important ways. First, while Verma provides an overview of the array of workplace innovations being introduced in telecommunications firms (from joint ...


Tackling Undeclared Work In Iceland, Colin C. Williams, Marijana Baric, Piet Renooy May 2013

Tackling Undeclared Work In Iceland, Colin C. Williams, Marijana Baric, Piet Renooy

Colin C Williams

No abstract provided.


Tackling Undeclared Work In Turkey, Colin C. Williams, Marijana Baric, Piet Renooy May 2013

Tackling Undeclared Work In Turkey, Colin C. Williams, Marijana Baric, Piet Renooy

Colin C Williams

No abstract provided.


Tackling Undeclared Work In Fyr Macedonia, Colin C. Williams, Marijana Baric, Piet Renooy May 2013

Tackling Undeclared Work In Fyr Macedonia, Colin C. Williams, Marijana Baric, Piet Renooy

Colin C Williams

No abstract provided.


Tackling Undeclared Work In Croatia And Four Eu Candidate Countries, Colin C. Williams, Marijana Baric, Piet Renooy May 2013

Tackling Undeclared Work In Croatia And Four Eu Candidate Countries, Colin C. Williams, Marijana Baric, Piet Renooy

Colin C Williams

No abstract provided.


Missing Links: Referrer Behavior And Job Segregation (Appendix), Brian Rubineau, Roberto Fernandez May 2013

Missing Links: Referrer Behavior And Job Segregation (Appendix), Brian Rubineau, Roberto Fernandez

Brian Rubineau

No abstract provided.


Missing Links: Referrer Behavior And Job Segregation, Brian Rubineau, Roberto Fernandez May 2013

Missing Links: Referrer Behavior And Job Segregation, Brian Rubineau, Roberto Fernandez

Brian Rubineau

The importance of networks in labor markets is well-known, and their job segregating effects in organizations taken as granted. Conventional wisdom attributes this segregation to the homophilous nature of contact networks, and leaves little role for organizational influences. But employee referrals are necessarily initiated within a firm by employee referrers subject to organizational policies. We build theory regarding the role of referrers in the segregating effects of network recruitment. Using mathematical and computational models, we investigate how empirically-documented referrer behaviors affect job segregation. We show that referrer behaviors can segregate jobs beyond the effects of homophilous network recruitment. Further, and ...


Essential Skills For Leadership Effectiveness In Diverse Workplace Development, Szu-Fang Chuang May 2013

Essential Skills For Leadership Effectiveness In Diverse Workplace Development, Szu-Fang Chuang

Online Journal for Workforce Education and Development

Globalization, technology advances, and diversity have greatly influenced international business and multinational management operations. Global managers cannot consistently apply traditional leadership when dealing with multiple cultural conflicts and managing international employees in the rapidly changed diverse workplace. This study is an initial effort to examine the new looks of leadership in the diverse workplace development and identify essential leadership skills demanded in a global context. Global leaders need to develop cultural awareness, global mindset, interpersonal skill and effective manager-employee relationship in facing the changes and challenges of the global market. Eleven essential leadership skills for the global leaders to promote ...