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Full-Text Articles in Labor Relations

Adr-Based Workplace Conflict Management Systems: A Case Of American Exceptionalism, Paul Teague, William Roche, Denise Currie, Tom Gormley Nov 2017

Adr-Based Workplace Conflict Management Systems: A Case Of American Exceptionalism, Paul Teague, William Roche, Denise Currie, Tom Gormley

Conflict and its Resolution in the Changing World of Work: A Conference and Special Issue Honoring David B. Lipsky

[Excerpt] The diffusion of ADR-based conflict management systems is a development increasingly highlighted in the literature. Organizations are seen as putting in place multiple procedures and practices so that different varieties of workplace conflict can be effectively addressed. Just why organizations are electing to introduce these integrated bundles of innovative conflict management practices is a matter of debate, but many view the development as transforming the manner in which workplace problems are managed in modern organizations, with some even pronouncing that it amounts to the rewriting of the social contract at work (Lipsky and Seeber 2006). This paper argues that ...


Collective Voice Under Decentralized Bargaining: A Comparative Study Of Work Reorganization In Us And German Call Centres, Virginia Doellgast Aug 2017

Collective Voice Under Decentralized Bargaining: A Comparative Study Of Work Reorganization In Us And German Call Centres, Virginia Doellgast

Virginia Doellgast

This article compares the process of and outcomes from work reorganization in US and German call centres, based on four matched case studies in the telecommunications industry. Both German cases adopted high-involvement employment systems with broad skills and worker discretion, while the US cases relied on a narrow division of labour, tight discipline and individual incentives. These outcomes are explained by differences in institutional supports for collective voice. Works councils in the German companies used their stronger participation rights to limit monitoring and encourage upskilling at a time when US managers were rationalizing similar jobs. Findings demonstrate that industrial relations ...


Labor And Regional Development In The U.S.A.: Building A High Road Infrastructure In Buffalo, New York, Ian Greer, Lou Jean Fleron Sep 2015

Labor And Regional Development In The U.S.A.: Building A High Road Infrastructure In Buffalo, New York, Ian Greer, Lou Jean Fleron

Ian Greer

[Excerpt] In a country where worker representatives lack broadly institutionalized roles as "social partners," how can they play a constructive role in solving the problems of regional development? In Buffalo, New York, regularized, labor-inclusive procedures of problem solving involving multiple coalition partners – what we call a high-road social infrastructure – has emerged. Socially engaged researchers and educators have played a role in spreading lessons and organizing dialogue. Despite the emergence of regional cooperation, however, successful development politics are hampered by many of the same problems seen in European regions, including uncertainty about the best union strategy, hostility from business and political ...


Deregulation And Restructuring In Telecommunications Services In The United States And Germany, Rosemary Batt, Owen Darbishire Jun 2013

Deregulation And Restructuring In Telecommunications Services In The United States And Germany, Rosemary Batt, Owen Darbishire

Rosemary Batt

[Excerpt] Because of the slower pace of reform, however, Telekom also stands to learn from the mistakes made in the United States, where deregulation has led to increased inequality among consumers and workers. For consumers, the restructuring has benefited businesses because they no longer pay rates that subsidize universal residential service. Both business and high-end retail customers can take advantage of falling prices for long-distance calling, high-speed networks, or enhanced features such as voice messaging. For lower-income consumers, however, the basic costs of local service have risen, and these consumers are less likely to be able to take advantage of ...


Three Plants, Three Futures, Lowell Turner Oct 2012

Three Plants, Three Futures, Lowell Turner

Lowell Turner

To spread teamwork and cooperation, managers need to reform themselves—especially their attitudes about workers. At NUMMI, management has provided a system of work and rewards that has earned the loyalty of most employees and local union leaders.


Nummi – Japanische Produktionskonzepte In Den Usa, Lowell Turner Oct 2012

Nummi – Japanische Produktionskonzepte In Den Usa, Lowell Turner

Lowell Turner

[Excerpt] NUMMI, die Produktionsstätte des Joint-Venture von General Motors und Toyota, hat Modellcharakter für die gesamte US-Automobilindustrie erlangt und gilt mittlerweile als Paradebeispiel fur eine erfolgreiche Reorganisation der Arbeit. Das »Geheimnis« von NUMMI (New United Motor Manufacturing Inc.) liegt - kurz gefaβt - in der Übertragung von japanischen Produktionskonzepten mit entsprechend sozialpartnerschaftlichen Beziehungen zwischen Arbeitnehmern und Management, Teamarbeit, hoher Arbeitsintensität und groβerer Verantwortung der Beschäftigten für ihren Arbeitsbereich in eine gewerkschaftlich organisierte amerikanische Automontagestätte - mit dramatischen Ergebnissen hinsichtlich Produktivität und Produktqualität. Kein Wunder, daβ amerikanische Automobil-Manager - nicht nur bei GM, sondern auch bei Ford und Chrysler - darauf erpicht sind, dieses Modell für ...


Perils Of The High And Low Roads: Employment Relations In The United States And Germany, Lowell Turner, Kirsten S. Wever, Michael Fichter Oct 2012

Perils Of The High And Low Roads: Employment Relations In The United States And Germany, Lowell Turner, Kirsten S. Wever, Michael Fichter

Lowell Turner

[Excerpt] The U.S. crisis is characterized by growing income inequality, a shrinking safety net, and the decline of worker representation. Like the German crisis, it is caused in part by intensified global competition. Unlike in Germany, problems in the United States have also been exacerbated by deregulation, short-term horizons (e.g., quarterly reports to shareholders), and the decline of the labor movement.

Both Germany and the United States, however, have substantial political, economic, and social resources to use in solving their problems. The contemporary crises do not appear for either of these countries to foreshadow a major collapse like ...


The Family And Medical Leave Act’S Impact On The Hospitality Industry: Implementing Policies To Ensure Continued Productivity, Katie O'Brien Coon Oct 2012

The Family And Medical Leave Act’S Impact On The Hospitality Industry: Implementing Policies To Ensure Continued Productivity, Katie O'Brien Coon

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The Family and Medical Leave Act, (FMLA), allows women and men to take up to 12 weeks leave to care for a newborn child (maternity leave) and/or care for sick family members. The Department of Labor states that:

FMLA entitles eligible employees of covered employers to take unpaid, job-protected leave for specified family and medical reasons with continuation of group health insurance coverage under the same terms and conditions as if the employee had not taken leave (Family and Medical Leave Act - Wage and Hour Division (WHD) - U.S. Department of Labor, 2012).

When an employee decides to take ...


Reemployment Under Userra Sections 4312 & 4313: At Will Employment Vs. Temporary Employment, Richard L. Pate Jan 2011

Reemployment Under Userra Sections 4312 & 4313: At Will Employment Vs. Temporary Employment, Richard L. Pate

WCOB Faculty Publications

As thousands of service members return to the U.S., severe economic conditions render acclimation to civilian life especially difficult. In 2010, as the combat mission in Iraq approached an end, the unemployment rate of Iraq and Afghanistan era veterans had reached 13.1 percent. The Uniform Services Employment and Reemployment Rights Act, 38 U.S.C. §§ 4301-4333 (1994) ("USERRA"), was enacted, in great part, to mitigate harms such as those caused by the aforementioned perfect storm. Among other things, USERRA protects service members by entitling them to reemployment after military service. More specifically, USERRA Sections 4312 & 4313 entitle returning ...


A Strange Case: Violations Of Workers’ Freedom Of Association In The United States By European Multinational Corporations, Lance A. Compa Nov 2010

A Strange Case: Violations Of Workers’ Freedom Of Association In The United States By European Multinational Corporations, Lance A. Compa

Lance A Compa

[Excerpt] A central conclusion of this report is that firms’ voluntary principles and policies are not enough to safeguard workers’ freedom of association. They can be important initiatives, but only when they contain effective due diligence, oversight, and control mechanisms. Otherwise, as shown here, shortcomings in US labor law create enormous temptation - especially among US managers not sufficiently overseen by European parent company officials - to take advantage of them by acts inconsistent with international norms. The pattern that emerges in the examples presented here suggests inadequate due diligence and internal performance controls to prevent and correct US management actions that ...


Collective Voice Under Decentralized Bargaining: A Comparative Study Of Work Reorganization In Us And German Call Centres, Virginia Doellgast Jan 2010

Collective Voice Under Decentralized Bargaining: A Comparative Study Of Work Reorganization In Us And German Call Centres, Virginia Doellgast

Articles and Chapters

This article compares the process of and outcomes from work reorganization in US and German call centres, based on four matched case studies in the telecommunications industry. Both German cases adopted high-involvement employment systems with broad skills and worker discretion, while the US cases relied on a narrow division of labour, tight discipline and individual incentives. These outcomes are explained by differences in institutional supports for collective voice. Works councils in the German companies used their stronger participation rights to limit monitoring and encourage upskilling at a time when US managers were rationalizing similar jobs. Findings demonstrate that industrial relations ...


A Strange Case: Violations Of Workers’ Freedom Of Association In The United States By European Multinational Corporations, Lance A. Compa Jan 2010

A Strange Case: Violations Of Workers’ Freedom Of Association In The United States By European Multinational Corporations, Lance A. Compa

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] A central conclusion of this report is that firms’ voluntary principles and policies are not enough to safeguard workers’ freedom of association. They can be important initiatives, but only when they contain effective due diligence, oversight, and control mechanisms. Otherwise, as shown here, shortcomings in US labor law create enormous temptation - especially among US managers not sufficiently overseen by European parent company officials - to take advantage of them by acts inconsistent with international norms. The pattern that emerges in the examples presented here suggests inadequate due diligence and internal performance controls to prevent and correct US management actions that ...


Student, Staff, And Employer Incentives For Improved Student Achievement And Work Readiness, John H. Bishop Oct 2009

Student, Staff, And Employer Incentives For Improved Student Achievement And Work Readiness, John H. Bishop

John H Bishop

“This article proposes a strategy for banishing mediocrity and building in its place an excellent American system of secondary education. Before a cure can be prescribed, however, a diagnosis must be made.”


Collective Bargaining And High-Involvement Management In Comparative Perspective: Evidence From U.S. And German Call Centers, Virginia Doellgast Jan 2008

Collective Bargaining And High-Involvement Management In Comparative Perspective: Evidence From U.S. And German Call Centers, Virginia Doellgast

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] This article examines the relationship between collective bargaining institutions and high-involvement management practices in new service workplaces, based on case study and survey evidence from U.S. and German call centers. Call centers are a particularly good setting for a comparative study of work organization. The number of call center jobs has grown rapidly, as firms in most industries have made them the central mechanism for interacting with customers.

At the same time, standardized call center technologies have diffused worldwide, leading managers to adopt similar approaches to call distribution, productivity measurement, the use of electronic monitoring to manage employee ...


Job Opportunities For Older Workers: When Are Jobs Filled With External Hires?, Robert M. Hutchens Feb 2006

Job Opportunities For Older Workers: When Are Jobs Filled With External Hires?, Robert M. Hutchens

Articles and Chapters

This paper examines why firms sometimes employ older workers, but tend to not hire new older workers for the same job. It focuses on one aspect of that phenomenon: the propensity for firms to fill jobs from the inside rather than hire someone new from the outside. Using a survey of establishments with information on a white collar job currently held by an older worker, the paper tests hypotheses on what types of jobs are likely to be filled from the outside. Several of the results point to the potential importance of asymmetric information, whereby the firm has better information ...


Changing Administrative Practices In American Unions: A Research Note, Paul F. Clark, Lois Spier Gray Oct 2005

Changing Administrative Practices In American Unions: A Research Note, Paul F. Clark, Lois Spier Gray

Articles and Chapters

This note presents findings from the first longitudinal study of the administrative practices of American unions. Our surveys, conducted in 1990 and 2000, gathered information on the hiring, human resource, and financial/strategic planning practices of U.S.-based national and international unions. The results indicate that American unions are changing their criteria for hiring staff and moving toward more formal human resource policies and systematic financial and strategic planning practices.


Stw In The 1990s: School–Employer Partnerships And Student Outcomes, John H. Bishop, Ferran Mane, S. Antonio Ruiz-Quintanilla Sep 2001

Stw In The 1990s: School–Employer Partnerships And Student Outcomes, John H. Bishop, Ferran Mane, S. Antonio Ruiz-Quintanilla

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Before the school-to-work (STW) movement began improving communication between schools and employers in the past decade, high-school achievement counted little in hiring decisions, because recent graduates could not signal skills and discipline to employers. Most requests for high school transcripts went unanswered, and employers hired workers with demonstrated job skills, freezing most graduates out of the primary labor market. Relegated to the secondary, unskilled market, graduates with strong basic skills saw a long delay before good job performance improved their income. Consequently, high-school students saw little relation between studying and labor-market rewards. Since they observed recent graduates with good ...


Cultural Influences On Cognitive Representations Of Conflict: Interpretations Of Conflict Episodes In The United States And Japan, Michele J. Gelfand, Lisa Hisae Nishii, Karen M. Holcombe, Naomi Dyer, Ken-Ichi Ohbuchi, Mitsuteru Fukuno Jan 2001

Cultural Influences On Cognitive Representations Of Conflict: Interpretations Of Conflict Episodes In The United States And Japan, Michele J. Gelfand, Lisa Hisae Nishii, Karen M. Holcombe, Naomi Dyer, Ken-Ichi Ohbuchi, Mitsuteru Fukuno

Articles and Chapters

This article integrates theory from the cognitive tradition in negotiation with theory on culture and examines cultural influences on cognitive representations of conflict. The authors predicted that although there may be universal (etic) dimensions of conflict construals, there also may be culture specific (emic) representations of conflict in the United States and Japan. Results of multidimensional scaling analyses of U.S. and Japanese conflict episodes supported this view. Japanese and Americans construed conflicts through a compromise versus win frame (R. L. Pinkley, 1990), providing evidence of a universal dimension of conflict construal. As the authors predicted, Japanese perceived conflicts to ...


Deregulation And Restructuring In Telecommunications Services In The United States And Germany, Rosemary Batt, Owen Darbishire Jan 2001

Deregulation And Restructuring In Telecommunications Services In The United States And Germany, Rosemary Batt, Owen Darbishire

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Because of the slower pace of reform, however, Telekom also stands to learn from the mistakes made in the United States, where deregulation has led to increased inequality among consumers and workers. For consumers, the restructuring has benefited businesses because they no longer pay rates that subsidize universal residential service. Both business and high-end retail customers can take advantage of falling prices for long-distance calling, high-speed networks, or enhanced features such as voice messaging. For lower-income consumers, however, the basic costs of local service have risen, and these consumers are less likely to be able to take advantage of ...


Perils Of The High And Low Roads: Employment Relations In The United States And Germany, Lowell Turner, Kirsten S. Wever, Michael Fichter Jan 2001

Perils Of The High And Low Roads: Employment Relations In The United States And Germany, Lowell Turner, Kirsten S. Wever, Michael Fichter

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] The U.S. crisis is characterized by growing income inequality, a shrinking safety net, and the decline of worker representation. Like the German crisis, it is caused in part by intensified global competition. Unlike in Germany, problems in the United States have also been exacerbated by deregulation, short-term horizons (e.g., quarterly reports to shareholders), and the decline of the labor movement.

Both Germany and the United States, however, have substantial political, economic, and social resources to use in solving their problems. The contemporary crises do not appear for either of these countries to foreshadow a major collapse like ...


Union Administrative Practices: A Comparative Analysis, Paul F. Clark, Kay Gilbert, Lois Spier Gray, Norman Solomon Dec 1998

Union Administrative Practices: A Comparative Analysis, Paul F. Clark, Kay Gilbert, Lois Spier Gray, Norman Solomon

Articles and Chapters

In response to growing challenges, many labor organizations are reevaluating themselves in an effort to become more efficient and effective. Their efforts, however, are limited by their frames of reference. Seldom do unions compare practices across labor movements. To expand these frames of reference we compare union administrative practices in three countries: Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Two specific areas of union administration are examined — human resource/personnel practices and strategic planning. Results from these countries are presented and analyzed to identify and explain similarities and differences.


The Effect Of Curriculum-Based External Exit Exam Systems On Student Achievement, John H. Bishop Mar 1998

The Effect Of Curriculum-Based External Exit Exam Systems On Student Achievement, John H. Bishop

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Two presidents, the National Governors Association, and numerous blue-ribbon panels have called for the development of state or national content standards for core subjects and examinations that assess student achievement of these standards. The Competitiveness Policy Council, for example, advocated that "external assessments be given to individual students at the secondary level and that the results should be a major but not exclusive factor qualifying for college and better jobs at better wages." It is claimed that curriculum-based external exit exam systems (CBEEESs) based on explicit content standards will improve the teaching and learning of core subjects. What evidence ...


Student, Staff, And Employer Incentives For Improved Student Achievement And Work Readiness, John H. Bishop Jan 1995

Student, Staff, And Employer Incentives For Improved Student Achievement And Work Readiness, John H. Bishop

Articles and Chapters

“This article proposes a strategy for banishing mediocrity and building in its place an excellent American system of secondary education. Before a cure can be prescribed, however, a diagnosis must be made.”


Does Dual Commitment Underlie Company And Union Commitment? Evidence From Australia, Sweden, And The United States, Roderick D. Iverson, Sarosh Kuruvilla Jan 1995

Does Dual Commitment Underlie Company And Union Commitment? Evidence From Australia, Sweden, And The United States, Roderick D. Iverson, Sarosh Kuruvilla

Articles and Chapters

Using diverse data from union members in Australia, Sweden, and the United States, this paper develops a new approach to study the dual commitment construct. Specifically, the paper investigates whether dual commitment (i.e., simultaneous commitment to the company and the union) represents a latent second-order factor underlying both union and company commitment factors. Accordingly, alternative models of the factor structure of union and company commitment are analysed to find the best fitting first-order models using the confirmatory factor analysis technique of LISREL VII. These best fitting factors are then subjected to second-order confirmatory factor analysis. The results using this ...


Employer Sanctions And The Question Of Discrimination: The Gao Study In Perspective, Vernon M. Briggs Jr. Dec 1990

Employer Sanctions And The Question Of Discrimination: The Gao Study In Perspective, Vernon M. Briggs Jr.

Articles and Chapters

"The enactment of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA) produced the most extensive legislation in the area of employment law in the United States in two decades (i.e., since the adoption of the Occupational Health and Safety Act of 1970). Its provisions affect every employer and every job seeker since the law went into effect on November 6, 1986. Among its multiple provisions were strictures designed to prohibit employers from hiring illegal immigrants. This action had the effect of repealing the 'Texas Proviso' of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 that specifically exempted the employment ...


Nummi – Japanische Produktionskonzepte In Den Usa, Lowell Turner Jan 1990

Nummi – Japanische Produktionskonzepte In Den Usa, Lowell Turner

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] NUMMI, die Produktionsstätte des Joint-Venture von General Motors und Toyota, hat Modellcharakter für die gesamte US-Automobilindustrie erlangt und gilt mittlerweile als Paradebeispiel fur eine erfolgreiche Reorganisation der Arbeit. Das »Geheimnis« von NUMMI (New United Motor Manufacturing Inc.) liegt - kurz gefaβt - in der Übertragung von japanischen Produktionskonzepten mit entsprechend sozialpartnerschaftlichen Beziehungen zwischen Arbeitnehmern und Management, Teamarbeit, hoher Arbeitsintensität und groβerer Verantwortung der Beschäftigten für ihren Arbeitsbereich in eine gewerkschaftlich organisierte amerikanische Automontagestätte - mit dramatischen Ergebnissen hinsichtlich Produktivität und Produktqualität. Kein Wunder, daβ amerikanische Automobil-Manager - nicht nur bei GM, sondern auch bei Ford und Chrysler - darauf erpicht sind, dieses Modell für ...


Three Plants, Three Futures, Lowell Turner Jan 1989

Three Plants, Three Futures, Lowell Turner

Articles and Chapters

To spread teamwork and cooperation, managers need to reform themselves—especially their attitudes about workers. At NUMMI, management has provided a system of work and rewards that has earned the loyalty of most employees and local union leaders.


The "Albatross" Of Immigration Reform: Temporary Worker Policy In The United States, Vernon M. Briggs Jr. Dec 1986

The "Albatross" Of Immigration Reform: Temporary Worker Policy In The United States, Vernon M. Briggs Jr.

Articles and Chapters

"Temporary worker policy in the United States traditionally has been advocated as a means to meet shortages for labor - a demand problem. Over the past decade, however, there has been support for the use of such policies as a means of addressing illegal immigration - a supply problem. Despite the fact that experiences show that such endeavors actually foster illegal immigration, the drive for immigration reform in the 1980s was seriously encumbered with a variety of attempts both to expand existing and to add new temporary worker programs. This article reviews the evolution of temporary worker policy and indicates how efforts ...


Methods Of Analysis Of Illegal Immigration Into The United States, Vernon M. Briggs Jr. Sep 1984

Methods Of Analysis Of Illegal Immigration Into The United States, Vernon M. Briggs Jr.

Articles and Chapters

"A major barrier to the discussion of the scope and impact of illegal immigration on the American economy has been the inadequacy of existing data. Although data problems are not unique to this topic, the limited availability of macro-data on the size of the annual flows and of the accumulated stock of individuals as well as of micro-data on their influences on selected labor markets has been effectively used to forestall policy reform efforts."


Economic Development: A Poverty Solution For The Rural South?, Vernon M. Briggs Jr., Brian Rungeling Oct 1980

Economic Development: A Poverty Solution For The Rural South?, Vernon M. Briggs Jr., Brian Rungeling

Articles and Chapters

"From the founding of the nation, the South has been the least economically developed region of the United States. Many of the necessary preconditions for economic growth and diversification, such as the presence of essential physical resources, large quantities of capital, skilled labor, sufficient technology, and a class of innovators and entrepreneurs, have traditionally been lacking."