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Full-Text Articles in Labor Relations

Myth: Hard Work And Credentials Determine Employment Opportunities Feb 2016

Myth: Hard Work And Credentials Determine Employment Opportunities

Alev Dudek

"The way one's career develops has little to do with what one went to school for, envisioned, or carefully planned. Careers generally result from coincidence. Regardless of these facts, job seekers are told to endure extensive career testing and planning, or they are asked to create artificial networks that seldom lead to more than frustration. They are given tests that allegedly determine which careers a particular individual would excel in and be a good fit for based on his or her skills and interests, as if the individual would not excel in other careers as much, or as if ...


Improving The Working Lives Of People With Disabilities, Lisa Hisae Nishii Sep 2015

Improving The Working Lives Of People With Disabilities, Lisa Hisae Nishii

Articles and Chapters

Dr. Lisa Nishii studies and conducts research that is focused on how to improve diversity and inclusion in the workplace. She has conducted multiple studies that focus on workplace outcomes for persons with disabilities (PWDs).


Manpower Training And Public Sector Job Creation Under Ceta: The Experience In Maine And New Hampshire, Allen Thompson, Richard W. Hurd Oct 2013

Manpower Training And Public Sector Job Creation Under Ceta: The Experience In Maine And New Hampshire, Allen Thompson, Richard W. Hurd

Richard W Hurd

On December 28, 1973 President Nixon signed Public Law 93-203, the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA). The new law represents a significant shift in the roles played by federal, state, and local officials in the expenditure of federal money for manpower services. The key characteristics of CETA are often described as "decentralization" and "decategorization." Prior to the passage of CETA the manpower system was almost exclusively under the control of federal officials. Under CETA, authority has, to some extent, been decentralized as state and local governments have been given block grants of money to be spent on manpower services ...


Labor Market Outcomes Of Deregulation In Telecommunications Services, Rosemary Batt, Michael Strausser Jun 2013

Labor Market Outcomes Of Deregulation In Telecommunications Services, Rosemary Batt, Michael Strausser

Rosemary Batt

[Excerpt] This paper examines the labor market outcomes of deregulation in the telecommunications industry, focusing specifically on changes in union density, real wages, wage inequality, and employment levels. Deregulation of telecommunications long distance and equipment markets began in 1984 with the dismantling of the highly unionized Bell System into AT&T (the long distance and equipment provider) and seven Regional Bell Operating Companies (RBOCs, the local service providers). Deregulation of local service has proceeded fitfully: while Congress intended to increase local competition with the passage of the 1996 Telecommunications Act, the RBOCs continue largely as monopoly providers. Despite only partial deregulation, however, former Bell System companies have fundamentally restructured their operations to compete with a growing number of new nonunion entrants; and they have focused heavily on cutting labor costs. Labor-management relations, cooperative under the prior regulated regime, have deteriorated substantially; and unions have had minimal influence on managerial strategies in the deregulated era (Keefe and Batt 1997). In this paper, we focus on three questions. First, what are the overall ...


Retirement Policies, Employment, And Unemployment, Ronald G. Ehrenberg Aug 2012

Retirement Policies, Employment, And Unemployment, Ronald G. Ehrenberg

Ronald G. Ehrenberg

[Excerpt] There is a growing consensus among economists that reliance on aggregate demand policies alone will not be sufficient to move the economy to full employment with a nonaccelerating inflation rate, and that policies which alter the structure of labor markets will be required. While obvious structural policies such as public sector employment programs and training programs are the focus of current debate, many other public policies affect labor markets in subtle ways which may well adversely affect the level and distribution of employment and unemployment. To help improve the inflation-unemployment tradeoff, policymakers should seek to marginally modify these policies ...


The Impact Of Retirement Policies On Employment And Unemployment, Ronald Ehrenberg Aug 2012

The Impact Of Retirement Policies On Employment And Unemployment, Ronald Ehrenberg

Ronald G. Ehrenberg

[Excerpt] This paper has focused on the impact of retirement policies on the level and distribution of employment and unemployment. All of the policies discussed, except for early retirement provisions in privately negotiated collective bargaining contracts were seen to have adverse effects on the level and distribution of employment. Hence, the paper illustrates the more general point that policies designed to promote one social goal may well detract from achieving other goals and suggests that more explicit attention should be given to the employment effects of social programs and legislation prior to their adoption.


Absenteeism And The Overtime Decision, Ronald G. Ehrenberg Jul 2012

Absenteeism And The Overtime Decision, Ronald G. Ehrenberg

Ronald G. Ehrenberg

[Excerpt] Upon reading the congressional hearing on the Overtime Pay Penalty Act of 1964, one cannot fail to be impressed by the emphasis that management places on absenteeism as a primary cause of overtime. The argument given is basically quite simple: Large firms, it is claimed, attempt to account for absenteeism by hiring standby workers; however because of the stochastic nature of the absentee rate, it is impossible for them to have replacements always available. Hence overtime must be worked by existing employees in order to meet production schedules. One concludes from this argument that the randomness of absenteeism is ...


Flexibility And Fairness In Liberal Market Economies: The Comparative Impact Of The Legal Environment And High Performance Work Systems, Alexander Colvin Jun 2012

Flexibility And Fairness In Liberal Market Economies: The Comparative Impact Of The Legal Environment And High Performance Work Systems, Alexander Colvin

Alexander Colvin

This paper compares management flexibility in employment decision-making in the United States and Canada through a cross-national survey of organizations in representative jurisdictions in each country, Pennsylvania and Ontario respectively, that investigates the impact of differences in their legal environments. The results indicate that, compared to their Ontario counterparts, organizations in Pennsylvania have a higher degree of flexibility in employment outcomes, such as higher dismissal and discipline rates, yet do not experience any greater flexibility or simplicity in management hiring and firing decisions. One explanation for this result may lie in the finding that organizations in Pennsylvania experience greater legal ...


The Effects Of Recruitment Message Specificity On Applicant Attraction To Organizations, Quinetta M. Roberson, Christopher J. Collins, Shaul Oreg May 2012

The Effects Of Recruitment Message Specificity On Applicant Attraction To Organizations, Quinetta M. Roberson, Christopher J. Collins, Shaul Oreg

Christopher J Collins

We used the elaboration likelihood model from marketing research to explain and examine how recruitment message specificity influences job seeker attraction to organizations. Using an experimental design and data from 171 college-level job seekers, the results showed that detailed recruitment messages led to enhanced perceptions of organization attributes and person-organization fit. Perceptions of fit were found to mediate the relationship between message specificity and intention to apply to the organization. In addition, perceptions of organization attributes and person-organization fit were found to influence intentions to apply under circumstances of explicit recruitment information while attractiveness and fit perceptions were shown to ...


Standing At A Crossroads: The Building Trades In The Twenty-First Century, Mark Erlich, Jeffrey Grabelsky Jan 2010

Standing At A Crossroads: The Building Trades In The Twenty-First Century, Mark Erlich, Jeffrey Grabelsky

Jeffrey Grabelsky

American building trades unions have historically played a critical and stabilizing role in the nation’s construction industry, establishing uniform standards and leveling the competitive playing field. Union members have enjoyed better than average wages and benefits, excellent training opportunities, and decent jobsite conditions. But in the last thirty years the industry has undergone a dramatic transformation. This article describes the decline in union density, the drop in construction wages, the growth of anti-union forces, the changes in labor force demographics, the shift toward construction management, and the emergence of an underground economy. It also analyzes how building trades unions ...


Job Loss: Causes, Consequences, And Policy Responses, Kristin F. Butcher, Kevin F. Hallock Mar 2009

Job Loss: Causes, Consequences, And Policy Responses, Kristin F. Butcher, Kevin F. Hallock

Kevin F Hallock

From 2001 to 2003, 5.3 million workers were displaced. Beyond quantifying the numbers of jobs lost lie important questions about gains and losses from these changes and what policies may affect them. These questions will be addressed at an upcoming Chicago Fed conference.


Assessing The Impact Of Job Loss On Workers And Firms, Kristin F. Butcher, Kevin F. Hallock Mar 2009

Assessing The Impact Of Job Loss On Workers And Firms, Kristin F. Butcher, Kevin F. Hallock

Kevin F Hallock

Many economists agree that the United States’ openness to competition and technological change raises our living standards, but sometimes results in job losses. This article summarizes “Job Loss: Causes Consequences, and Policy Responses,” a conference which was cosponsored by the Federal Reserve Bank Chicago and the Joyce Foundation.


Flexibility And Fairness In Liberal Market Economies: The Comparative Impact Of The Legal Environment And High Performance Work Systems, Alexander Colvin Mar 2006

Flexibility And Fairness In Liberal Market Economies: The Comparative Impact Of The Legal Environment And High Performance Work Systems, Alexander Colvin

Articles and Chapters

This paper compares management flexibility in employment decision-making in the United States and Canada through a cross-national survey of organizations in representative jurisdictions in each country, Pennsylvania and Ontario respectively, that investigates the impact of differences in their legal environments. The results indicate that, compared to their Ontario counterparts, organizations in Pennsylvania have a higher degree of flexibility in employment outcomes, such as higher dismissal and discipline rates, yet do not experience any greater flexibility or simplicity in management hiring and firing decisions. One explanation for this result may lie in the finding that organizations in Pennsylvania experience greater legal ...


Standing At A Crossroads: The Building Trades In The Twenty-First Century, Mark Erlich, Jeffrey Grabelsky Sep 2005

Standing At A Crossroads: The Building Trades In The Twenty-First Century, Mark Erlich, Jeffrey Grabelsky

Articles and Chapters

American building trades unions have historically played a critical and stabilizing role in the nation’s construction industry, establishing uniform standards and leveling the competitive playing field. Union members have enjoyed better than average wages and benefits, excellent training opportunities, and decent jobsite conditions. But in the last thirty years the industry has undergone a dramatic transformation. This article describes the decline in union density, the drop in construction wages, the growth of anti-union forces, the changes in labor force demographics, the shift toward construction management, and the emergence of an underground economy. It also analyzes how building trades unions ...


The Effects Of Recruitment Message Specificity On Applicant Attraction To Organizations, Quinetta M. Roberson, Christopher J. Collins, Shaul Oreg Mar 2005

The Effects Of Recruitment Message Specificity On Applicant Attraction To Organizations, Quinetta M. Roberson, Christopher J. Collins, Shaul Oreg

Articles and Chapters

We used the elaboration likelihood model from marketing research to explain and examine how recruitment message specificity influences job seeker attraction to organizations. Using an experimental design and data from 171 college-level job seekers, the results showed that detailed recruitment messages led to enhanced perceptions of organization attributes and person-organization fit. Perceptions of fit were found to mediate the relationship between message specificity and intention to apply to the organization. In addition, perceptions of organization attributes and person-organization fit were found to influence intentions to apply under circumstances of explicit recruitment information while attractiveness and fit perceptions were shown to ...


Stw In The 1990s: School–Employer Partnerships And Student Outcomes, John H. Bishop, Ferran Mane, S. Antonio Ruiz-Quintanilla Sep 2001

Stw In The 1990s: School–Employer Partnerships And Student Outcomes, John H. Bishop, Ferran Mane, S. Antonio Ruiz-Quintanilla

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Before the school-to-work (STW) movement began improving communication between schools and employers in the past decade, high-school achievement counted little in hiring decisions, because recent graduates could not signal skills and discipline to employers. Most requests for high school transcripts went unanswered, and employers hired workers with demonstrated job skills, freezing most graduates out of the primary labor market. Relegated to the secondary, unskilled market, graduates with strong basic skills saw a long delay before good job performance improved their income. Consequently, high-school students saw little relation between studying and labor-market rewards. Since they observed recent graduates with good ...


Labor Market Outcomes Of Deregulation In Telecommunications Services, Rosemary Batt, Michael Strausser Jan 1998

Labor Market Outcomes Of Deregulation In Telecommunications Services, Rosemary Batt, Michael Strausser

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] This paper examines the labor market outcomes of deregulation in the telecommunications industry, focusing specifically on changes in union density, real wages, wage inequality, and employment levels. Deregulation of telecommunications long distance and equipment markets began in 1984 with the dismantling of the highly unionized Bell System into AT&T (the long distance and equipment provider) and seven Regional Bell Operating Companies (RBOCs, the local service providers). Deregulation of local service has proceeded fitfully: while Congress intended to increase local competition with the passage of the 1996 Telecommunications Act, the RBOCs continue largely as monopoly providers. Despite only partial deregulation, however, former Bell System companies have fundamentally restructured their operations to compete with a growing number of new nonunion entrants; and they have focused heavily on cutting labor costs. Labor-management relations, cooperative under the prior regulated regime, have deteriorated substantially; and unions have had minimal influence on managerial strategies in the deregulated era (Keefe and Batt 1997).

In this paper, we focus on three questions. First, what are the overall ...


Symposium On Employment Relations Reform In The World Automobile Industry: Introduction, Russell D. Lansbury, Harry C. Katz, Fun-Koo Park Dec 1997

Symposium On Employment Relations Reform In The World Automobile Industry: Introduction, Russell D. Lansbury, Harry C. Katz, Fun-Koo Park

Articles and Chapters

"The international automobile industry provides a useful basis for examining the degree and nature of change in employment relations under a variety of external conditions. By studying auto firms in various economies, it can be observed how employee relations strategies related to overall governance of the firm, to industry-level structures and institutions, and to the macro-economic and political institutions. These broader institutional arrangements in industrial relations may have a significant effect on how well the industry operates in both the domestic and international marketplace."


How Accurate Are Recent Bls Occupational Projections?, John H. Bishop, Shani Carter Oct 1991

How Accurate Are Recent Bls Occupational Projections?, John H. Bishop, Shani Carter

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] At the beginning of the 1980's, some analysts predicted an increase in lower-skilled jobs relative to higher-skilled jobs as a result of technological and other changes. They based their forecasts in part on Bureau of Labor Statistics' projections of the future work force.


Employers' Views On The Value Of Older Workers : Final Report, Edmund S. Muskie Institute Of Public Affairs Aug 1991

Employers' Views On The Value Of Older Workers : Final Report, Edmund S. Muskie Institute Of Public Affairs

Maine Collection

Employers' Views on the Value of Older Workers : Final Report

Submitted to: The AARP Andrus Foundation

Prepared by: Human Services Development Institute, Edmund S. Muskie Institute of Public Affairs, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., Portland, Maine 04103 (August 1991).

Contents: Acknowledgements / Executive Summary / Abstract / I. Introduction and Background / II. Project Methodology / III. Findings / IV. Conclusions and Recommendations / References


Union-Management Training Programs In The Public Sector: The New York Experience, Lois Spier Gray, Thomas B. Quimby, Kathy Schrier Jan 1991

Union-Management Training Programs In The Public Sector: The New York Experience, Lois Spier Gray, Thomas B. Quimby, Kathy Schrier

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] New York State has a long history of union-management education and training programs, making it unique in public sector employment. This chapter examines the programs undertaken at both state and city levels, as well as the applicability of the New York experience to other public sector jurisdictions. Although the profile of the New York State and city work force differs from that of the rest of the nation, there is much of value here for educators, union leaders, and others involved in public sector employment.


Employer Sanctions And The Question Of Discrimination: The Gao Study In Perspective, Vernon M. Briggs Jr. Dec 1990

Employer Sanctions And The Question Of Discrimination: The Gao Study In Perspective, Vernon M. Briggs Jr.

Articles and Chapters

"The enactment of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA) produced the most extensive legislation in the area of employment law in the United States in two decades (i.e., since the adoption of the Occupational Health and Safety Act of 1970). Its provisions affect every employer and every job seeker since the law went into effect on November 6, 1986. Among its multiple provisions were strictures designed to prohibit employers from hiring illegal immigrants. This action had the effect of repealing the 'Texas Proviso' of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 that specifically exempted the employment ...


Youth Employment And Training Programs: A Review, Vernon M. Briggs Jr Oct 1987

Youth Employment And Training Programs: A Review, Vernon M. Briggs Jr

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] The Youth Employment and Demonstration Projects Act of 1977 (YEDPA) manifested a quantum leap in efforts both to meet the needs and to understand the employment problems of youths in the labor force. Over its brief life (from mid-1977 to early-1981), YEDPA served both as a massive delivery system for new programs and as an extensive laboratory for social experimentation. As such, an assessment of its activities and accomplishments must inevitably become intertwined with the suspicions that exist between those primarily interested in meeting needs and those largely concerned with evaluating the effectiveness of these ventures. These two groups ...


Unions Implementing Managerial Techniques, Lois Spier Gray Jun 1981

Unions Implementing Managerial Techniques, Lois Spier Gray

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] National unions are gradually adopting the sophisticated management selection and training practices of business and government but employment and promotion decisions remain essentially political.


Apprenticeship Training: Where Does It Stand Today?, Lois Spier Gray, Alice O. Beamesderfer Dec 1979

Apprenticeship Training: Where Does It Stand Today?, Lois Spier Gray, Alice O. Beamesderfer

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] In its simplest form, apprenticeship has existed since the beginning of civilization. More than 4,000 years ago, Hammurabi’s code provided that artisans teach their crafts to young people, and our earliest records from Egypt, Greece, Rome, and the Orient show that skills were being passed on from one generation to the next in this way.


Retirement Policies, Employment, And Unemployment, Ronald G. Ehrenberg May 1979

Retirement Policies, Employment, And Unemployment, Ronald G. Ehrenberg

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] There is a growing consensus among economists that reliance on aggregate demand policies alone will not be sufficient to move the economy to full employment with a nonaccelerating inflation rate, and that policies which alter the structure of labor markets will be required. While obvious structural policies such as public sector employment programs and training programs are the focus of current debate, many other public policies affect labor markets in subtle ways which may well adversely affect the level and distribution of employment and unemployment. To help improve the inflation-unemployment tradeoff, policymakers should seek to marginally modify these policies ...


The Impact Of Retirement Policies On Employment And Unemployment, Ronald G. Ehrenberg Jan 1979

The Impact Of Retirement Policies On Employment And Unemployment, Ronald G. Ehrenberg

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] This paper has focused on the impact of retirement policies on the level and distribution of employment and unemployment. All of the policies discussed, except for early retirement provisions in privately negotiated collective bargaining contracts were seen to have adverse effects on the level and distribution of employment. Hence, the paper illustrates the more general point that policies designed to promote one social goal may well detract from achieving other goals and suggests that more explicit attention should be given to the employment effects of social programs and legislation prior to their adoption.


Manpower Training And Public Sector Job Creation Under Ceta: The Experience In Maine And New Hampshire, Allen Thompson, Richard W. Hurd Apr 1976

Manpower Training And Public Sector Job Creation Under Ceta: The Experience In Maine And New Hampshire, Allen Thompson, Richard W. Hurd

Articles and Chapters

On December 28, 1973 President Nixon signed Public Law 93-203, the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA). The new law represents a significant shift in the roles played by federal, state, and local officials in the expenditure of federal money for manpower services. The key characteristics of CETA are often described as "decentralization" and "decategorization." Prior to the passage of CETA the manpower system was almost exclusively under the control of federal officials. Under CETA, authority has, to some extent, been decentralized as state and local governments have been given block grants of money to be spent on manpower services ...


Absenteeism And The Overtime Decision, Ronald G. Ehrenberg Jun 1970

Absenteeism And The Overtime Decision, Ronald G. Ehrenberg

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Upon reading the congressional hearing on the Overtime Pay Penalty Act of 1964, one cannot fail to be impressed by the emphasis that management places on absenteeism as a primary cause of overtime. The argument given is basically quite simple: Large firms, it is claimed, attempt to account for absenteeism by hiring standby workers; however because of the stochastic nature of the absentee rate, it is impossible for them to have replacements always available. Hence overtime must be worked by existing employees in order to meet production schedules. One concludes from this argument that the randomness of absenteeism is ...