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Full-Text Articles in Systems Engineering

A Hierarchical Core Reference Ontology For New Technology Insertion Design In Long Life Cycle, Complex Mission Critical Systems, Kevin J. Michael Apr 2019

A Hierarchical Core Reference Ontology For New Technology Insertion Design In Long Life Cycle, Complex Mission Critical Systems, Kevin J. Michael

Engineering Management & Systems Engineering Projects for D. Eng. Degree

Organizations, including government, commercial and others, face numerous challenges in maintaining and upgrading long life-cycle, complex, mission critical systems. Maintaining and upgrading these systems requires the insertion and integration of new technology to avoid obsolescence of hardware software, and human skills, to improve performance, to maintain and improve security, and to extend useful life. This is particularly true of information technology (IT) intensive systems. The lack of a coherent body of knowledge to organize new technology insertion theory and practice is a significant contributor to this difficulty. This research organized the existing design, technology road mapping, obsolescence, and sustainability literature ...


A New Analytical Evaluation Model For Kanban Controlled Systems With Fork/Join Synchronization Stations, Heedong Kim, Sarah M. Ryan Mar 2019

A New Analytical Evaluation Model For Kanban Controlled Systems With Fork/Join Synchronization Stations, Heedong Kim, Sarah M. Ryan

Sarah M. Ryan

A nonlinear programming model is developed for analyzing the queuing model of a kanban controlled system with fork/join synchronization stations. The model finds the minimum number of kanbans for a given throughput requirement or the maximum throughput for a given number of kanbans, where servers have different exponential service times. Furthermore, it aids understanding of kanban systems.


Evaluation Of An Intelligent Team Tutoring System For A Collaborative Two-Person Problem: Surveillance, Alec Ostrander, Desmond Bonner, Jamiahus Walton, Anna Slavina, Kaitlyn M. Ouverson, Adam Kohl, Stephen Gilbert, Michael Dorneich, Anne Sinatra, Eliot H. Winer Jan 2019

Evaluation Of An Intelligent Team Tutoring System For A Collaborative Two-Person Problem: Surveillance, Alec Ostrander, Desmond Bonner, Jamiahus Walton, Anna Slavina, Kaitlyn M. Ouverson, Adam Kohl, Stephen Gilbert, Michael Dorneich, Anne Sinatra, Eliot H. Winer

Stephen B. Gilbert

This paper describes the development and evaluation of an Intelligent Team Tutoring System (ITTS) for pairs of learners working collaboratively to monitor an area. In the Surveillance Team Tutor (STT), learners performed a surveillance task in a virtual environment, communicating to track hostile moving soldiers. This collaborative problem solving task required significant communication to achieve the common goal of perfect surveillance. In a pilot evaluation, 16 two-person teams performed the task within one of three feedback conditions (Individual, Team, or None) across four trials each. The STT used a unique approach to filtering feedback so that teams in both individual ...


Evaluation Of An Intelligent Team Tutoring System For A Collaborative Two-Person Problem: Surveillance, Alec Ostrander, Desmond Bonner, Jamiahus Walton, Anna Slavina, Kaitlyn M. Ouverson, Adam Kohl, Stephen Gilbert, Michael Dorneich, Anne Sinatra, Eliot H. Winer Jan 2019

Evaluation Of An Intelligent Team Tutoring System For A Collaborative Two-Person Problem: Surveillance, Alec Ostrander, Desmond Bonner, Jamiahus Walton, Anna Slavina, Kaitlyn M. Ouverson, Adam Kohl, Stephen Gilbert, Michael Dorneich, Anne Sinatra, Eliot H. Winer

Michael C. Dorneich

This paper describes the development and evaluation of an Intelligent Team Tutoring System (ITTS) for pairs of learners working collaboratively to monitor an area. In the Surveillance Team Tutor (STT), learners performed a surveillance task in a virtual environment, communicating to track hostile moving soldiers. This collaborative problem solving task required significant communication to achieve the common goal of perfect surveillance. In a pilot evaluation, 16 two-person teams performed the task within one of three feedback conditions (Individual, Team, or None) across four trials each. The STT used a unique approach to filtering feedback so that teams in both individual ...


Evaluation Of An Intelligent Team Tutoring System For A Collaborative Two-Person Problem: Surveillance, Alec Ostrander, Desmond Bonner, Jamiahus Walton, Anna Slavina, Kaitlyn M. Ouverson, Adam Kohl, Stephen Gilbert, Michael Dorneich, Anne Sinatra, Eliot H. Winer Jan 2019

Evaluation Of An Intelligent Team Tutoring System For A Collaborative Two-Person Problem: Surveillance, Alec Ostrander, Desmond Bonner, Jamiahus Walton, Anna Slavina, Kaitlyn M. Ouverson, Adam Kohl, Stephen Gilbert, Michael Dorneich, Anne Sinatra, Eliot H. Winer

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Publications

This paper describes the development and evaluation of an Intelligent Team Tutoring System (ITTS) for pairs of learners working collaboratively to monitor an area. In the Surveillance Team Tutor (STT), learners performed a surveillance task in a virtual environment, communicating to track hostile moving soldiers. This collaborative problem solving task required significant communication to achieve the common goal of perfect surveillance. In a pilot evaluation, 16 two-person teams performed the task within one of three feedback conditions (Individual, Team, or None) across four trials each. The STT used a unique approach to filtering feedback so that teams in both individual ...


A Design For Affordances Framework For Product Packaging: Food Packaging Case Study, Ahmad Abdelhafiz Mumani, Richard T. Stone, Esraa Abdelall Jan 2019

A Design For Affordances Framework For Product Packaging: Food Packaging Case Study, Ahmad Abdelhafiz Mumani, Richard T. Stone, Esraa Abdelall

Journal of Applied Packaging Research

Since affordances provided by packaging features play a major role in facilitating user packaging interaction, it is important to integrate the concept of affordances into the packaging design process and to understand the interrelationships between packaging features and affordances. A framework is proposed for linking user requirements to packaging design features utilizing the concept of affordances. The framework is accomplished in two main steps; first, determine the affordances required to facilitate performing packaging-related tasks, and second, link these affordances to packaging features. Previous packaging usability studies were reviewed to elicit requirements in terms of affordance properties such as intuitiveness, responsiveness ...


Task-Based Control And Design Of A Bldc Actuator For Robotics, Avik De, Abriana Stewart-Height, Daniel E. Koditschek Jan 2019

Task-Based Control And Design Of A Bldc Actuator For Robotics, Avik De, Abriana Stewart-Height, Daniel E. Koditschek

Departmental Papers (ESE)

This paper proposes a new multi-input brushless DC motor current control policy aimed at robotics applications. The controller achieves empirical improvements in steady-state torque and power-production abilities relative to conventional controllers, while retaining similarly good torque-tracking and stability characteristics. Simulations show that non-conventional motor design optimizations whose feasibility is established by scaling model extrapolations from existing motor catalogues can vastly amplify the effectiveness of this new control-strategy.


Educating The Space Scientists At Embry-Riddle Through Design, Build And Fly Rocketry Experience, Pedro Llanos, Robert E. Haley, Sathya Gangadharan Jan 2019

Educating The Space Scientists At Embry-Riddle Through Design, Build And Fly Rocketry Experience, Pedro Llanos, Robert E. Haley, Sathya Gangadharan

Pedro J. Llanos (www.AstronauticsLlanos.com)

Practical experience for students in rockets and payloads is very valuable in the space industry, and it is something that would give them an advantage over other applicants. Students in Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University’s Payload and Integration class were given the opportunity to build a level 1 rocket and gain experience developing, testing, and integrating payloads into a rocket. The students were given the tasks to come up with an idea for a payload, design the payload to fit within the rocket for flight, and assemble and launch the rocket with the payload in the payload bay. The tasks required ...


Call For Abstracts - Resrb 2019, July 8-9, Wrocław, Poland, Wojciech M. Budzianowski Dec 2018

Call For Abstracts - Resrb 2019, July 8-9, Wrocław, Poland, Wojciech M. Budzianowski

Wojciech Budzianowski

No abstract provided.


Teen Driver System Modeling: A Tool For Policy Analysis, Celestin Missikpode, Corrine Peek-Asa, Daniel V. Mcgehee, James Torner, Wayne Wakeland, Robert Wallace Dec 2018

Teen Driver System Modeling: A Tool For Policy Analysis, Celestin Missikpode, Corrine Peek-Asa, Daniel V. Mcgehee, James Torner, Wayne Wakeland, Robert Wallace

Systems Science Faculty Publications and Presentations

Background: Motor vehicle crashes remain the leading cause of teen deaths in spite of preventive efforts. Prevention strategies could be advanced through new analytic approaches that allow us to better conceptualize the complex processes underlying teen crash risk. This may help policymakers design appropriate interventions and evaluate their impacts.

Methods: System Dynamics methodology was used as a new way of representing factors involved in the underlying process of teen crash risk. Systems dynamics modeling is relatively new to public health analytics and is a promising tool to examine relative influence of multiple interacting factors in predicting a health outcome. Dynamics ...


Reactive Navigation In Partially Known Non-Convex Environments, Vasileios Vasilopoulos, Daniel E. Koditschek Dec 2018

Reactive Navigation In Partially Known Non-Convex Environments, Vasileios Vasilopoulos, Daniel E. Koditschek

Departmental Papers (ESE)

This paper presents a provably correct method for robot navigation in 2D environments cluttered with familiar but unexpected non-convex, star-shaped obstacles as well as completely unknown, convex obstacles. We presuppose a limited range onboard sensor, capable of recognizing, localizing and (leveraging ideas from constructive solid geometry) generating online from its catalogue of the familiar, non-convex shapes an implicit representation of each one. These representations underlie an online change of coordinates to a completely convex model planning space wherein a previously developed online construction yields a provably correct reactive controller that is pulled back to the physically sensed representation to generate ...


Reactive Velocity Control Reduces Energetic Cost Of Jumping With A Virtual Leg Spring On Simulated Granular Media, Sonia F. Roberts, Daniel E. Koditschek Nov 2018

Reactive Velocity Control Reduces Energetic Cost Of Jumping With A Virtual Leg Spring On Simulated Granular Media, Sonia F. Roberts, Daniel E. Koditschek

Departmental Papers (ESE)

Robots capable of dynamic locomotion behaviors and high-bandwidth sensing with their limbs have a high cost of transport, especially when locomoting over highly dissipative substrates such as sand. We formulate the problem of reducing the energetic cost of locomotion by a Minitaur robot on sand, reacting to robot state variables in the inertial world frame without modeling the ground online. Using a bulk-behavior model of high-velocity intrusions into dry granular media, we simulated single jumps by a one-legged hopper using a Raibert-style compression-extension virtual leg spring. We compose this controller with a controller that added damping to the leg spring ...


Teaching Modeling To Engineers In An Undergraduate Simulation Course, Vikram Mittal, Robert Kewley, Brett Lindberg Nov 2018

Teaching Modeling To Engineers In An Undergraduate Simulation Course, Vikram Mittal, Robert Kewley, Brett Lindberg

West Point Research Papers

A significant challenge in teaching simulation to undergraduate students is to find a way to allow them to model a real world referent system within time and student skill constraints. Several research sources highlight not only the important challenge of model development (Garcia and Ceneno, 2009, Tako, 2011) but also the increased need for model development instruction among engineers (Grasas et. al., 2013, Saltzman and Roeder, 2013). One approach to this challenge is to use a general purpose discrete event simulation software package within the course, but this presents two challenges. Teaching the package to the students takes significant time ...


Issues In Reproducible Simulation Research, Ben G. Fitzpatrick Oct 2018

Issues In Reproducible Simulation Research, Ben G. Fitzpatrick

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Efficacy Of Virtual Models In A Production Systems Course, Lawrence Whitman, Barbara Chaparro Oct 2018

Efficacy Of Virtual Models In A Production Systems Course, Lawrence Whitman, Barbara Chaparro

Barbara S. Chaparro

Wichita State University has developed an integrated set of virtual reality models of an aircraft assembly line. These models are intended to provide students an ‘artifact’ of industrial and manufacturing engineering by providing a realistic environment for initial learning and application. By utilizing a virtual model of the line, students are able to view the process and interrogate the process details, make changes and observe the effects, and gain a better understanding of the concepts and their interrelationships. This paper presents the method used to assess if virtual models (computer models of a real factory) lead to: improved perception of ...


Neural Network Based Decentralized Excitation Control Of Large Scale Power Systems, Wenxin Liu, Ganesh K. Venayagamoorthy, Donald C. Wunsch, David A. Cartes, Jagannathan Sarangapani Oct 2018

Neural Network Based Decentralized Excitation Control Of Large Scale Power Systems, Wenxin Liu, Ganesh K. Venayagamoorthy, Donald C. Wunsch, David A. Cartes, Jagannathan Sarangapani

Donald C. Wunsch

This paper presents a neural network (NN) based decentralized excitation controller design for large scale power systems. The proposed controller design considers not only the dynamics of generators but also the algebraic constraints of the power flow equations. The control signals are calculated using only local signals. The transient stability and the coordination of the subsystem controllers can be guaranteed. NNs are used to approximate the unknown/imprecise dynamics of the local power system and the interconnections. All signals in the closed loop system are guaranteed to be uniformly ultimately bounded (UUB). Simulation results with a 3-machine power system demonstrate ...


Feedback Linearization Based Power System Stabilizer Design With Control Limits, Wenxin Liu, Ganesh K. Venayagamoorthy, Donald C. Wunsch, Jagannathan Sarangapani Oct 2018

Feedback Linearization Based Power System Stabilizer Design With Control Limits, Wenxin Liu, Ganesh K. Venayagamoorthy, Donald C. Wunsch, Jagannathan Sarangapani

Donald C. Wunsch

In power system controls, simplified analytical models are used to represent the dynamics of power system and controller designs are not rigorous with no stability analysis. One reason is because the power systems are complex nonlinear systems which pose difficulty for analysis. This paper presents a feedback linearization based power system stabilizer design for a single machine infinite bus power system. Since practical operating conditions require the magnitude of control signal to be within certain limits, the stability of the control system under control limits is also analyzed. Simulation results under different kinds of operating conditions show that the controller ...


Decentralized Neural Network Control Of A Class Of Large-Scale Systems With Unknown Interconnection, Wenxin Liu, Jagannathan Sarangapani, Donald C. Wunsch, Mariesa Crow Oct 2018

Decentralized Neural Network Control Of A Class Of Large-Scale Systems With Unknown Interconnection, Wenxin Liu, Jagannathan Sarangapani, Donald C. Wunsch, Mariesa Crow

Donald C. Wunsch

A novel decentralized neural network (DNN) controller is proposed for a class of large-scale nonlinear systems with unknown interconnections. The objective is to design a DNN for a class of large-scale systems which do not satisfy the matching condition requirement. The NNs are used to approximate the unknown subsystem dynamics and the interconnections. The DNN is designed using the back stepping methodology with only local signals for feedback. All of the signals in the closed loop (system states and weights estimation errors) are guaranteed to be uniformly ultimately bounded and eventually converge to a compact set.


Adaptive Neural Network Based Stabilizing Controller Design For Single Machine Infinite Bus Power Systems, Wenxin Liu, Ganesh K. Venayagamoorthy, Donald C. Wunsch, David A. Cartes, Jagannathan Sarangapani, Mariesa Crow Oct 2018

Adaptive Neural Network Based Stabilizing Controller Design For Single Machine Infinite Bus Power Systems, Wenxin Liu, Ganesh K. Venayagamoorthy, Donald C. Wunsch, David A. Cartes, Jagannathan Sarangapani, Mariesa Crow

Donald C. Wunsch

Power system stabilizers are widely used to generate supplementary control signals for the excitation system in order to damp out the low frequency oscillations. In power system control literature, the performances of the proposed controllers were mostly demonstrated using simulation results without any rigorous stability analysis. This paper proposes a stabilizing neural network (NN) controller based on a sixth order single machine infinite bus power system model. The NN is used to approximate the complex nonlinear dynamics of power system. Unlike the other indirect adaptive NN control schemes, there is no offline training process and the NN can be directly ...


Inertial Velocity And Attitude Estimation For Quadrotors: Supplementary Material, James B. Svacha Jr, Kartik Mohta, Michael Watterson, Giuseppe Loianno, Vijay Kumar Oct 2018

Inertial Velocity And Attitude Estimation For Quadrotors: Supplementary Material, James B. Svacha Jr, Kartik Mohta, Michael Watterson, Giuseppe Loianno, Vijay Kumar

Departmental Papers (ESE)

No abstract provided.


Sensor-Based Reactive Execution Of Symbolic Rearrangement Plans By A Legged Mobile Manipulator, Vasileios Vasilopoulos, T. Turner Topping, William Vega-Brown, Nicholas Roy, Daniel E. Koditschek Oct 2018

Sensor-Based Reactive Execution Of Symbolic Rearrangement Plans By A Legged Mobile Manipulator, Vasileios Vasilopoulos, T. Turner Topping, William Vega-Brown, Nicholas Roy, Daniel E. Koditschek

Departmental Papers (ESE)

We demonstrate the physical rearrangement of wheeled stools in a moderately cluttered indoor environment by a quadrupedal robot that autonomously achieves a user's desired configuration. The robot's behaviors are planned and executed by a three layer hierarchical architecture consisting of: an offline symbolic task and motion planner; a reactive layer that tracks the reference output of the deliberative layer and avoids unanticipated obstacles sensed online; and a gait layer that realizes the abstract unicycle commands from the reactive module through appropriately coordinated joint level torque feedback loops. This work also extends prior formal results about the reactive layer ...


Design Parameters For Small Engines Based On Market Research, Vikram Mittal Sep 2018

Design Parameters For Small Engines Based On Market Research, Vikram Mittal

West Point Research Papers

Small internal combustion engines outperform batteries and fuel cells in regards to weight for a range of applications, including consumer products, marine vehicles, small manned ground vehicles, unmanned vehicles, and generators. The power ranges for these applications are typically between 1 kW and 10 kW. There are numerous technical challenges associated with engines producing power in this range resulting in low power density and high specific fuel consumption. As such, there is a large range of engine design solutions that are commercially available in this power range to overcome these technical challenges. A market survey was conducted of commercially available ...


Distributed Methods For Composite Optimization: Communication Efficiency, Load-Balancing And Local Solvers, Chenxin Ma Sep 2018

Distributed Methods For Composite Optimization: Communication Efficiency, Load-Balancing And Local Solvers, Chenxin Ma

Theses and Dissertations

The scale of modern datasets necessitates the development of efficient distributed opti- mization methods for composite problems, which have numerous applications in the field of machine learning. A critical challenge in realizing this promise of scalability is to develop efficient methods for communicating and coordinating information between distributed ma- chines, taking into account the specific needs of machine learning algorithms. Recent work in this area has been limited by focusing heavily on developing highly specific methods for the distributed environment. These special-purpose methods are often unable to fully leverage the competitive performance of their well-tuned and customized single machine counterparts ...


Space Architecture Assessment Using System-Of-Systems Methodologies, Liam Durbin, Cesare Guariniello, Daniel Delaurentis Aug 2018

Space Architecture Assessment Using System-Of-Systems Methodologies, Liam Durbin, Cesare Guariniello, Daniel Delaurentis

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

As technologies in the space exploration community are further developed, mission complexity and the associated risks have become greater. Dozens of complicated system interactions may result in unexpected, potentially dangerous emergent behaviors. Early efforts are underway by NASA to map potential system architectures (collections of systems which fulfill design requirements) for future human space exploration missions. However, current mission complexity requires the determination of emergent behaviors, as well as time requirements, and safety levels of complicated space exploration architectures, which current analysis methods in use cannot address. To that end, a newer technique has been developed—System Operability Dependency Analysis ...


What Is A Good Pattern Of Life Model? Guidance For Simulations, Barry G. Silverman, Gnana K. Bharathy, Nathan Weyer Aug 2018

What Is A Good Pattern Of Life Model? Guidance For Simulations, Barry G. Silverman, Gnana K. Bharathy, Nathan Weyer

Departmental Papers (ESE)

We have been modeling an ever-increasing scale of applications with agents that simulate the pattern of life (PoL) and real-world human behaviors in diverse regions of the world. The goal is to support sociocultural training and analysis. To measure progress, we propose the definition of a measure of goodness for such simulated agents, and review the issues and challenges associated with first-generation (1G) agents. Then we present a second generation (2G) agent hybrid approach that seeks to improve realism in terms of emergent daily activities, social awareness, and micro-decision making in simulations. We offer a PoL case study with a ...


Analytically-Guided Design Of A Tailed Bipedal Hopping Robot, Abdulaziz Shamsah, Avik De, Daniel E. Koditschek Jul 2018

Analytically-Guided Design Of A Tailed Bipedal Hopping Robot, Abdulaziz Shamsah, Avik De, Daniel E. Koditschek

Departmental Papers (ESE)

We present the first fully spatial hopping gait of a 12 DoF tailed biped driven by only 4 actuators. The control of this physical machine is built up from parallel compositions of controllers for progressively higher DoF extensions of a simple 2 DoF, 1 actuator template. These template dynamics are still not themselves integrable, but a new hybrid averaging analysis yields a conjectured closed form representation of the approximate hopping limit cycle as a function of its physical and control parameters. The resulting insight into the role of the machine's kinematic and dynamical design choices affords a redesign leading ...


Statistical Reliability Of Wind Power Scenarios And Stochastic Unit Commitment Cost, Didem Sari, Sarah M. Ryan Jul 2018

Statistical Reliability Of Wind Power Scenarios And Stochastic Unit Commitment Cost, Didem Sari, Sarah M. Ryan

Sarah M. Ryan

Probabilistic wind power scenarios constitute a crucial input for stochastic day-ahead unit commitment in power systems with deep penetration of wind generation. To minimize the cost of implemented solutions, the scenario time series of wind power amounts available should accurately represent the stochastic process for available wind power as it is estimated on the day ahead. The high computational demands of stochastic programming motivate a search for ways to evaluate scenarios without extensively simulating the stochastic unit commitment procedure. The statistical reliability of wind power scenario sets can be assessed by approaches extended from ensemble forecast verification. We examine the ...


Closed-Loop Supply Chain Network Design With Multiple Transportation Modes Under Stochastic Demand And Uncertain Carbon Tax, Ali Haddadsisakht, Sarah M. Ryan Jul 2018

Closed-Loop Supply Chain Network Design With Multiple Transportation Modes Under Stochastic Demand And Uncertain Carbon Tax, Ali Haddadsisakht, Sarah M. Ryan

Sarah M. Ryan

We optimize the design of a closed-loop supply chain network that encompasses flows in both forward and reverse directions and is subject to uncertainty in demands for both new and returned products. The model also accommodates a carbon tax with tax rate uncertainty. The proposed model is a three-stage hybrid robust/stochastic program that combines probabilistic scenarios for the demands and return quantities with uncertainty sets for the carbon tax rates. The first stage decisions are facility investments, the second stage concerns the plan for distributing new and collecting returned products after realization of demands and returns, and the numbers ...


Vertical Hopper Compositions For Preflexive And Feedback-Stabilized Quadrupedal Bounding, Pacing, Pronking, And Trotting, Avik De, Daniel E. Koditschek Jul 2018

Vertical Hopper Compositions For Preflexive And Feedback-Stabilized Quadrupedal Bounding, Pacing, Pronking, And Trotting, Avik De, Daniel E. Koditschek

Departmental Papers (ESE)

This paper applies an extension of classical averaging methods to hybrid dynamical systems, thereby achieving formally specified, physically effective and robust instances of all virtual bipedal gaits on a quadrupedal robot. Gait specification takes the form of a three parameter family of coupling rules mathematically shown to stabilize limit cycles in a low degree of freedom template: an abstracted pair of vertical hoppers whose relative phase locking encodes the desired physical leg patterns. These coupling rules produce the desired gaits when appropriately applied to the physical robot. The formal analysis reveals a distinct set of morphological regimes determined by the ...


Understanding Transit System Performance Using Avl-Apc Data: An Analytics Platform With Case Studies For The Pittsburgh Region, Xidong Pi, Mark Egge, Jackson Whitmore, Amy Silbermann, Zhen Sean Qian Jul 2018

Understanding Transit System Performance Using Avl-Apc Data: An Analytics Platform With Case Studies For The Pittsburgh Region, Xidong Pi, Mark Egge, Jackson Whitmore, Amy Silbermann, Zhen Sean Qian

Journal of Public Transportation

This paper introduces a novel transit data analytics platform for public transit planning, assessing service quality and revealing service problems in high spatiotemporal resolution for public transit systems based on Automatic Passenger Counting (APC) and Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL) technologies. The platform offers a systematic way for users and decision makers to understand system performance from many aspects of service quality, including passenger waiting time, stop-skipping frequency, bus bunching level, bus travel time, on-time performance, and bus fullness. The AVL-APC data from September 2012 to March 2016 were archived in a database to support the development of a user-friendly web ...