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Using Heat To Trace Vertical Water Fluxes In Sediment Experiencing Concurrent Tidal Pumping And Groundwater Discharge, N. K. LeRoux, B. L. Kurylyk, M. A. Briggs, D. J. Irvine, J. J. Tamborski, V. F. Bense 2021 Old Dominion University

Using Heat To Trace Vertical Water Fluxes In Sediment Experiencing Concurrent Tidal Pumping And Groundwater Discharge, N. K. Leroux, B. L. Kurylyk, M. A. Briggs, D. J. Irvine, J. J. Tamborski, V. F. Bense

OEAS Faculty Publications

Heat has been widely applied to trace groundwater-surface water exchanges in inland environments, but it is infrequently applied in coastal sediment where head oscillations induce periodicity in water flux magnitude/direction and heat advection. This complicates interpretation of temperatures to estimate water fluxes. We investigate the convolution of thermal and hydraulic signals to assess the viability of using heat as a tracer in environments with tidal head oscillations superimposed on submarine groundwater discharge. We first generate sediment temperature and head time series for conditions ranging from no tide to mega-tidal using a numerical model (SUTRA) forced with periodic temperature and ...


Comparing Interrelated Stress Measures To Differentiate Acute And Chronic Stress In Urban Freshwater Turtles, Katherine Caldwell 2021 Rollins College

Comparing Interrelated Stress Measures To Differentiate Acute And Chronic Stress In Urban Freshwater Turtles, Katherine Caldwell

Honors Program Theses

As urban areas grow in size and number, there are increasing impacts on the wildlife. While some species adapt, others cannot thrive in these conditions. Stress is the biological response to a stimulus that threatens homeostasis, which can be used to understand the condition of an individual. While acute stress is beneficial for survival, chronic stress can lead to deleterious impacts. A majority of turtles can be classified as declining in number or endangered, yet there is little understanding of their physiological stress response. This study examined how various stress measures—including corticosterone (CORT) in plasma, nails and leeches, metabolic ...


Carbonaceous Matter In The Atmosphere And Glaciers Of The Himalayas And The Tibetan Plateau: An Investigative Review, Chaoliu Li, Fangping Yan, Shichang Kang, Caiqing Yan, Zhaofu Hu, Pengfei Chen, Shaopeng Gao, Chao Zhang, Cenlin He, Susan Kaspari, Aron Stubbins 2021 Chinese Academy of Sciences

Carbonaceous Matter In The Atmosphere And Glaciers Of The Himalayas And The Tibetan Plateau: An Investigative Review, Chaoliu Li, Fangping Yan, Shichang Kang, Caiqing Yan, Zhaofu Hu, Pengfei Chen, Shaopeng Gao, Chao Zhang, Cenlin He, Susan Kaspari, Aron Stubbins

Geological Sciences Faculty Scholarship

Carbonaceous matter, including organic carbon (OC) and black carbon (BC), is an important climate forcing agent and contributes to glacier retreat in the Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau (HTP). The HTP – the so-called “Third Pole” – contains the most extensive glacial area outside of the polar regions. Considerable research on carbonaceous matter in the HTP has been conducted, although this research has been challenging due to the complex terrain and strong spatiotemporal heterogeneity of carbonaceous matter in the HTP. A comprehensive investigation of published atmospheric and snow data for HTP carbonaceous matter concentration, deposition and light absorption is presented, including how ...


New Hampshire Continental Shelf Geophysical Database: 2016-2017 Field Campaign – Seafloor Photographs, Larry G. Ward, Rachel C. Morrison, Zachary S. McAvoy 2021 University of New Hampshire CCOM/JHC, Durham

New Hampshire Continental Shelf Geophysical Database: 2016-2017 Field Campaign – Seafloor Photographs, Larry G. Ward, Rachel C. Morrison, Zachary S. Mcavoy

Data Catalog

The "New Hampshire Continental Shelf Geophysical Database: 2016-2017 Field Campaign – Seafloor Photographs” was developed by the University of New Hampshire (UNH) Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping/Joint Hydrographic Center (CCOM/JHC). The field campaign was conducted to provide ground truth for surficial geology maps for the continental shelf off New Hampshire (NH) and focused on the inner shelf between the coast and the Isles of Shoals. Station locations were chosen where high-resolution bathymetry was available, including multibeam echosounder (MBES) surveys conducted by the UNH CCOM/JHC Hydrographic Field Course (Ocean Engineering 972), MBES surveys by the NOAA National Ocean ...


Plant Physiological Responses To Environmental Change In A Marsh-Mangrove Ecotone, Matthew Sturchio 2021 University of North Florida

Plant Physiological Responses To Environmental Change In A Marsh-Mangrove Ecotone, Matthew Sturchio

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Globally, photosynthesis (A) and autotrophic respiration (R) are the two largest physiological processes responsible for CO2 flux. Coastal wetland ecosystems are responsible for some of the highest rates of C sequestration. Marsh grass and mangrove habitats responsible for this service are important in supporting biodiversity and preventing shoreline erosion, yet little is known about how this vegetation will respond physiologically to effects of climate and global change. In the first chapter a warming experiment was used to determine whether a C4 marsh grass (Spartina alterniflora) and a C3 mangrove (Avicennia germinans) acclimate leaf R to seasonal changes ...


Heat Stress During Larval Stages On Coral Survivorship For M. Capitata, Sarah Woo 2021 Claremont Colleges

Heat Stress During Larval Stages On Coral Survivorship For M. Capitata, Sarah Woo

Pitzer Senior Theses

Very little is known about how heat stress during larvae stages effect larvae survivorship, early coral recruit settlement, and later stage coral survivorship. We focused on determining how heat stress during larvae stages effected Montipora capitata survivorship over time. After thermally stressing larvae, we asked how many larvae survived the treatment, how the treatment affected settlement, how many larvae survived the heat treatment but did not settle, and later stage coral survivorship experienced residual effects from the heat stress treatment. We exposed coral larvae to ambient seawater temperatures at 30°C and heated seawater temperatures to 34°C for an ...


Investigating The Phase Of Green Leaf Volatile Derived Secondary Organic Aerosol Using An Electrical Low Pressure Impactor, Kevin Fischer 2021 University of Vermont

Investigating The Phase Of Green Leaf Volatile Derived Secondary Organic Aerosol Using An Electrical Low Pressure Impactor, Kevin Fischer

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

Airborne particulate matter consists of small particles suspended in the air and is a ubiquitous component of the Earth’s atmosphere. These particles, known as aerosols, broadly affect both human health and the global climate. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA), a subset of atmospheric aerosol, are produced by the gas phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) originating from anthropogenic and biogenic sources. Of particular interest are a sub class of biogenic VOCs released by stressed plants, green leaf volatiles (GLVs), which are susceptible to oxidation via ozonolysis and form SOA. While important strides have been made in better understanding SOA ...


Artificial Reefs: A History, A Science, A Technology, Mairead D. Farrell 2021 Colby College

Artificial Reefs: A History, A Science, A Technology, Mairead D. Farrell

Honors Theses

Over the past 60 years, artificial reefs have expanded beyond the definition of a technology, and in turn have developed into a unique branch of marine science. To better emphasize this growth and separation, a brief history of artificial reef development and usage in chapter two shows some of the key shifts over time in this technology’s purpose and the materials used to achieve that goal. Likewise, to indicate the scientific development of artificial reefs as a branch of marine science, their usage for discovery and research is recorded in chapter three, along with the exponential increase in published ...


Strategies For Reducing Greenhouse Gases From Liquid Dairy Manure, Vera Sokolov 2021 Wilfrid Laurier University

Strategies For Reducing Greenhouse Gases From Liquid Dairy Manure, Vera Sokolov

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Livestock production, including the storage, handling, and spreading of manure, are among the largest contributors to greenhouse gas emissions from the agricultural sector. Liquid dairy manure storages are hot spots of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and ammonia (NH3). Both CH4 and N2O are greenhouse gases (GHG) which contribute to global warming, while NH3 is an indirect source of N2O and a risk to human health. Reducing emissions from manure storages is important not only for protection of environment and humans, but also for conserving the nutrients in manure making ...


A Data Repository For Extent And Causes Of Chesapeake Bay Warming, Kyle E. Hinson, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Pierre St-Laurent 2021 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

A Data Repository For Extent And Causes Of Chesapeake Bay Warming, Kyle E. Hinson, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Pierre St-Laurent

Data

This data repository is a permanent archive of the results presented in the associated publication (Hinson et al. 2021, Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 1–21. https://doi.org/10.1111/1752-1688.12916


A Data Repository For Effects Of Reduced Shoreline Erosion On Chesapeake Bay Water Clarity, Jessica Turner, Pierre St-Laurent, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Carl T. Friedrichs 2021 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

A Data Repository For Effects Of Reduced Shoreline Erosion On Chesapeake Bay Water Clarity, Jessica Turner, Pierre St-Laurent, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Carl T. Friedrichs

Data

This data repository is a permanent archive of the results presented in the associated publication (Turner et al. 2020, Science of the Total Environment, doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145157).

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of shoreline erosion on water clarity in the Chesapeake Bay. To this end, we used the Chesapeake Bay ROMS Estuarine Carbon and Biogeochemistry (ChesROMS-ECB), a biogeochemical model embedded in the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). Using this model, we simulated a Chesapeake Bay estuary from 2001-2005 with varying magnitudes of sediment inputs from shoreline erosion and varying seabed erodibility ...


Surficial Geology Of The Continental Shelf Off New Hampshire: Morphologic Features And Surficial Sediment, Larry G. Ward, Zachary S. McAvoy, Maxlimer Coromoto Vallee-Anziani, Rachel C. Morrison 2021 University of New Hampshire CCOM/JHC, Durham

Surficial Geology Of The Continental Shelf Off New Hampshire: Morphologic Features And Surficial Sediment, Larry G. Ward, Zachary S. Mcavoy, Maxlimer Coromoto Vallee-Anziani, Rachel C. Morrison

Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping

The continental shelf off New Hampshire (NH) in the Western Gulf of Maine (WGOM) is extremely complex and includes extensive bedrock outcrops, marine-modified glacial deposits, marine-formed shoals, seafloor plains, and associated features that are composed of a range of sediment types from mud to gravel. Furthermore, the physiography and composition of the seafloor frequently changes dramatically over relatively short distances (tens of meters). The complexity of the WGOM seafloor results from the interplay of glaciations, sea-level fluctuations, and marine processes (waves and currents). High-resolution multibeam echosounder (MBES) bathymetry and backscatter surveys, along with ground truth consisting of archived seismic reflection ...


Temperature Variance Portends And Indicates The Extent Of Abrupt Climate Shifts, Christine Ramadhin, Chuixiang Yi, George Hendrey 2021 CUNY Queens College

Temperature Variance Portends And Indicates The Extent Of Abrupt Climate Shifts, Christine Ramadhin, Chuixiang Yi, George Hendrey

Publications and Research

Here, we show a discernable increase in temperature variance before a glacial termination by both the Ansari-Bradley test and the moving variance methods plus introduce the idea that there is a correlation between the peak variance and peak temperature increase. The behavior of temperature variance shows potential as a useful tool in analyzing time series data of Earth systems to assess the risk and extent of an upcoming abrupt climate transition.


Weather And Landscape Influences On Pollinator Visitation Of Flowering Winter Oilseeds (Field Pennycress And Winter Camelina), Frank Forcella, Swetabh Patel, Andrew W. Lenssen, Cody Hoerning, M. Scott Wells, Russ W. Gesch, Marisol T. Berti 2020 University of Minnesota - Twin Cities

Weather And Landscape Influences On Pollinator Visitation Of Flowering Winter Oilseeds (Field Pennycress And Winter Camelina), Frank Forcella, Swetabh Patel, Andrew W. Lenssen, Cody Hoerning, M. Scott Wells, Russ W. Gesch, Marisol T. Berti

Agronomy Publications

Flowers of field pennycress (Thlaspi arvsense L.) and winter camelina (Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz.) produce abundant pollen and nectar in early spring and thereby may be valuable for pollinators. Insects observed in field plots of these flowers were classified into seven easily identifiable groups (bumblebee, honeybee, solitary bee, butterfly/moth, beetle, fly and other) and monitored for 2 years at three sites in the Upper Midwest region of the USA. Average seasonal observations across years and sites varied from 1.6 to 5.3 total insects/min for field pennycress and 1.4 to 4.5 insects/min for winter ...


A Multidisciplinary Approach To Investigate Deep-Pelagic Ecosystem Dynamics In The Gulf Of Mexico Following Deepwater Horizon, April Cook, Andrea Bernard, Kevin M. Boswell, Heather Bracken-Grissom Dr., Marta D'Elia, Sergio DeRada, Cole Easson, David English, Ron Eytan, Tamara Frank, Chuanmin Hu, Matt Johnston, Heather Judkins, Chad Lembke, Jose Lopez, Rosanna Milligan, Jon A. Moore, Brad Penta, Nina Pruzinsky, John A. Quinlan, Travis M. Richards, Isabel C. Romero, Mahmood S. Shivji, Michael Vecchione, Max D. Weber, R.J. David Wells, Tracey Sutton 2020 Nova Southeastern University

A Multidisciplinary Approach To Investigate Deep-Pelagic Ecosystem Dynamics In The Gulf Of Mexico Following Deepwater Horizon, April Cook, Andrea Bernard, Kevin M. Boswell, Heather Bracken-Grissom Dr., Marta D'Elia, Sergio Derada, Cole Easson, David English, Ron Eytan, Tamara Frank, Chuanmin Hu, Matt Johnston, Heather Judkins, Chad Lembke, Jose Lopez, Rosanna Milligan, Jon A. Moore, Brad Penta, Nina Pruzinsky, John A. Quinlan, Travis M. Richards, Isabel C. Romero, Mahmood S. Shivji, Michael Vecchione, Max D. Weber, R.J. David Wells, Tracey Sutton

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

The pelagic Gulf of Mexico (GoM) is a complex system of dynamic physical oceanography (western boundary current, mesoscale eddies), high biological diversity, and community integration via diel vertical migration and lateral advection. Humans also heavily utilize this system, including its deep-sea components, for resource extraction, shipping, tourism, and other commercial activity. This utilization has had impacts, some with disastrous consequences. The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWHOS) occurred at a depth of ∼1500 m (Macondo wellhead), creating a persistent and toxic mixture of hydrocarbons and dispersant in the deep-pelagic (water column below 200 m depth) habitat. In order to assess the ...


Modulation Of Late Pleistocene Enso Strength By The Tropical Pacific Thermocline, Gerald T. Rustic, Pratigya J. Polissar, Ana Christina Ravelo, Sarah M. White 2020 Rowan University

Modulation Of Late Pleistocene Enso Strength By The Tropical Pacific Thermocline, Gerald T. Rustic, Pratigya J. Polissar, Ana Christina Ravelo, Sarah M. White

School of Earth & Environment Faculty Scholarship

The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is highly dependent on coupled atmosphere-ocean interactions and feedbacks, suggesting a tight relationship between ENSO strength and background climate conditions. However, the extent to which background climate state determines ENSO behavior remains in question. Here we present reconstructions of total variability and El Niño amplitude from individual foraminifera distributions at discrete time intervals over the past ~285,000 years across varying atmospheric CO2 levels, global ice volume and sea level, and orbital insolation forcing. Our results show a strong correlation between eastern tropical Pacific Ocean mixed-layer thickness and both El Niño amplitude and central ...


Optical Signatures Of Plankton In The Open Ocean: From Individual Cells To Global Patterns, Nils Haentjens 2020 University of Maine

Optical Signatures Of Plankton In The Open Ocean: From Individual Cells To Global Patterns, Nils Haentjens

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Marine plankton ecosystems play a major role on Earth, having implications for the global carbon cycle and the food-web structures. Ocean color satellites and networks of autonomous platforms equipped with optical sensors are the primary tools used to study phytoplankton dynamics. They provide long term records while offering a synoptic view of our oceans, enabling to study impact of climate variability on planktonic ecosystems. Interpretation of these observations rely heavily on optical theory and how light propagating through the water is affected by particles who absorb and scatter light (e.g. phytoplankton, sediments). However, the complexity of the optical properties ...


Fostering Coastal Destination Resilience In Maine: Understanding Climate Change Risks And Behaviors, Lydia Horne 2020 University of Maine

Fostering Coastal Destination Resilience In Maine: Understanding Climate Change Risks And Behaviors, Lydia Horne

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Tourism is an increasingly important global industry. Coastal and nature-based tourism destinations are especially vulnerable to climate change. Trends in visitation are expected to shift under changing climate conditions, influencing tourist travel behaviors related to destination selection, timing of visits, and activity participation. Tourism suppliers’ adaptation and mitigation behaviors have the potential to alleviate negative shifts in visitation and respond to negative climate change impacts, while also enabling suppliers to take advantage of emerging opportunities. The purpose of this dissertation is to understand how tourism stakeholders, including tourism suppliers (i.e., business owners, managers) and consumers (i.e., visitors), perceive ...


Ocean Acidification And Its Effects On Marine Wildlife, Matilda Phillips 2020 University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa

Ocean Acidification And Its Effects On Marine Wildlife, Matilda Phillips

Horizons

Ocean acidification is the process in which carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere absorbs in water to produce calcium carbonate. With the rising CO2 levels in the atmosphere, and the ocean being a carbon sink, ocean acidification remains a threat to the various forms of marine wildlife, specifically, the shark population. The effects of ocean acidification have the potential to damage shark physiology by altering their blood chemistry and overall neurology. This could result in the imbalance of the ocean’s natural order and food chain due to the distress from these apex predators. When analyzing the experiments that have ...


Influence Of Some Climatic Elements On Radon Concentration In Saeva Dupka Cave, Bulgaria, Peter Nojarov, Petar Stefanov, Karel Turek 2020 National Institute of Geophysics, Geodesy and Geography, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences

Influence Of Some Climatic Elements On Radon Concentration In Saeva Dupka Cave, Bulgaria, Peter Nojarov, Petar Stefanov, Karel Turek

International Journal of Speleology

This study reveals the influence of some climatic elements on radon concentration in Saeva Dupka Cave, Bulgaria. The research is based mainly on statistical methods. Radon concentration in the cave is determined by two main mechanisms. The first one is through penetration of radon from soil and rocks around the cave (present all year round, but has leading role during the warm half of the year). The second one is through thermodynamic exchange of air between inside of the cave and outside atmosphere (cold half of the year). Climatic factors that affect radon concentration in the cave are temperatures (air ...


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