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Changes In Reef Tourism’S Adaptive Capacity After Severe Climate Disturbances, Henry Bartelet, Michele Barnes, Lalu Bakti, Graeme S. Cumming 2024 Ateneo de Manila University

Changes In Reef Tourism’S Adaptive Capacity After Severe Climate Disturbances, Henry Bartelet, Michele Barnes, Lalu Bakti, Graeme S. Cumming

Quantitative Methods and Information Technology Faculty Publications

Knowledge about adaptive capacity and its determinants has increased significantly over the last decade. However, most research on adaptive capacity has been static, not considering how adaptive capacity might change over time, particularly after severe disturbances. We studied the adaptive capacity dynamics of Asian-Pacific reef tourism operators affected by coral bleaching and tropical cyclones compared with a control group with non-affected operators. We found that impacts from tropical cyclones were associated with frequent changes in adaptive capacity. Notably, we found a reduction in tangible attributes (assets and flexibility) of adaptive capacity, whereas intangible attributes (agency and social organization) increased. Our …


Climate Change-Associated Declines In Water Clarity Impair Feeding By Common Loons, Walter H. Piper, Max R. Glines, Kevin C. Rose 2024 Chapman University

Climate Change-Associated Declines In Water Clarity Impair Feeding By Common Loons, Walter H. Piper, Max R. Glines, Kevin C. Rose

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Climate change has myriad impacts on ecosystems, but the mechanisms by which it affects individual species can be difficult to pinpoint. One strategy to discover such mechanisms is to identify a specific ecological factor related to survival or reproduction and determine how that factor is affected by climate. Here we used Landsat imagery to calculate water clarity for 127 lakes in northern Wisconsin from 1995 to 2021 and thus investigate the effect of clarity on the body condition of an aquatic visual predator, the common loon (Gavia immer). In addition, we examined rainfall and temperature as potential predictors …


Ground Electric Field, Atmospheric Weather And Electric Grid Variations In Northeast Greece Influenced By The March 2012 Solar Activity And The Moderate To Intense Geomagnetic Storms, Georgios Anagnostopoulos, Anastasios Karkanis, Athanasios Kampatagis, Panagiotis Marhavilas, Sofia-Anna Menesidou, Dimitrios Efthymiadis, Stefanos Keskinis, Dimitar Ouzounov, Nick Hatzigeorgiu, Michael Danakis 2024 Democritus University of Thrace (DUTH)

Ground Electric Field, Atmospheric Weather And Electric Grid Variations In Northeast Greece Influenced By The March 2012 Solar Activity And The Moderate To Intense Geomagnetic Storms, Georgios Anagnostopoulos, Anastasios Karkanis, Athanasios Kampatagis, Panagiotis Marhavilas, Sofia-Anna Menesidou, Dimitrios Efthymiadis, Stefanos Keskinis, Dimitar Ouzounov, Nick Hatzigeorgiu, Michael Danakis

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

In a recent paper, we extended a previous study on the solar solar influence to the generation of the March 2012 heatwave in the northeastern USA. In the present study we check the possible relationship of solar activity with the early March 2012 bad weather in northeast Thrace, Greece. To this end, we examined data from various remote sensing instrumentation monitoring the Sun (SDO satellite), Interplanetary space (ACE satellite), the Earth’s magnetosphere (Earth-based measurements, NOAA-19 satellite), the top of the clouds (Terra and Aqua satellites), and the near ground atmosphere. Our comparative data analysis suggests that: (i) the winter-like weather …


Yearly Population Data At Census Tract Level Revealed That More People Are Now Living In Highly Fire-Prone Zones In California, Usa, Slade Lazeweski, Shenyue Jia, Jessica E. Viner, Wesley Ho, Brian Hoover, Seung Hee Kim, Menas C. Kafatos 2024 Miami University

Yearly Population Data At Census Tract Level Revealed That More People Are Now Living In Highly Fire-Prone Zones In California, Usa, Slade Lazeweski, Shenyue Jia, Jessica E. Viner, Wesley Ho, Brian Hoover, Seung Hee Kim, Menas C. Kafatos

Institute for ECHO Articles and Research

In California (CA), the wildland-urban interface (WUI) faces escalating challenges due to surging population and real estate development. This study evaluates communities along CA's WUI that have witnessed substantial population growth from 2010 to 2021, utilizing demographic data and the 2020 WUI boundaries by the University of Wisconsin-Madison SILVIS Lab. Employing the Mann-Kendall test, we analyze yearly population trends for each census tract along the CA WUI and assess their significance. House ownership, affordability, and wildfire risk are examined as potential drivers of this demographic shift. Our findings indicate that 12.7% of CA's total population now resides in census tracts …


Toward A Coordinated Understanding Of Hydro-Biogeochemical Root Functions In Tropical Forests For Application In Vegetation Models, Daniela F. Cusack, Bradley Christoffersen, Chris M. Smith-Martin, Kelly M. Andersen, Amanda L. Cordeiro, Katrin Fleischer, S. Joseph Wright, Nathaly R. Guerrero-Ramírez, Laynara F. Lugli, Lindsay A. McCulloch, Mareli Sanchez-Julia, Sarah A. Batterman, Caroline Dallstream, Claire Fortunel, Laura Toro, Lucia Fuchslueger, Michelle Y. Wong, Daniela Yaffar, Joshua B. Fisher, Marie Arnaud, Lee H. Dietterich, Shalom D. Addo-Danso, Oscar J. Valverde-Barrantes, Monique Weemstra, Jing Cheng Ng, Richard J. Norby 2024 Colorado State University - Fort Collins

Toward A Coordinated Understanding Of Hydro-Biogeochemical Root Functions In Tropical Forests For Application In Vegetation Models, Daniela F. Cusack, Bradley Christoffersen, Chris M. Smith-Martin, Kelly M. Andersen, Amanda L. Cordeiro, Katrin Fleischer, S. Joseph Wright, Nathaly R. Guerrero-Ramírez, Laynara F. Lugli, Lindsay A. Mcculloch, Mareli Sanchez-Julia, Sarah A. Batterman, Caroline Dallstream, Claire Fortunel, Laura Toro, Lucia Fuchslueger, Michelle Y. Wong, Daniela Yaffar, Joshua B. Fisher, Marie Arnaud, Lee H. Dietterich, Shalom D. Addo-Danso, Oscar J. Valverde-Barrantes, Monique Weemstra, Jing Cheng Ng, Richard J. Norby

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Tropical forest root characteristics and resource acquisition strategies are underrepresented in vegetation and global models, hampering the prediction of forest–climate feedbacks for these carbon-rich ecosystems. Lowland tropical forests often have globally unique combinations of high taxonomic and functional biodiversity, rainfall seasonality, and strongly weathered infertile soils, giving rise to distinct patterns in root traits and functions compared with higher latitude ecosystems. We provide a roadmap for integrating recent advances in our understanding of tropical forest belowground function into vegetation models, focusing on water and nutrient acquisition. We offer comparisons of recent advances in empirical and model understanding of root characteristics …


Ocean Temperatures Do Not Account For A Record-Setting Winter In The U.S. West, Matthew D. LaPlante, Liping Deng, Luthiene Dalanhese, Shih-Yu Wang 2024 Utah State University

Ocean Temperatures Do Not Account For A Record-Setting Winter In The U.S. West, Matthew D. Laplante, Liping Deng, Luthiene Dalanhese, Shih-Yu Wang

Journalism and Communication Faculty Publications

The record-setting winter of 2022–2023 came as an answer to both figurative and literal prayers for political leaders, policy makers, and water managers reliant on snowpacks in the Upper Colorado River Basin, a vital source of water for tens of millions of people across the Western United States. But this “drought-busting” winter was not well-predicted, in part because while interannual patterns of tropical ocean temperatures have a well-known relationship to precipitation patterns across much of the American West, the Upper Colorado is part of a liminal region where these connections tend to be comparatively weak. Using historical sea surface temperature …


Analyzing The Ramifications Of Climate Change On Mental Health, Salvatore A. Medori 2024 Gettysburg College

Analyzing The Ramifications Of Climate Change On Mental Health, Salvatore A. Medori

CAFE Symposium 2024

When thinking about the vast array of impacts that the climate crisis has on humanity, there are many things that come to mind, but mental health impacts are likely not one of them. Even though research demonstrates that mental effects from any form of disaster far exceed the physical health implications mental health impacts of the largest disaster facing humanity since the Second World War are rarely considered at all, let alone when solutions are being created. This has led to a hidden crisis emerging underneath an even larger crisis, with serious consequences for most individuals across the globe. The …


Water Whiplash In Mediterranean Regions Of The World, Citlalli Madrigal, Rama Bedri, Thomas Piechota, Wenzhao Li, Glenn Tootle, Hesham el-Askary 2024 Chapman University

Water Whiplash In Mediterranean Regions Of The World, Citlalli Madrigal, Rama Bedri, Thomas Piechota, Wenzhao Li, Glenn Tootle, Hesham El-Askary

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

The presence of weather and water whiplash in Mediterranean regions of the world is analyzed using historical streamflow records from 1926 to 2023, depending on the region. Streamflow from the United States (California), Italy, Australia, Chile, and South Africa is analyzed using publicly available databases. Water whiplash—or the rapid shift of wet and dry periods—are compared. Wet and dry periods are defined based on annual deviations from the historical record average, and whiplash occurs when there is an abrupt change that overcomes an accommodated deficit or surplus. Of all the stations, there are more dry years (56%) than wet years …


Clouds In The Ancient Lunar Atmosphere: Water Ice Nucleation On Aerosol Simulants, Mariana C. Aguilar 2024 Purdue University

Clouds In The Ancient Lunar Atmosphere: Water Ice Nucleation On Aerosol Simulants, Mariana C. Aguilar

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

Today’s moon is vastly different from what it was 3 billion years ago. At that time, it was home to a collisional atmosphere formed through massive amounts of volcanism, releasing enough subsurface gas to sustain surface pressures of up to 1 kPa. Observations of our solar system have taught us that all dense atmospheres are host to clouds and aerosols, and we expect the Moon’s to be no different. Knowing when, where, and under what conditions cloud particles form is important for understanding the evolution of the lunar atmosphere, how it reacted to temperature gradients, and how it cycled volatiles. …


Using Repeat Photography To Document The Effects Of Climate Change On Glaciers In Iceland Change On Glaciers In Iceland, Madeleine Gassin 2024 Connecticut College

Using Repeat Photography To Document The Effects Of Climate Change On Glaciers In Iceland Change On Glaciers In Iceland, Madeleine Gassin

Environmental Studies Honors Papers

Climate change is a worldwide, multifaceted phenomenon that impacts our world today and will continue to impact our world in the future with even greater severity. Although climate change can sometimes be considered an abstract topic due to its being somewhat intangible, one direct way of observing the effects of climate change is by studying glaciers. This study combines a literature review with repeat photography in order to demonstrate the tangible effects of climate change on glaciers in Iceland and explore the secondary impacts on sea level elevation (SEL), water availability and distribution, hydropower, natural hazards, and tourism in Iceland. …


C. Compactum Acts As A Comprehensive Climate Archive And Ecological Foundation In The Labrador Sea, Sadie Heckman 2024 Claremont Colleges

C. Compactum Acts As A Comprehensive Climate Archive And Ecological Foundation In The Labrador Sea, Sadie Heckman

CMC Senior Theses

Clathromorphum compactum, a species of crustose coralline algae (CCA), is incredibly valuable for the future of high latitude ocean health, both as a comprehensive archive of changing ocean conditions, and ecologically as a foundational species for promoting biodiversity. Previous work establishes C. compactum as an effective climate proxy, and its life history provides several advantages for this use. C. compactum grow in nongeniculate, generally radial formations on hard substrates, over a wide distribution in mid-to-high latitude oceans and at subtidal depth ranges. Indeterminate growth leads to extreme longevity in C. compactum (Halfar et al., 2008), and growth rates are relatively …


Season Influences Interspecific Responses Of Canopy-Forming Kelps To Future Warming And Acidification At High Latitude, Lauren E. Bell, Lily Westphal, Evan O' Brien, Jason A. Toy, Haleigh Damron, Kristy J. Kroeker 2024 University of California, Santa Cruz

Season Influences Interspecific Responses Of Canopy-Forming Kelps To Future Warming And Acidification At High Latitude, Lauren E. Bell, Lily Westphal, Evan O' Brien, Jason A. Toy, Haleigh Damron, Kristy J. Kroeker

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Variability in primary producers' responses to environmental change may buffer higher trophic levels against shifts in basal resource composition. Then again, in instances where there is a lack of functional redundancy because consumers rely on a few species to meet their energetic requirements at specific times of the year, altered community production dynamics may significantly impact food web resilience. In high-latitude kelp forests, a complementary annual phenology of seaweed production supports coastal marine consumers' metabolic needs across large seasonal variations in their environment. Yet, marine consumers in these systems may face significant metabolic stress under the pronounced low pH conditions …


Last Millennium Hurricane Activity Linked To Endogenous Climate Variability, Wenchang Yang, Elizabeth Wallace, Gabriel A. Vecchi, Jeffrey P. Donnelly, Julien Emile-Geay, Gregory J. Hakim, Larry W. Horowitz, Richard M. Sullivan, Robert Tardif, Peter J. van Hengstum, Tyler S. Winkler 2024 Princeton University

Last Millennium Hurricane Activity Linked To Endogenous Climate Variability, Wenchang Yang, Elizabeth Wallace, Gabriel A. Vecchi, Jeffrey P. Donnelly, Julien Emile-Geay, Gregory J. Hakim, Larry W. Horowitz, Richard M. Sullivan, Robert Tardif, Peter J. Van Hengstum, Tyler S. Winkler

OES Faculty Publications

Despite increased Atlantic hurricane risk, projected trends in hurricane frequency in the warming climate are still highly uncertain, mainly due to short instrumental record that limits our understanding of hurricane activity and its relationship to climate. Here we extend the record to the last millennium using two independent estimates: a reconstruction from sedimentary paleohurricane records and a statistical model of hurricane activity using sea surface temperatures (SSTs). We find statistically significant agreement between the two estimates and the late 20th century hurricane frequency is within the range seen over the past millennium. Numerical simulations using a hurricane-permitting climate model suggest …


Integrating Climatological-Hydrodynamic Modeling And Paleohurricane Records To Assess Storm Surge Risk, Amirhosein Begmohammadi, Christine Y. Blackshaw, Ning Lin, Avantika Gori, Elizabeth Wallace, Kerry Emanuel, Jeffrey P. Donnelly 2024 Princeton University

Integrating Climatological-Hydrodynamic Modeling And Paleohurricane Records To Assess Storm Surge Risk, Amirhosein Begmohammadi, Christine Y. Blackshaw, Ning Lin, Avantika Gori, Elizabeth Wallace, Kerry Emanuel, Jeffrey P. Donnelly

OES Faculty Publications

Sediment cores from blue holes have emerged as a promising tool for extending the record of long-term tropical cyclone (TC) activity. However, interpreting this archive is challenging because storm surge depends on many parameters including TC intensity, track, and size. In this study, we use climatological-hydrodynamic modeling to interpret paleohurricane sediment records between 1851 and 2016 and assess the storm surge risk for Long Island in The Bahamas. As the historical TC data from 1988 to 2016 is too limited to estimate the surge risk for this area, we use historical event attribution in paleorecords paired with synthetic storm modeling …


Impact Of Solar Radiation On Perchlorate Formation In The Atmosphere: Evidence From Ice Core Measurements, Bishnu Kunwar 2024 South Dakota State University

Impact Of Solar Radiation On Perchlorate Formation In The Atmosphere: Evidence From Ice Core Measurements, Bishnu Kunwar

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Perchlorate, which derives from both anthropogenic and natural sources in the current environment, poses a substantial health hazard to humans as it competes with iodine uptake in the thyroid gland. Consequently, there has been considerable concern about minimizing human exposure to environmental perchlorate by restricting its release from man-made sources. However, the absence of a clear understanding regarding the respective contributions of man-made and natural sources has hindered widespread regulation efforts. A 300-year (1700–2007) Summit, Greenland ice core record from a previous study showed relatively stable perchlorate concentrations in Greenland snow prior to 1980, with some elevated perchlorate levels associated …


Permafrost Carbon: Progress On Understanding Stocks And Fluxes Across Northern Terrestrial Ecosystems, Claire C. Treat, Anna-Maria Virkkala, Eleanor Burke, Lori Bruhwiler, Abhishek Chatterjee, Joshua B. Fisher, Josh Hashemi, Frans-Jan W. Parmentier, Brendan M. Rogers, Sebastian Westermann, Jennifer D. Watts, Elena Blanc-Betes, Matthias Fuchs, Stefan Kruse, Avni Malhotra, Kimberley Miner, Jens Strauss, Amanda Armstrong, Howard E. Epstein, Bradley Gay, Mathias Goeckede, Aram Kalhori, Dan Kou, Charles E. Miller, Susan M. Natali, Youmi Oh, Sarah Shakil, Oliver Sonnentag, Ruth K. Varner, Scott Zolkos, Edward A.G. Schuur, Gustaf Hugelius 2024 Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Center for Polar and Marine Research

Permafrost Carbon: Progress On Understanding Stocks And Fluxes Across Northern Terrestrial Ecosystems, Claire C. Treat, Anna-Maria Virkkala, Eleanor Burke, Lori Bruhwiler, Abhishek Chatterjee, Joshua B. Fisher, Josh Hashemi, Frans-Jan W. Parmentier, Brendan M. Rogers, Sebastian Westermann, Jennifer D. Watts, Elena Blanc-Betes, Matthias Fuchs, Stefan Kruse, Avni Malhotra, Kimberley Miner, Jens Strauss, Amanda Armstrong, Howard E. Epstein, Bradley Gay, Mathias Goeckede, Aram Kalhori, Dan Kou, Charles E. Miller, Susan M. Natali, Youmi Oh, Sarah Shakil, Oliver Sonnentag, Ruth K. Varner, Scott Zolkos, Edward A.G. Schuur, Gustaf Hugelius

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Significant progress in permafrost carbon science made over the past decades include the identification of vast permafrost carbon stocks, the development of new pan-Arctic permafrost maps, an increase in terrestrial measurement sites for CO2 and methane fluxes, and important factors affecting carbon cycling, including vegetation changes, periods of soil freezing and thawing, wildfire, and other disturbance events. Process-based modeling studies now include key elements of permafrost carbon cycling and advances in statistical modeling and inverse modeling enhance understanding of permafrost region C budgets. By combining existing data syntheses and model outputs, the permafrost region is likely a wetland methane …


On The Links Between Sea Level And Temperature Variations In The Chesapeake Bay And The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (Amoc), Tal Ezer, Teresa Updyke 2024 Old Dominion University

On The Links Between Sea Level And Temperature Variations In The Chesapeake Bay And The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (Amoc), Tal Ezer, Teresa Updyke

CCPO Publications

Recent studies found that on long time scales there are often unexplained opposite trends in sea level variability between the upper and lower Chesapeake Bay (CB). Therefore, daily sea level and temperature records were analyzed in two locations, Norfolk in the southern CB and Baltimore in the northern CB; surface currents from Coastal Ocean Dynamics Application Radar (CODAR) near the mouth of CB were also analyzed to examine connections between the CB and the Atlantic Ocean. The observations in the bay were compared with daily Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) observations during 2005–2021. Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) analysis was used …


Integrating Climatological-Hydrodynamic Modeling And Paleohurricane Records To Assess Storm Surge Risk, Amirhosein Begmohammadi, Christine Y. Blackshaw, Ning Lin, Avantika Gori, Elizabeth Wallace, Kerry Emanuel, Jeffrey P. Donnelly 2024 Princeton University

Integrating Climatological-Hydrodynamic Modeling And Paleohurricane Records To Assess Storm Surge Risk, Amirhosein Begmohammadi, Christine Y. Blackshaw, Ning Lin, Avantika Gori, Elizabeth Wallace, Kerry Emanuel, Jeffrey P. Donnelly

OES Faculty Publications

Sediment cores from blue holes have emerged as a promising tool for extending the record of long-term tropical cyclone (TC) activity. However, interpreting this archive is challenging because storm surge depends on many parameters including TC intensity, track, and size. In this study, we use climatological-hydrodynamic modeling to interpret paleohurricane sediment records between 1851 and 2016 and assess the storm surge risk for Long Island in The Bahamas. As the historical TC data from 1988 to 2016 is too limited to estimate the surge risk for this area, we use historical event attribution in paleorecords paired with synthetic storm modeling …


Application Of Density Altitude Climatology To General Aviation Impacts, Thomas A. Guinn Ph.D., Daniel J. Halperin Ph.D., Sarah Strazzo Ph.D. 2024 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Application Of Density Altitude Climatology To General Aviation Impacts, Thomas A. Guinn Ph.D., Daniel J. Halperin Ph.D., Sarah Strazzo Ph.D.

Journal of Aviation/Aerospace Education & Research

Density altitude (DA) plays a key role in flight safety because it helps pilots anticipate poor aircraft performance when temperatures are warmer than standard. In this study, a 30-year climatology of DA for the conterminous United States was created using the fifth-generation European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts atmospheric reanalysis of the global climate (ERA5) dataset was applied to four separate DA-based, aircraft-performance, rules-of-thumb for general aviation (GA) flight. The goal was to demonstrate a technique to create educational visualization tools showing the variation of operational flight impacts with both month and location. Four such parameters were chosen to show …


Quantifying Tidewater Glacier-Fjord Environments In The Rapidly Changing Regions Of West And South Greenland, Sydney Baratta 2023 University of Maine

Quantifying Tidewater Glacier-Fjord Environments In The Rapidly Changing Regions Of West And South Greenland, Sydney Baratta

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Greenland Ice Sheet has undergone rapid mass loss over the last four decades, primarily through solid and liquid discharge at marine-terminating outlet glaciers. The acceleration of these glaciers is in part due to the increase in temperature of ocean water in contact with the glacier terminus. However, quantifying meltwater injection and heat transport can be challenging due to iceberg abundance, which threatens instrument survival and fjord accessibility. Additionally, acceleration and eventual retreat of tidewater glaciers onto land can change glacier forcing, completely altering fjord water-meltwater dynamics. Here, we couple in situ and remote sensing methods to quantify the upper-layer …


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