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Operation Shark: Addressing The Negative Portrayal Of Sharks In Media, Michael R. O'Shea 2024 Liberty University

Operation Shark: Addressing The Negative Portrayal Of Sharks In Media, Michael R. O'Shea

Masters Theses

Sharks are some of the most well adapted and effective animals in the animal kingdom. Unfortunately, they are also some of the most feared. For many people the word shark evokes images of vicious attacks like those seen in movies such as Jaws. Sharks have also been negatively portrayed in the media. This negative portrayal of sharks has led to misconceptions about sharks that have damaged their populations. Efforts have been made to raise awareness and fight common misconceptions of sharks. However, many people still hold on to the incorrect ideas they have about sharks. This thesis will examine the …


Generating Channel Morphology Data Through Arcgis Pro, Ethan Manigbas 2024 Kennesaw State University

Generating Channel Morphology Data Through Arcgis Pro, Ethan Manigbas

Symposium of Student Scholars

River cross-sections are often extracted using field surveys at measured intervals. This field-oriented approach allows for a tangible relationship between the data and its collector but at the expense of finance, time, labor, and potentially the environment. With the advancement of geospatial tools, such data can be found online, extracted, and even analyzed with contemporary Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in a completely virtual setting, transcending the need for fieldwork in select project topics. We tested this approach with the help of ArcGIS Pro software on the Vishnu Springs headwater stream located in the Western Illinois region of the Upper Mississippi …


The State Of Knowledge Of Cca Diversity In The Caribbean Coral Reefs, Danielle Macias, Alain Duran, Fabio Nauer 2024 Nova Southeastern University

The State Of Knowledge Of Cca Diversity In The Caribbean Coral Reefs, Danielle Macias, Alain Duran, Fabio Nauer

FIU Undergraduate Research Journal

Crustose coralline algae (CCA) are a diverse and ecologically important species found in most of the world’s oceans. The current lack of taxonomic knowledge and relative abundance compromises our ability to predict species diversity numbers and, thus, their ecological roles and impacts on coral reefs. To gather a better understanding of the state of knowledge of crustose coralline algae taxonomy in the Caribbean, 107 different research papers, and other primary and secondary literature were studied; any source with taxonomical information, species identification, or genetic markers for identification was recorded. All Genebank codes were collected and sorted by supposed species marker …


Multiscale Variability Of Heavy Metals In A Western U.S. Snowpack, Kelsey Hefner 2024 Portland State University

Multiscale Variability Of Heavy Metals In A Western U.S. Snowpack, Kelsey Hefner

Student Research Symposium

Natural and anthropogenically sourced particulates are deposited from the atmosphere to landscapes via dry and wet deposition, making frozen winter snowpack a natural archive of atmospheric elemental composition. Wildfires in the Western United States are increasing in extent, duration, and severity, especially in alpine regions. Severe fires remove forest canopy and can impact how atmospheric elements are dispersed and stored across snow-dominated watersheds. We evaluated Al, V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, As, Zn, Se, Mo, Cd, and Pb concentrations in 394 winter snow core samples. We collected samples in 2019 and 2020 from a chronosequence of eight forests that burned …


Effects Of Urbanization On Eutrophication Parameters In Three Tidal Creeks, Ella Swantek 2024 Coastal Carolina University

Effects Of Urbanization On Eutrophication Parameters In Three Tidal Creeks, Ella Swantek

Honors Theses

Marshes and swashes are vital environments as a controlling barrier between land affected by various pollutants and the ocean. Eutrophication and the effects of this process can be detrimental for the areas experiencing it. I am interested in ways areas that have little contact with human interactions compare to areas that are heavily urbanized, and whether either of these locations is at a higher risk for eutrophication. Using spectrophotometry and fluorometry, I analyzed samples collected from the relatively undeveloped and restricted-access locations of Waities Island Beach and Dunn Sound monthly for dissolved nutrients, and chlorophyll. At the time of sampling, …


Impacts Of Hurricane Idalia’S Surge On Coastal Sand Biogeochemistry, Wendy "Cor" McHone 2024 Coastal Carolina University

Impacts Of Hurricane Idalia’S Surge On Coastal Sand Biogeochemistry, Wendy "Cor" Mchone

Honors Theses

Beaches are heavily influenced by extreme events, such as hurricanes. Biological and chemical processes, such as primary production and diagenesis are often interrupted by these events. To examine the effects of hurricanes on coastal biogeochemistry, this study used sand and porewater samples from Waties Island, SC, which were collected before and after Hurricane Idalia. The samples were analyzed for macronutrient concentrations, organic content, and chlorophyll concentrations. Macronutrient pore water concentration changes were not uniform. The inventory of nitrite decreased significantly after the storm, which was reflected in slight increases in the inventories of nitrate and ammonium. Concentrations of nitrate, which …


Sedimentary Conditions At A Tidal Creek That Exhibits Seasonal Pelagic-Benthic Variations, Jack B. Corbin 2024 Coastal Carolina University

Sedimentary Conditions At A Tidal Creek That Exhibits Seasonal Pelagic-Benthic Variations, Jack B. Corbin

Honors Theses

Tidal creeks in the Grand Strand of South Carolina are small but numerous connectors between land and ocean. One of these creeks, White Point Swash, exhibits a seasonal switch between planktonic and benthic photosynthesizers. As plankton become less abundant in fall, benthic macroalgae bloom, aided by lower water levels due to fall-winter dredging of the main channel, until late Spring. This study builds on previous findings and examines sedimentary conditions at this site further. Sedimentary chlorophyll a (in microphytobenthos) and pore water nutrient concentrations are confirmed to be higher than water-column concentrations. Sedimentary nutrient fluxes to the sediment-water interface, calculated …


Coastal-Ocean And Estuarine Acidification In Long Bay, South Carolina: A Comparison Of In-Situ Water Quality Monitoring With Measured Carbonate System Parameters, Mary Olsen 2024 Coastal Carolina University

Coastal-Ocean And Estuarine Acidification In Long Bay, South Carolina: A Comparison Of In-Situ Water Quality Monitoring With Measured Carbonate System Parameters, Mary Olsen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

One of the major water-quality issues impacting our coast and estuaries is coastal-ocean and estuarine acidification. Due to a relative dearth of data in the southeastern United States it is increasingly difficult to determine the full extent and intensity of this problem. This study provides the first characterization of coastal-ocean and estuarine acidification in Long Bay, SC by attempting to leverage long-term water quality data sets at two coastal-ocean pier sites using in-situ YSI EXO sondes deployed at both the surface and bottom waters along with two estuarine sites sampled by volunteer monitors using Orion star multi-meters. Discrete samples (120) …


Predictability Of The Overland Reintensification Of North Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Erin (2007), Ariel Tickner-Ernst 2024 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Predictability Of The Overland Reintensification Of North Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Erin (2007), Ariel Tickner-Ernst

Theses and Dissertations

Tropical cyclones (TC) typically decrease in intensity upon interacting with land because of increased surface roughness and decreased surface evaporation. However, several studies have documented cases in which TCs maintain their intensity or even intensify over land within non- or weakly baroclinic environments. Yet, our understanding of the precise physical processes that support maintenance or intensification over land in non- or weakly baroclinic environments remains limited, and the predictive skill for these outcomes has yet to be quantified.

We begin this process by quantifying the predictive skill and forecast uncertainty of the overland intensification of North Atlantic Tropical Storm Erin …


A Statistical Fetch Model For Water Wave Glint Correction Using Worldview-3 Imagery, Amanda Jade Quintanilla 2024 Florida Institute of Technology

A Statistical Fetch Model For Water Wave Glint Correction Using Worldview-3 Imagery, Amanda Jade Quintanilla

Theses and Dissertations

Sun glint in satellite imagery of the water surface contaminates the upwelling signal received by a detector. Many models exist that attempt to correct for this wave facet effect and phenomena. In this work a model for sun glint correction is created using the comparison of image transects between two nearly simultaneously collected images of the same area, although with differing sensor geometry. One image utilized in this research is almost entirely glint free while the other is contaminated by water wave facet glint. Although many models for removing sun glint exist based on various techniques, none are completely accurate, …


El Nino Prediction At 1- And 3- Year Lead Times Driven By The Western North Pacific Precursor And Their Impacts, Krishna Borhara 2024 Utah State University

El Nino Prediction At 1- And 3- Year Lead Times Driven By The Western North Pacific Precursor And Their Impacts, Krishna Borhara

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Fall 2023 to Present

The El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a climate variability characterized by fluctuations in the atmospheric and upper ocean conditions of the tropical Pacific Ocean that result in either warmer- or colder-than-average sea surface temperatures (SST) in the tropical eastern Pacific. These changes cause variations in weather and climate in distant locations through large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns. These variations often manifest in form of adverse effects or extremes such as heat waves, droughts, or floods, making efforts towards improving ENSO prediction critical in mitigating its impact on various sectors. This dissertation focuses on how interactions between the atmosphere and ocean in …


Seagrass Conservation And Restoration To Mitigate Ocean Acidification And Climate Change, Tori Benson, Emi Wagner, Jaeger Reed 2024 College of Saint Benedict/Saint John's University

Seagrass Conservation And Restoration To Mitigate Ocean Acidification And Climate Change, Tori Benson, Emi Wagner, Jaeger Reed

Celebrating Scholarship and Creativity Day (2018-)

For millennia, various seagrass species have been sequestering and anchoring aquatic carbon into oceanic sediment. The crucial role of seagrasses involves helping mitigate climate change, which emphasizes the urgent need to conserve, sustain, and manage them as part of global climate action efforts. Restoration and conservation studies have shown significant reversal of potential damaging effects, however human activity continues to set back efforts faster than they can proceed. Multiple studies have concluded that there has been a decline in seagrass meadows in previously dense areas; and due to this, surrounding pH levels have declined and rising atmospheric carbon poses a …


Climate Change: Is It An Existential Crisis?, Whit Lawrence, Emily Payne 2024 Ouachita Baptist University

Climate Change: Is It An Existential Crisis?, Whit Lawrence, Emily Payne

Scholars Day Conference

With the help of Dr. Knight, we did a literature review of four different books on climate change. These books covered different aspects of the controversial topic. After reading, we made our own conclusions on whether or not climate change was the existential crisis many say it is.


Kinematic And Dynamic Structure Of The 18 May 2020 Squall Line Over South Korea, Wishnu Agum Swastiko, Chia-Lun Tsai, Seung Hee Kim, Gyuwon Lee 2024 Kyungpook National University

Kinematic And Dynamic Structure Of The 18 May 2020 Squall Line Over South Korea, Wishnu Agum Swastiko, Chia-Lun Tsai, Seung Hee Kim, Gyuwon Lee

Institute for ECHO Articles and Research

The diagonal squall line that passed through the Korean Peninsula on the 18 May 2020 was examined using wind data retrieved from multiple Doppler radar synthesis focusing on its kinematic and dynamic aspects. The low-level jet, along with warm and moist air in the lower level, served as the primary source of moisture supply during the initiation and formation process. The presence of a cold pool accompanying the squall line played a role in retaining moisture at the surface. As the squall line approached the Korean Peninsula, the convective bands in the northern segment (NS) and southern segment (SS) of …


Volumetric Reconstruction Of Ionospheric Electric Currents From Tri-Static Incoherent Scatter Radar Measurements, Jone Peter Reistad, Spencer Mark Hatch, Karl M. Laundal, Kjellmar Oksavik, Matthew David Zettergren, Heikki Vanhamaki, Ilkka I. Virtanen 2024 University of Bergen

Volumetric Reconstruction Of Ionospheric Electric Currents From Tri-Static Incoherent Scatter Radar Measurements, Jone Peter Reistad, Spencer Mark Hatch, Karl M. Laundal, Kjellmar Oksavik, Matthew David Zettergren, Heikki Vanhamaki, Ilkka I. Virtanen

Publications

We present a new technique for the upcoming tri-static incoherent scatter radar system EISCAT 3D (E3D) to perform a volumetric reconstruction of the 3D ionospheric electric current density vector field, focusing on the feasibility of the E3D system. The input to our volumetric reconstruction technique are estimates of the 3D current density perpendicular to the main magnetic field, $\mathbf{j} \perp$, and its co-variance, to be obtained from E3D observations based on two main assumptions: 1) Ions fully magnetised above the $E$ region, set to 200 km here. 2) Electrons fully magnetised above the base of our domain, set to 90 …


Chemtrails: Deadly Skies Or Dangerous Misinformation?, Abigail Foust 2024 University of Missouri, St. Louis

Chemtrails: Deadly Skies Or Dangerous Misinformation?, Abigail Foust

Undergraduate Research Symposium

A common sight on a clear day is a thin strip of white across the otherwise blue sky: A contrail. Most people do not think anything of these contrails, and assume they have little to no impact on the world at large. Suppose for a moment, however, that they are not as harmless as some believe. Suppose these cloud trails are actually composed of dangerous chemicals, and are being used by sinister forces in a conspiracy to kill off the weak, mind-control the population, or simply dull our minds in preparation for a government takeover. As far-fetched as this may …


Climatology Of Tornadoes In Kansas, John P. Wasinger, Todd Moore 2024 Fort Hays State University

Climatology Of Tornadoes In Kansas, John P. Wasinger, Todd Moore

SACAD: John Heinrichs Scholarly and Creative Activity Days

Recent studies report changes to the climatology of tornadoes in the United States (US). Changes with the most supporting evidence include an increase in the intra- and inter-annual variability, increased concentration of tornadoes in bigger outbreaks, and a geographic shift of the densest tornado activity away from Tornado Alley in the Great Plains and toward the Great Lakes and Southeast regions of the US. Broad, national-level changes are valuable, but they can mask changes occurring at the state and sub-state levels where mitigation efforts are most effective. Kansas is of interest due to its reputation as a hotbed of tornado …


Changes In Reef Tourism’S Adaptive Capacity After Severe Climate Disturbances, Henry Bartelet, Michele Barnes, Lalu Bakti, Graeme S. Cumming 2024 Ateneo de Manila University

Changes In Reef Tourism’S Adaptive Capacity After Severe Climate Disturbances, Henry Bartelet, Michele Barnes, Lalu Bakti, Graeme S. Cumming

Quantitative Methods and Information Technology Faculty Publications

Knowledge about adaptive capacity and its determinants has increased significantly over the last decade. However, most research on adaptive capacity has been static, not considering how adaptive capacity might change over time, particularly after severe disturbances. We studied the adaptive capacity dynamics of Asian-Pacific reef tourism operators affected by coral bleaching and tropical cyclones compared with a control group with non-affected operators. We found that impacts from tropical cyclones were associated with frequent changes in adaptive capacity. Notably, we found a reduction in tangible attributes (assets and flexibility) of adaptive capacity, whereas intangible attributes (agency and social organization) increased. Our …


Nowcasting Heavy Rainfall With Convolutional Long Short-Term Memory Networks: A Pixelwise Modeling Approach, Yi Victor Wang, Seung Hee Kim, Geunsu Lyu, Choeng-Lyong Lee, Soorok Ryu, Gyuwon Lee, Ki-Hong Min, Menas C. Kafatos 2024 Massachusetts Maritime Academy

Nowcasting Heavy Rainfall With Convolutional Long Short-Term Memory Networks: A Pixelwise Modeling Approach, Yi Victor Wang, Seung Hee Kim, Geunsu Lyu, Choeng-Lyong Lee, Soorok Ryu, Gyuwon Lee, Ki-Hong Min, Menas C. Kafatos

Institute for ECHO Articles and Research

The recent decades have seen an increasing academic interest in leveraging machine learning approaches to nowcast, or forecast in a highly short-term manner, precipitation at a high resolution, given the limitations of the traditional numerical weather prediction models on this task. To capture the spatiotemporal associations of data on input variables, a deep learning (DL) architecture with the combination of a convolutional neural network and a recurrent neural network can be an ideal design for nowcasting rainfall. In this study, a long short-term memory (LSTM) modeling structure is proposed with convolutional operations on input variables. To resolve the issue of …


Low Cost Magnetometer Calibration And Distributed Simultaneous Multipoint Ionospheric Measurements From A Sounding Rocket Platform, Joshua W. Milford 2024 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Low Cost Magnetometer Calibration And Distributed Simultaneous Multipoint Ionospheric Measurements From A Sounding Rocket Platform, Joshua W. Milford

Doctoral Dissertations and Master's Theses

Low-cost and low-size-weight-and-power (SWaP) magnetometers can provide greater accessibility for distributed simultaneous measurements in the ionosphere, either onboard sounding rockets or on CubeSats. The Space and Atmospheric Instrumentation Laboratory (SAIL) at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University has launched a multitude of sounding rockets in recent history: one night-time mid-latitude rocket from Wallops Flight Facility in August 2022 and three mid-latitude rockets from White Sands Missile Range during the October 2023 annular solar eclipse. All rockets had a comprehensive suite of instruments for electrodynamics and neutral dynamics measurements. Among this suite was one science-grade three-axis fluxgate magnetometer (Billingsley TFM65VQS / TFM100G2) and up …


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