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The Effects Of Wildfire Aerosol Emissions On Air Quality, Emma Braun, Audrey Shirley 2024 Purdue University

The Effects Of Wildfire Aerosol Emissions On Air Quality, Emma Braun, Audrey Shirley

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

No abstract provided.


Characterizing Differential Reflectivity Calibration Dependence On Environmental Temperature Using The X-Band Teaching And Research Radar (Xtrra): Looking For A Relationship Between Temperature And Differential Reflectivity Bias, Emma Miller 2024 Purdue University

Characterizing Differential Reflectivity Calibration Dependence On Environmental Temperature Using The X-Band Teaching And Research Radar (Xtrra): Looking For A Relationship Between Temperature And Differential Reflectivity Bias, Emma Miller

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

Calibration scans are important for the maintenance of data and the quality of the information that radars output. In this study we looked for a temperature dependency in a full year’s worth of differential reflectivity (ZDR) calibration scan data collected by the X-band Teaching and Research Radar (XTRRA) located near the Purdue University campus. In a vertically pointing calibration scan, the radar scans the drops from below while rotating. From this angle, the overall shape will be circular, which corresponds to a ZDR value of approximately 0 dB. To process the data for the year 2021, a Python script was …


Clouds In The Ancient Lunar Atmosphere: Water Ice Nucleation On Aerosol Simulants, Mariana C. Aguilar 2024 Purdue University

Clouds In The Ancient Lunar Atmosphere: Water Ice Nucleation On Aerosol Simulants, Mariana C. Aguilar

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

Today’s moon is vastly different from what it was 3 billion years ago. At that time, it was home to a collisional atmosphere formed through massive amounts of volcanism, releasing enough subsurface gas to sustain surface pressures of up to 1 kPa. Observations of our solar system have taught us that all dense atmospheres are host to clouds and aerosols, and we expect the Moon’s to be no different. Knowing when, where, and under what conditions cloud particles form is important for understanding the evolution of the lunar atmosphere, how it reacted to temperature gradients, and how it cycled volatiles. …


Spatial Analyses On Pre-Earthquake Ionospheric Anomalies And Magnetic Storms Observed By China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite In August 2018, Jann-Yeng Tiger Liu, Xuhui Shen, Fu-Yuan Chang, Yuh-Ing Chen, Yang-Yi Sun, Chieh‑Hung Chen, Sergey Pulinets, Katsumi Hattori, Dimitar Ouzounov, Valerio Tramutoli, Michel Parrot, Wei-Sheng Chen, Cheng-Yan Liu, Fei Zhang, Dapeng Liu, Xue-Min Zhang, Rui Yan, Qiao Wang 2024 National Central University, Taiwan

Spatial Analyses On Pre-Earthquake Ionospheric Anomalies And Magnetic Storms Observed By China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite In August 2018, Jann-Yeng Tiger Liu, Xuhui Shen, Fu-Yuan Chang, Yuh-Ing Chen, Yang-Yi Sun, Chieh‑Hung Chen, Sergey Pulinets, Katsumi Hattori, Dimitar Ouzounov, Valerio Tramutoli, Michel Parrot, Wei-Sheng Chen, Cheng-Yan Liu, Fei Zhang, Dapeng Liu, Xue-Min Zhang, Rui Yan, Qiao Wang

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

The China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite (CSES), with a sun-synchronous orbit at 507 km altitude, was launched on 2 February 2018 to investigate pre-earthquake ionospheric anomalies (PEIAs) and ionospheric space weather. The CSES probes manifest longitudinal features of four-peak plasma density and three plasma depletions in the equatorial/low-latitudes as well as mid-latitude troughs. CSES plasma and the total electron content (TEC) of the global ionosphere map (GIM) are used to study PEIAs associated with a destructive M7.0 earthquake and its followed M6.5 and M6.3/M6.9 earthquakes in Lombok, Indonesia, on 5, 17, and 19 August 2018, respectively, as well as to examine ionospheric …


Editorial: Observations And Simulations Of Layering Phenomena In The Middle/Upper Atmosphere And Ionosphere, Bingkun Yu, Xuguang Cai, Daniel J. Emmons II, Chong Wang and Jianfei Wu 2024 Institute of Deep Space Sciences, Deep Space Exploration Laboratory

Editorial: Observations And Simulations Of Layering Phenomena In The Middle/Upper Atmosphere And Ionosphere, Bingkun Yu, Xuguang Cai, Daniel J. Emmons Ii, Chong Wang And Jianfei Wu

Faculty Publications

The middle/upper atmosphere and ionosphere are the transition between neutral and ionized components of the Earth’s atmosphere, including stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, ionospheric E region and ionospheric F region (Laštovička et al., 2006; Xu, et al., 2007; Smith, 2012). The atmospheric thermal structure and composition are significantly affected by dynamical processes through coupling. The layering phenomena such as mesospheric metal layers, sporadic E layers, and noctilucent clouds are important tracers to study mechanisms of the vertical coupling from the lower to the upper atmosphere (Dou et al., 2010; Plane, 2012; Xue et al., 2013).


Toward The Unified Theory Of Said-Linked Subauroral Arcs, Evgeny V. Mishin, Anatoly V. Streltsov 2024 Air Force Research Laboratory

Toward The Unified Theory Of Said-Linked Subauroral Arcs, Evgeny V. Mishin, Anatoly V. Streltsov

Publications

We present a unified approach to subauroral arcs within intense subauroral ion drifts (SAID), which explains the observed transition of a precursor Stable Auroral Red (SAR) arc into Strong Thermal Emission Velocity Enhancement (STEVE). This approach is based on the short-circuiting concept of fasttime SAID as an integral part of a magnetospheric voltage generator between the innermost boundaries of the freshly injected plasma sheet electrons and ring current ions. Here, enhanced plasma turbulence rapidly heats the bulk plasma and accelerates suprathermal non-Maxwellian “tails.” Heat and suprathermal electron transport rapidly elevate the ionospheric electron temperature—the source of a bright SAR arc. …


Deep Learning Approaches For Chaotic Dynamics And High-Resolution Weather Simulations In The Us Midwest, Vlada Volyanskaya, Kabir Batra, Shubham Shrivastava 2023 Purdue University

Deep Learning Approaches For Chaotic Dynamics And High-Resolution Weather Simulations In The Us Midwest, Vlada Volyanskaya, Kabir Batra, Shubham Shrivastava

Discovery Undergraduate Interdisciplinary Research Internship

Weather prediction is indispensable across various sectors, from agriculture to disaster forecasting, deeply influencing daily life and work. Recent advancement of AI foundation models for weather and climate predictions makes it possible to perform a large number of predictions in reasonable time to support timesensitive policy- and decision-making. However, the uncertainty quantification, validation, and attribution of these models have not been well explored, and the lack of knowledge can eventually hinder the improvement of their prediction accuracy and precision. Our project is embarking on a two-fold approach leveraging deep learning techniques (LSTM and Transformer) architectures. Firstly, we model the Lorenz …


Data In 'Development At The University Of North Dakota Of A Digital Thermosonde Instrument For The Study Of Atmospheric Optical Turbulence (C_N^2)', Blake T. Sorenson, David J. Delene 2023 University of North Dakota

Data In 'Development At The University Of North Dakota Of A Digital Thermosonde Instrument For The Study Of Atmospheric Optical Turbulence (C_N^2)', Blake T. Sorenson, David J. Delene

Datasets

A thermosonde, an instrument that measures very high resolution temperature difference between two fine-wire platinum thermocouples, was attached to a weather balloon and lifted through the atmosphere, collecting observations of optical turbulence, in the spring of 2018 and 2019. The thermosonde collected raw temperature difference measurements, while an onboard Graw DFM-09 radiosonde observed standard meteorological parameters (temperature, air pressure, wind speed, wind direction, relative humidity, and altitude). The Graw meteorological observations are housed in the .txt files, while the raw radiosonde data (containing the raw, encoded thermosonde measurements) are housed in the .gsf files. The decoded voltage and temperature difference …


Initiation Criteria For The Onset Of Geomagnetic Substorms Based On Auroral Observations And Electrojet Current Signatures, Mayowa Michael Kayode-Adeoye 2023 University of South Alabama

Initiation Criteria For The Onset Of Geomagnetic Substorms Based On Auroral Observations And Electrojet Current Signatures, Mayowa Michael Kayode-Adeoye

Theses and Dissertations

In recent years, several substorm onset criteria have been developed, either from auroral observations (many authors) or from auroral electrojet properties such as those described by (Forsyth et al., 2015; Maimaiti et al., 2019; Newell & Gjerloev, 2011; Partamies et al., 2011) The different criteria are being investigated using a low order physics model of the magnetosphere called WINDMI (Spencer et al., 2009) and inferences are being made in line with the WINDMI model. The model variables will be compared with the criteria for substorm onset proposed by examining the SML index.

The WINDMI model uses solar wind and IMF …


Multi-Layer Evolution Of Acoustic-Gravity Waves And Ionospheric Disturbances Over The United States After The 2022 Hunga Tonga Volcano Eruption, P. A. Inchin, A. Bhatt, S. A. Cummer, S. D. Eckermann, B. J. Harding, J. Ma, J. J. Makela, J B. Snively 2023 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Multi-Layer Evolution Of Acoustic-Gravity Waves And Ionospheric Disturbances Over The United States After The 2022 Hunga Tonga Volcano Eruption, P. A. Inchin, A. Bhatt, S. A. Cummer, S. D. Eckermann, B. J. Harding, J. Ma, J. J. Makela, J B. Snively

Publications

e Hunga-Tonga Hunga-Ha'apai volcano underwent a series of large-magnitude eruptions that generated in the atmosphere. We investigate the spatial and temporal evolutions of fluctuations driven by atmospheric acoustic-gravity waves (AGWs) and, in particular, the Lamb wave modes in high spatial resolution data sets measured over the Continental United States (CONUS), complemented with data over the Americas and the Pacific. Along with >800 barometer sites, tropospheric observations, and Total Electron Content data from >3,000 receivers, we report detections of volcano-induced AGWs in mesopause and ionosphere-thermosphere airglow imagery and Fabry-Perot interferometry. We also report unique AGW signatures in the ionospheric D-region, measured …


Translation Speed Influence On Tropical Cyclone Storm Tide And Surge Generation Along The Gulf Of Mexico Coast, Samantha L. Camarda 2023 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Translation Speed Influence On Tropical Cyclone Storm Tide And Surge Generation Along The Gulf Of Mexico Coast, Samantha L. Camarda

LSU Master's Theses

This research examines tropical cyclone translation speed as a factor in storm tide and surge height upon landfall on the United States Gulf Coast. Understanding the effect of translation speed on peak storm tide/surge height is needed to better prepare for and predict future damage from tropical cyclone events. Tropical cyclone data are taken from hourly interpolated best-track HURDAT2 data from 1970–2021. This study uses the HURDAT2 hourly interpolated observation data points (24-hours) pre-landfall to landfall. Translation speed is calculated based on the distance traversed between hourly points. Peak storm tide and storm surge data are taken from SURGEDAT from …


A Climatology Of Mesoscale Airmasses With High Theta-E, Charles J. Kropiewnicki 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

A Climatology Of Mesoscale Airmasses With High Theta-E, Charles J. Kropiewnicki

Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

A Mesoscale Airmass with High Theta-E (MAHTE) is a narrow region of larger theta-e located on the cool side of an airmass boundary. MAHTEs typically possesses higher CAPE than the warm side of the boundary, creating a more favorable environment for severe convection. MAHTEs can also be characterized by larger low-level shear and lower LCLs and may also have a propensity for supporting tornadogenesis. The majority of MAHTE research to date has been comprised of case studies, and the prevalence of MAHTEs is not well understood. This project fills that knowledge gap by creating a climatology of MAHTE occurrence. This …


An Empirical Examination Of The Environmental Variability That Impacted Supercell Evolution, Longevity, And Severe Weather Production On 22 May 2019 In Oklahoma, Kyle D. Pittman 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

An Empirical Examination Of The Environmental Variability That Impacted Supercell Evolution, Longevity, And Severe Weather Production On 22 May 2019 In Oklahoma, Kyle D. Pittman

Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Mesoscale environmental heterogeneity can have significant impacts on thunderstorm organization, evolution, longevity, and severe weather production. This study examines the 22 May 2019 thunderstorm event in Oklahoma, where a relatively broad area of strong instability and vertical wind shear existed along a synoptic boundary and in the open warm sector that would seem to support long-lived supercells and tornadoes. There were two particularly dangerous situation (PDS) tornado watches issued during the event, but few severe reports and no tornadoes formed in the watch that covered the southwestern portion of the state. Several tornadic supercells and many more severe reports occurred …


Reducing Uncertainty In Sea-Level Rise Prediction: A Spatial-Variability-Aware Approach, Subhankar Ghosh, Shuai An, Arun Sharma, Jayant Gupta, Shashi Shekhar, Aneesh Subramanian 2023 University of Minnesota - Twin Cities

Reducing Uncertainty In Sea-Level Rise Prediction: A Spatial-Variability-Aware Approach, Subhankar Ghosh, Shuai An, Arun Sharma, Jayant Gupta, Shashi Shekhar, Aneesh Subramanian

I-GUIDE Forum

Given multi-model ensemble climate projections, the goal is to accurately and reliably predict future sea-level rise while lowering the uncertainty. This problem is important because sea-level rise affects millions of people in coastal communities and beyond due to climate change's impacts on polar ice sheets and the ocean. This problem is challenging due to spatial variability and unknowns such as possible tipping points (e.g., collapse of Greenland or West Antarctic ice-shelf), climate feedback loops (e.g., clouds, permafrost thawing), future policy decisions, and human actions. Most existing climate modeling approaches use the same set of weights globally, during either regression or …


Gravity Waves Generated By The Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha‘Apai Volcanic Eruption And Their Global Propagation In The Mesosphere/Lower Thermosphere Observed By Meteor Radars And Modeled With The High-Altitude General Mechanistic Circulation Model, Gunter Stober, Sharon L. Vadas, Erich Becker, Alan Liu, Diego Janches, Zishun Qiao, et.al 2023 University of Bern

Gravity Waves Generated By The Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha‘Apai Volcanic Eruption And Their Global Propagation In The Mesosphere/Lower Thermosphere Observed By Meteor Radars And Modeled With The High-Altitude General Mechanistic Circulation Model, Gunter Stober, Sharon L. Vadas, Erich Becker, Alan Liu, Diego Janches, Zishun Qiao, Et.Al

Publications

The Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha‘apai volcano erupted on 15th January 2022, launching Lamb waves and gravity waves into the atmosphere. In this study, we present results using 13 globally distributed meteor radars and identify the volcanic- caused gravity waves in the mesospheric/lower thermospheric winds. Leveraging the High-Altitude Mechanistic General Circulation Model (HIAMCM), we compare the global propagation of these gravity waves. We observed an eastward propagating gravity wave packet with an observed phase speed of 240±5.7 m/s and a westward propagating gravity wave with an observed phase speed of 166.5 ±6.4 m/s. We identified these waves in the HIAMCM and obtained …


On The Propagation Of Whistler-Mode Waves In The 2 Magnetic Ducts, Salman A. Nejad, Anatoly V. Streltsov 2023 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

On The Propagation Of Whistler-Mode Waves In The 2 Magnetic Ducts, Salman A. Nejad, Anatoly V. Streltsov

Publications

This paper studies extremely-low frequency (ELF) whistler-mode waves’ behavior within small-scale magnetic field irregularities in the Earth’s magnetosphere, known as magnetic ducts. Based on the magnetic fields’ magnitude inside and outside these ducts, they are categorized as high-magnetic ducts (HBD) and low-magnetic ducts (LBD). Using the whistler-mode dispersion relation analysis, our primary focus is to show that LBDs are prone to leak electromagnetic energy outside the duct. We further investigate the hypothesis that whistlers can propagate within LBDs without any signal loss when the width of the duct corresponds to an integer multiple of the perpendicular wavelengths of the waves …


A "Boreing" Night Of Observations Of The Upper Mesosphere And Lower Thermosphere Over The Andes Lidar Observatory, J. H. Hecht, Alan Liu, D. C. Fritts, R. L. Walterscheid, L. J. Gelinas, R. J. Rudy 2023 The Aerospace Corporation

A "Boreing" Night Of Observations Of The Upper Mesosphere And Lower Thermosphere Over The Andes Lidar Observatory, J. H. Hecht, Alan Liu, D. C. Fritts, R. L. Walterscheid, L. J. Gelinas, R. J. Rudy

Publications

A very high-spatial resolution (∼21-23 m pixel at 85 km altitude) OH airglow imager at the Andes Lidar Observatory at Cerro Pach´on, Chile observed considerable ducted wave activity on the night of October 29-30, 2016. This instrument was collocated with a Na wind-temperature lidar that provided data revealing the occurrence of strong ducts. A large field of view OH and greenline airglow imager showed waves present over a vertical extent consistent with the altitudes of the ducting features identified in the lidar profiles. While waves that appeared to be ducted were seen in all imagers throughout the observation interval, the …


Nalidarturbopauseshear, Titus Yuan 2023 Utah State University

Nalidarturbopauseshear, Titus Yuan

Browse all Datasets

The USU Na lidar has been upgraded to be able to measure temperature and winds in the lower thermosphere up to ~ 115 km routinely. The new capability, coupled with the existing nightglow instruments at USU, enables the investigation of the extreme large wind and shears in this region and their correlation to the atmospheric gravity waves activities in the upper mesosphere.


Whistler-Mode Waves In Magnetic Ducts, Anatoly V. Streltsov, Salman A. Nejad 2023 Embry Riddle Aeronautical University

Whistler-Mode Waves In Magnetic Ducts, Anatoly V. Streltsov, Salman A. Nejad

Publications

Observations from the NASA MMS satellites show packages of ELF whistler-mode waves localized inside the small-scale irregularities of the magnetic field. These irregularities are formed by the narrow field-aligned channels where the magnitude of the background magnetic field inside the channel is greater or less than outside. By analogy with the classical density ducts, we introduce the high-B duct (HBD), where the magnitude of the field inside the channel is greater than the outside, and the low-B duct (LBD), where the magnitude of the field inside the channel is less than the outside. We investigate the guiding of the ELF …


Precipitation Variability And Predictability Over The Arabian Peninsula, Central Southwest Asia, And Southern Africa, Matthew Francis Horan 2023 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Precipitation Variability And Predictability Over The Arabian Peninsula, Central Southwest Asia, And Southern Africa, Matthew Francis Horan

Doctoral Dissertations

The Northern Hemisphere winter is the main rainy season for the Arabian Peninsula (AP), Central Southwest Asia (CSWA), and Southern Africa (SF), where precipitation predictability is limited or understudied. This dissertation research focuses on improving our understanding of these regions' wet-season precipitation characteristics and predictability.

First, I have identified the AP's key moisture sources through a Lagrangian back-trajectory algorithm. Mid-latitude land and water bodies, such as the Mediterranean and Caspian Seas, are the primary moisture sources in the northern region. Areas further south rely on moisture transport from the Western Indian Ocean and the African continent. A significant drying trend …


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