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Do Secondary Cyclones Increase The Category Scale Of Atmospheric Rivers?, Edgar Sanchez Fausto 2021 Portland State University

Do Secondary Cyclones Increase The Category Scale Of Atmospheric Rivers?, Edgar Sanchez Fausto

University Honors Theses

Atmospheric rivers (ARs) play a crucial role in delivering precipitation worldwide. This makes them an important phenomenon for water resource specialists to study. One such interest is to understand what mechanisms make ARs produce significant rainfall and associated hazards such as flooding. One possible mechanism is that AR duration or intensity may increase when it interacts with a secondary cyclone, either of which can increase the AR category scale. The purpose of this study is to determine whether AR and secondary cyclone interactions increase the category scale ARs. Out of 52 AR events analyzed, 32 events contained at least one ...


Atmospheric Tomography Using The Nordic Meteor Radar Cluster And Chilean Observation Network De Meteor Radars: Network Details And 3dvar Retrieval, Gunter Stober, Alan Liu, Zishun Qiao, Alexander Kozlovsky, Masaki Tsutsumi, Chris Hall, Satonori Nozawa, Mark Lester, Evgenia Belova, Johan Kero, Patrick J. Espy, Robert E. Hibbins, Nicholas Mitchell 2021 University of Bern

Atmospheric Tomography Using The Nordic Meteor Radar Cluster And Chilean Observation Network De Meteor Radars: Network Details And 3dvar Retrieval, Gunter Stober, Alan Liu, Zishun Qiao, Alexander Kozlovsky, Masaki Tsutsumi, Chris Hall, Satonori Nozawa, Mark Lester, Evgenia Belova, Johan Kero, Patrick J. Espy, Robert E. Hibbins, Nicholas Mitchell

Publications

Ground-based remote sensing of atmospheric parameters is often limited to single station observations of vertical profiles at a certain geographic location. This can be a limiting factor to investigating gravity wave dynamics. In this study we present a new retrieval algorithm for multi-static meteor radar networks to obtain tomographic 3D wind fields within a pre-defined domain area. The algorithm is part of the Agile Software for Gravity wAve Regional Dynamics (ASGARD) called 5 3DVAR, and based on the optimal estimation technique and Bayesian statistics. The performance of the 3DVAR retrieval is demonstrated using two meteor radar networks, the Nordic Meteor ...


Radiosonde High Altitude Measurements Of Radiation Levels And Cosmic Ray Events, AYODEJI OPEYEMI AKINULIOLA 2021 Stephen F. Austin State University

Radiosonde High Altitude Measurements Of Radiation Levels And Cosmic Ray Events, Ayodeji Opeyemi Akinuliola

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Just above us, cosmic rays are hurtling in from space. These fast moving particles crash uncontrollably into molecules in the atmosphere, causing spontaneous decays of these particles. Despite the fact that we are broadly shielded from this radiation on earth, these particles can still disturb humans and electronics alike. Therefore, this research focuses on expanding the use of long-range radio transmitters such as radiosondes to transmit valuable data such as cosmic ray flux, geographical position, atmospheric temperature, pressure, etc. This can improve real-time radiation monitoring for aviation industry crew and passengers working in potentially higher radiation environments. On March 11 ...


Downscaling Methodology For Satellite Land Surface Temperatures Over Urban Environments, Naved Khan, Ruben Vecino 2021 CUNY New York City College of Technology

Downscaling Methodology For Satellite Land Surface Temperatures Over Urban Environments, Naved Khan, Ruben Vecino

Publications and Research

The objective of this study is to develop high spatial and temporal resolution Land Surface Temperature (LST) data using a combination of Landsat 8, infrared satellite sensors such as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R Series (GOES-16). The Landsat 8 Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) provides higher spatial resolution (30 m) estimates of skin temperature every 16 days. MODIS makes daytime and nighttime observations of the Earth’s thermal emission at a coarser spatial resolution (1000 m), while GOES-16, which has lower spatial resolution (2 km), measures the skin temperature at a much higher temporal ...


Investigating Water Usage Patterns Tied To California State Water Project, Xiaoqing Wu 2021 CUNY New York City College of Technology

Investigating Water Usage Patterns Tied To California State Water Project, Xiaoqing Wu

Publications and Research

California (USA) is the largest agricultural producer and one of the populous states in the United State. As the population and agriculture grows, water consumption patterns become crucial to keep track of especially surface water. In this research project, we studied possible changes in water consumption patterns in different counties and water rights holders who obtain surface water supply from the State Water Project (SWP) in California. We conducted a time series analysis on the California Monthly Diverted Surface Water dataset through two different time series forecasting models. Our analysis indicates that the total diverted surface water presents a periodic ...


The Effect Of Initial Conditions On The Weather Research And Forecasting Model, Aaron D. Baker 2021 Stephen F Austin State University

The Effect Of Initial Conditions On The Weather Research And Forecasting Model, Aaron D. Baker

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Modeling our atmosphere and determining forecasts using numerical methods has been a challenge since the early 20th Century. Most models use a complex dynamical system of equations that prove difficult to solve by hand as they are chaotic by nature. When computer systems became more widely adopted and available, approximating the solution of these equations, numerically, became easier as computational power increased. This advancement in computing has caused numerous weather models to be created and implemented across the world. However a challenge of approximating these solutions accurately still exists as each model have varying set of equations and variables to ...


A Comparison Of The Localized Aviation Mos Program (Lamp) And Terminal Aerodrome Forecast (Taf) Accuracy For General Aviation, Douglas D. Boyd, Thomas A. Guinn 2021 Embry Riddle Aeronautical University

A Comparison Of The Localized Aviation Mos Program (Lamp) And Terminal Aerodrome Forecast (Taf) Accuracy For General Aviation, Douglas D. Boyd, Thomas A. Guinn

Journal of Aviation Technology and Engineering

Background. For general aviation (GA) pilots, operations in instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) carry an elevated risk of a fatal accident. As to whether a general aviation flight can be safely undertaken, aerodrome-specific forecasts (TAF, LAMP) provide guidance. Although LAMP forecasts are more common for GA-frequented aerodromes, nevertheless, the FAA recommends that for such aerodromes (and for which a TAF is not issued) the airman uses the TAF generated for the geographically closest airport for pre-flight weather evaluation. Herein, for non-TAF-issuing airports, the LAMP (sLAMP) predictive accuracy for visual (VFR) and instrument (IFR) flight rules flight category was determined.

Method. sLAMP ...


Atmospheric River Case Studies In The U.S. Mid-Atlantic Region, Jonathan Lewis 2021 Susquehanna University

Atmospheric River Case Studies In The U.S. Mid-Atlantic Region, Jonathan Lewis

Senior Scholars Day

Atmospheric Rivers (ARs) are narrow bands of atmospheric moisture that bring a significant amount of precipitation to the impacted region. While ARs on the West Coast of the United States are more frequently analyzed, evaluation of the East Coast mid-Atlantic region is also important in understanding this phenomenon. East Coast ARs can be studied using the techniques already established to study West Coast ARs. Using 6-hourly MERRA-2 data with integrated water vapor transport (IVT) and integrated water vapor (IWV) thresholds, we developed an extended scale to account for the longer duration ARs that occur, an algorithm to study AR events ...


Impact Of Hurricane Michael (2018) On Local Vertical Total Electron Content, Joanna E.S. Williams, Robert C. Tournay, H. Rose Tseng, Daniel J. Emmons II, Omar A. Nava 2021 Air Force Institute of Technology

Impact Of Hurricane Michael (2018) On Local Vertical Total Electron Content, Joanna E.S. Williams, Robert C. Tournay, H. Rose Tseng, Daniel J. Emmons Ii, Omar A. Nava

Faculty Publications

An analysis of vertical total electron content (TEC) estimates from the MIT Madrigal database is performed for the regions surrounding the eye of Hurricane Michael (2018). Absolute and detrended TEC values show a noticeable increase during the tropical cyclone (TC) relative to fluctuations at the same locations prior to the storm. Direct comparisons of TEC perturbation magnitudes to the number of lightning flashes in latitude-longitude boxes surrounding the eye of Hurricane Michael for each 5 min period of 10 October 2018 showed no visible trends. A similar comparison of the vertical TEC fluctuations with respect to the rainfall rates showed ...


Drought-Induced Biomass Burning As A Source Of Black Carbon To The Central Himalaya Since 1781 Ce As Reconstructed From The Dasuopu Ice Core, Joel D. Barker, Susan Kaspari, Paulo Gabrielli, Anna Wegner, Emilie Beaudon, M. Roxana Sierra-Hernández, Lonnie Thompson 2021 The Ohio State University

Drought-Induced Biomass Burning As A Source Of Black Carbon To The Central Himalaya Since 1781 Ce As Reconstructed From The Dasuopu Ice Core, Joel D. Barker, Susan Kaspari, Paulo Gabrielli, Anna Wegner, Emilie Beaudon, M. Roxana Sierra-Hernández, Lonnie Thompson

Geological Sciences Faculty Scholarship

Himalayan glaciers are melting due to atmospheric warming, with the potential to limit access to water for more than 25 % of the global population that resides in these glacier meltwater catchments. Black carbon has been implicated as a factor that is contributing to Himalayan glacier melt, but its sources and mechanisms of delivery to the Himalayas remain controversial. Here, we provide a 211-year ice core record spanning 1781–1992 CE for refractory black carbon (rBC) deposition from the Dasuopu glacier ice core that has to date provided the highest-elevation ice core record (7200 m). We report an average rBC concentration ...


Data Supporting The Paper "Is The Water Vapor Supersaturation Distribution Gaussian?", Subin Thomas, Prasanth Prabhakaran, W. Cantrell, Raymond Shaw 2021 Michigan Technological University

Data Supporting The Paper "Is The Water Vapor Supersaturation Distribution Gaussian?", Subin Thomas, Prasanth Prabhakaran, W. Cantrell, Raymond Shaw

Michigan Tech Research Data

The data in this file are from the MTU Pi Cloud Chamber and large eddy simulations. This work was supported by NSF grant AGS-1754244. Data are made available in support of the above publication by Thomas et al.. For any further use, e.g., for publication elsewhere, the authors should be contacted to ensure the appropriate use of the data and proper acknowledgment.


Past The Tipping Point, But With Hope Of Return: How Creating A Geoengineering Compulsory Licensing Scheme Can Incentivize Innovation, Brooke Wilson 2021 Washington and Lee University School of Law

Past The Tipping Point, But With Hope Of Return: How Creating A Geoengineering Compulsory Licensing Scheme Can Incentivize Innovation, Brooke Wilson

Washington and Lee Journal of Civil Rights and Social Justice

This Note explores the patenting of geoengineering technologies and issues arising from the early stages of this high-risk, high-reward technology. This Note focuses on one possible solution to solving the issues surrounding the patenting of geoengineering technology: Creating a specialized compulsory licensing scheme.


A New Method For Estimating The Physical Characteristics Of Martian Dust Devils, Shelly Cahoon Mann 2021 Old Dominion University

A New Method For Estimating The Physical Characteristics Of Martian Dust Devils, Shelly Cahoon Mann

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Theses & Dissertations

Critical to the future exploration of Mars is having a detailed understanding of the atmospheric environment and its potential dangers. The dust devil is one of these potential dangers. The transport of dust through saltation is believed to be the driving mechanism responsible for Martian weather patterns. The two primary mechanisms for dust transport are dust storms and dust devils. Dust devils on Mars are a frequent occurrence with one in five so called giant dust devils being large enough to leave scars on the surface that are visible from space. Due to the thin atmosphere, winds of 60 mph ...


Investigating Decadal Changes Of Multiple Hydrological Products And Land-Cover Changes In The Mediterranean Region For 2009–2018, Wenzhao Li, Sachi Perera, Erik Linstead, Rejoice Thomas, Hesham el-Askary, Thomas Piechota, Daniele Struppa 2021 Chapman University

Investigating Decadal Changes Of Multiple Hydrological Products And Land-Cover Changes In The Mediterranean Region For 2009–2018, Wenzhao Li, Sachi Perera, Erik Linstead, Rejoice Thomas, Hesham El-Askary, Thomas Piechota, Daniele Struppa

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Land-cover change is a critical concern due to its climatic, ecological, and socioeconomic consequences. In this study, we used multiple variables including precipitation, vegetation index, surface soil moisture, and evapotranspiration obtained from different satellite sources to study their association with land-cover changes in the Mediterranean region. Both observational and modeling data were used for climatology and correlation analysis. Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data Assimilation System (FLDAS) and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) were used to extract surface soil moisture and evapotranspiration data. Intercomparing the results of FLDAS and GLDAS suggested that FLDAS data had better ...


Enlisting Students To Transcribe Historical Climate And Weather Data For Research: Building Knowledge Translation Via Classroom-Based Citizen Science, Drew F. Bush, Victoria Slonosky, Geoffrey Pearce, Renee Sieber 2021 McGill University

Enlisting Students To Transcribe Historical Climate And Weather Data For Research: Building Knowledge Translation Via Classroom-Based Citizen Science, Drew F. Bush, Victoria Slonosky, Geoffrey Pearce, Renee Sieber

Journal of Community Engagement and Scholarship

DRAW (Data Rescue: Archives & Weather) is a citizen science project that asks the Canadian public to take part in transcribing millions of meteorological observations recorded between 1871 and 1963 at McGill University’s Observatory in Montreal, Quebec, which was demolished in 1963. We examine how classroom-based curricula can integrate citizen science so youth can learn more about their community via engagement with the local history of weather conditions and impacts. Conducted in March 2018, this research examined knowledge translation during a three-week course module through written reflections, classroom video footage, exit interviews, and a final group research assignment. We worked ...


Reginald Sutcliffe And The Invention Of Modern Weather Systems Science, Jonathan E. Martin 2021 Purdue University

Reginald Sutcliffe And The Invention Of Modern Weather Systems Science, Jonathan E. Martin

Purdue University Press Book Previews

Despite being perhaps the foremost British meteorologist of the twentieth century, Reginald Sutcliffe has been understudied and underappreciated. His impact continues to this day every time you check the weather forecast. Reginald Sutcliffe and the Invention of Modern Weather Systems Science not only details Sutcliffe’s life and ideas, but it also illuminates the impact of social movements and the larger forces that propelled him on his consequential trajectory. Less than a century ago, a forecast of the weather tomorrow was considered a practical impossibility. This book makes the case that three important advances guided the development of modern dynamic ...


Comprehensive Record Of Volcanic Eruptions In The Holocene (11,000 Years) From The Wais Divide, Antarctica Ice Core, Jihong Cole-Dai, David G. Harris, Joshua A. Kennedy, Michael Sigl, Joseph R. McConnell, T. J. Fudge, Lei Geng, Olivia J. Maselli, Kendrick C. Taylor, Joseph M. Souney 2021 South Dakota State University

Comprehensive Record Of Volcanic Eruptions In The Holocene (11,000 Years) From The Wais Divide, Antarctica Ice Core, Jihong Cole-Dai, David G. Harris, Joshua A. Kennedy, Michael Sigl, Joseph R. Mcconnell, T. J. Fudge, Lei Geng, Olivia J. Maselli, Kendrick C. Taylor, Joseph M. Souney

Ice Core and Environmental Chemistry Lab Datasets and Publications

A comprehensive record (WHV2020) of explosive volcanic eruptions in the last 11,000 years is reconstructed from the West Antarctica Ice Sheet Divide deep ice core (WDC). The chronological list of 426 large volcanic eruptions in the Southern Hemisphere and the low latitudes during the Holocene are of the highest quality of all volcanic records from ice cores, owing to the high-resolution chemical measurement of the ice core and the exceptionally accurate WDC timescale. No apparent trend is found in the frequency (number of eruptions per millennium) of volcanic eruptions, and the number of eruptions in the most recent millennium ...


Ecological Risk Assessment Of Managed Relocation As A Climate Change Adaptation Strategy, Aviv Karasov-Olson, Mark W. Schwartz, Julian D. Olden, Sarah Skikne, Jessica J. Hellmann, Sarah Allen, Christy Brigham, Danielle Buttke, David J. Lawrence, Abraham J. Miller-Rushing, Jeffrey T. Morisette, Gregor W. Schuurman, Melissa Trammell, Cat Hawkins Hoffman 2021 University of California, Davis

Ecological Risk Assessment Of Managed Relocation As A Climate Change Adaptation Strategy, Aviv Karasov-Olson, Mark W. Schwartz, Julian D. Olden, Sarah Skikne, Jessica J. Hellmann, Sarah Allen, Christy Brigham, Danielle Buttke, David J. Lawrence, Abraham J. Miller-Rushing, Jeffrey T. Morisette, Gregor W. Schuurman, Melissa Trammell, Cat Hawkins Hoffman

U.S. National Park Service Publications and Papers

Executive Summary

Changing climate and introduced species are placing an increasing number of species at risk of extinction. Increasing extinction risk is increasing calls to protect species by relocating, or translocating, them to locations with more favorable biotic or climatic conditions. Managed relocation, or assisted migration, of species entails risks to both the conservation target organisms being moved as well as the recipient ecosystems into which they are moved.

Recognizing this risk, calls have been made for practitioners interested in considering a managed relocation project to engage in a serious risk assessment prior to advancing a project. We engaged a ...


Diurnal Cycle Of Passive Microwave Brightness Temperatures Over Land At A Global Scale, Zahra Sharifnezhad, Hamid Norouzi, Satya Prakash, Reginald Blake, Reze Khanbilvard 2021 CUNY City College

Diurnal Cycle Of Passive Microwave Brightness Temperatures Over Land At A Global Scale, Zahra Sharifnezhad, Hamid Norouzi, Satya Prakash, Reginald Blake, Reze Khanbilvard

Publications and Research

Satellite-borne passive microwave radiometers provide brightness temperature (TB) measurements in a large spectral range which includes a number of frequency channels and generally two polarizations: horizontal and vertical. These TBs are widely used to retrieve several atmospheric and surface variables and parameters such as precipitation, soil moisture, water vapor, air temperature profile, and land surface emissivity. Since TBs are measured at different microwave frequencies with various instruments and at various incidence angles, spatial resolutions, and radiometric characteristics, a mere direct integration of them from different microwave sensors would not necessarily provide consistency. However, when appropriately harmonized, they can provide a ...


From Hector Mine M7.1 To Ridgecrest M7.1 Earthquake. A Look From A 20-Year Perspective, Sergey Pulinets, Marina Tsidilina, Dimitar Ouzounov, Dmitry Davidenko 2021 Russian Academy of Sciences

From Hector Mine M7.1 To Ridgecrest M7.1 Earthquake. A Look From A 20-Year Perspective, Sergey Pulinets, Marina Tsidilina, Dimitar Ouzounov, Dmitry Davidenko

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

The paper provides a comparative analysis of precursory phenomena in the ionosphere and atmosphere for two strong earthquakes of the same magnitude M7.1 that happened in the same region (North-East from Los Angeles) within a time span of 20 years, the Hector Mine and Ridgecrest earthquakes. Regardless of the similarity of their location (South-Eastern California, near 160 km one from another), there was one essential difference: the Hector Mine earthquake happened during geomagnetically disturbed conditions (essential in the sense of ionospheric precursors identification). In contrast, the quiet geomagnetic conditions characterized the period around the time of the Ridgecrest earthquake ...


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