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233 full-text articles. Page 5 of 9.

Dicke’S Superradiance In Astrophysics, Fereshteh Rajabi 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Dicke’S Superradiance In Astrophysics, Fereshteh Rajabi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

It is generally assumed that in the interstellar medium much of the emission emanating from atomic and molecular transitions within a radiating gas happen independently for each atom or molecule, but as was pointed out by R. H. Dicke in a seminal paper several decades ago this assumption does not apply in all conditions. As will be discussed in this thesis, and following Dicke’s original analysis, closely packed atoms/molecules can interact with their common electromagnetic field and radiate coherently through an effect he named superradiance. Superradiance is a cooperative quantum mechanical phenomenon characterized by high intensity, spatially compact ...


Examination Of Resonant Modes In Microwave Cavities, Sophia Schwalbe, Gianpaolo Carosi 2016 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Examination Of Resonant Modes In Microwave Cavities, Sophia Schwalbe, Gianpaolo Carosi

Student Works

The Axion Dark Matter eXperiment (ADMX) looks to detect dark matter axion particles by using microwave cavities in a high magnetic eld to convert the axion's mass energy to a detectable photon. The photon frequency corresponds to the axion mass. Tuning elements in the cavities allow the resonant frequency to be changed but only certain modes couple to the axion. Interactions with additional resonant modes that do not couple to the axion cause unobservable regions in the frequency range. This research investigated new methods to move the additional resonant modes in order to observe these regions.


Galaxies Probing Galaxies At High Resolution: Co-Rotating Gas Associated With A Milky Way Analog At Z = 0.4, Aleksandar M. Diamond-Stanic, Alison L. Coil, John Moustakas, Christy A. Tremonti, Paul H. Sell, Alexander J. Mendez, Ryan C. Hickox, Greg H. Rudnick 2016 University of Wisconsin - Madison

Galaxies Probing Galaxies At High Resolution: Co-Rotating Gas Associated With A Milky Way Analog At Z = 0.4, Aleksandar M. Diamond-Stanic, Alison L. Coil, John Moustakas, Christy A. Tremonti, Paul H. Sell, Alexander J. Mendez, Ryan C. Hickox, Greg H. Rudnick

Dartmouth Scholarship

We present results on gas flows in the halo of a Milky-Way-like galaxy at z = 0.413 based on high-resolution spectroscopy of a background galaxy. This is the first study of circumgalactic gas at high spectral resolution toward an extended background source (i.e., a galaxy rather than a quasar). Using long-slit spectroscopy of the foreground galaxy, we observe spatially extended Hα emission with a circular rotation velocity v circ ≈ 270 km s−1. Using echelle spectroscopy of the background galaxy, we detect and absorption lines at an impact parameter ρ= 27 kpc that are blueshifted from systemic in ...


General Relativity And Differential Geometry, Harry Hausner 2016 Union College - Schenectady, NY

General Relativity And Differential Geometry, Harry Hausner

Honors Theses

N/A


The Dawn–Dusk Asymmetry Of Ion Density In The Dayside Magnetosheath And Its Annual Variability Measured By Themis, Andrew P. Dimmock, Tuija I. Pulkkinen, Adnane Osmane, Katariina Nykyri 2016 Aalto University

The Dawn–Dusk Asymmetry Of Ion Density In The Dayside Magnetosheath And Its Annual Variability Measured By Themis, Andrew P. Dimmock, Tuija I. Pulkkinen, Adnane Osmane, Katariina Nykyri

Publications

The local and global plasma properties in the magnetosheath play a fundamental role in regulating solar wind–magnetosphere coupling processes. However, the magnetosheath is a complex region to characterise as it has been shown theoretically, observationally and through simulations that plasma properties are inhomogeneous, non-isotropic and asymmetric about the Sun-Earth line. To complicate matters, dawn–dusk asymmetries are sensitive to various changes in the upstream conditions on an array of timescales. The present paper focuses exclusively on dawn–dusk asymmetries, in particularly that of ion density. We present a statistical study using THEMIS data of the dawn–dusk asymmetry of ...


The Inner Gaseous Disks Of Herbig Be Stars, Parshati Patel 2016 The University of Western Ontario

The Inner Gaseous Disks Of Herbig Be Stars, Parshati Patel

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Herbig Ae/Be stars are intermediate mass (~2 to 20Msun) pre-main sequence stars that inherit a circumstellar disk of dust and gas from their formation phase. The region of this disk closest to the star is entirely gaseous because dust evaporates at the high temperatures there, and this gaseous region is currently poorly understood. Using non-LTE circumstellar disk codes to model the optical and near-infrared spectra of five, early-type (B0Ve to B2Ve) Herbig Be stars obtained with the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope ESPaDOnS instrument, the density structure of each inner gaseous disks was determined and estimates of the disk masses and ...


The Parallelization And Optimization Of The N-Body Problem Using Openmp And Openmpi, Nicholas J. Carugati 2016 Gettysburg College

The Parallelization And Optimization Of The N-Body Problem Using Openmp And Openmpi, Nicholas J. Carugati

Student Publications

The focus of this research is exploring the efficient ways we can implement the NBody problem. The N-Body problem, in the field of physics, is a problem in which predicts or simulates the movements of planets and how they interact with each other gravitationally. For this research, we are viewing if the simulation can execute efficiently by delegating the heavy computational work through different cores of a CPU. The approach that is being used to figure this out is by integrating the parallelization API OpenMP and the message-passing library OpenMPI into the code. Rather than all the code executing on ...


Probing The Fitting Accuracy Of Active Galaxy Spectra, Aaron T. Line 2016 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Probing The Fitting Accuracy Of Active Galaxy Spectra, Aaron T. Line

Physics

Prior to this study, Dr. Vardha N. Bennert and collaborators selected a sample of ~100 local active galaxies to study the relationships between black hole mass and host galaxy properties. The broad Hβ width is necessary to determine black hole mass. This value is determined using a spectral decomposition code was scripted in IDL by Dr. Daeseong Park. The script fit spectral features and collected data for properties such as width of emission lines and continuum contribution percentages. The results were logged for further analysis.

To probe the accuracy of the fitting process, artificial spectra were created and fitted to ...


Modeling Extrasolar Trojan Asteroids In Gravitational Potentials Of Migrating Jovian-Like Planets To Inform Future Observations, Austin Hinkel 2016 University of Kentucky

Modeling Extrasolar Trojan Asteroids In Gravitational Potentials Of Migrating Jovian-Like Planets To Inform Future Observations, Austin Hinkel

Lewis Honors College Capstone Collection

In this paper, I construct a program to map the evolution of the potential in a planet-star system where a planet with a few Jupiter masses migrates inward. Given a trojan asteroid librating around the fourth or fifth Lagrange point, the asteroid follows the evolving equipotential lines of the slowly changing potential map. As the planet and its trojan asteroids migrate inward towards the host star, the trojan asteroid librations become tighter, providing a denser “cloud” of trojan asteroids. Such a change in the density of trojan asteroids is examined with the intent to deduce the likelihood of detection via ...


Low Intensity Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy Of The Lake Labyrinth Meteorite, Tristan C. Paul 2015 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Low Intensity Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy Of The Lake Labyrinth Meteorite, Tristan C. Paul

Physics

A 23.7g fragment of the Lake Labyrinth Meteorite (fell in 1924, collected in 1934 at Lake Labyrinth in South Australia, Australia) was re-investigated for evidence of the presence of 98Tc using a two dimensional low-intensity gamma-ray spectrometer. A new calibration technique using 26Al sources found the gamma-rays previously thought to be due to 98Tc are more likely from 166Ho. The presence of 166Ho is most likely due to activation of the stable 165Ho in the meteorite from terrestrial background sources where it was stored.


Cosmic Ray Air Shower Lateral Coincidences, Gordon C. McIntosh 2015 University of Minnesota, Morris

Cosmic Ray Air Shower Lateral Coincidences, Gordon C. Mcintosh

2017 Academic High Altitude Conference

At the University of Minnesota, Morris, my students and I have begun to investigate the time and altitude dependence of air showers. Air showers are cosmic ray secondaries that spread out laterally around the primary cosmic ray direction. To investigate the air showers we have been measuring the lateral coincidences among three Aware RM60 Geiger counters located at 0 cm, 15 cm, and 40 cm. Most of these measurements have been carried out at the surface. The rate of lateral, triple coincidences of Geiger counter with this configuration is 0.053 ±0.013 hr-1 at the surface. On 4 ...


Determining The Relationship Between The [Oiii] 5007 Å Emission Line Profile And The Stellar Velocity Dispersion In Active Galaxies, Nathaniel Milgram 2015 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Determining The Relationship Between The [Oiii] 5007 Å Emission Line Profile And The Stellar Velocity Dispersion In Active Galaxies, Nathaniel Milgram

Physics

The empirical relation between the stellar velocity dispersion (SVD) of the bulge and the mass of the central supermassive black hole (BH) suggests a link between host galaxy and BH evolution. For active galactic nuclei (AGNs), the BH mass (MBH) can be estimated in a straightforward way from the Doppler broadening of the broad emission lines using the so-called virial method. However, the powerful AGN continuum emission often outshines the underlying stellar absorption lines, making it difficult to measure SVD of the host galaxy. Thus, the MBH - SVD relation is difficult to establish for galaxies containing AGNs. As a remedy ...


The Role Of Cold Gas In Low-Level Supermassive Black Hole Activity, Erik D. Alfvin 2015 Macalester College

The Role Of Cold Gas In Low-Level Supermassive Black Hole Activity, Erik D. Alfvin

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

The nature of the relationship between low-level supermassive black hole activity and galactic cold gas, if any, is currently unclear. It has been hypothesized that feedback may heat or expel gas and quench star formation; alternatively, central black holes may feed at higher rates (either directly or as a secondary effect from stellar winds) in gas-rich galaxies. We use a combination of radio data from the on-going ALFALFA survey and from the literature, along with archival X-ray flux measurements from the Chandra X-ray observatory, to investigate this potential relationship. We construct a sample of 136 late-type galaxies, with MB < −18 out to 50 Mpc, that have both HI masses and sensitive X-ray coverage. Of these, 76 host a nuclear X-ray source, a 56% detection fraction. There is a highly significant correlation between LX and Mstar with a slope of 1.5±0.2, and a tentative correlation (significant at the 2.5σ level) between LX and MHI. However, a joint fit to LX as a function of both Mstar and MHI finds no significant dependence on MHI, and similarly the residuals of LX − LX(Mstar) show no trend with MHI. We conclude that the galaxy-wide cold gas content in these spirals does not strongly influence their low-level supermassive black hole activity.


Gravitational Waves: A New Window Into The Cosmos, Jeffrey S. Hazboun 2015 Utah State University

Gravitational Waves: A New Window Into The Cosmos, Jeffrey S. Hazboun

Jeffrey Hazboun

No abstract provided.


Physical Records Of Impacts In The Early And Modern Solar System, Robert Ellis Beauford 2015 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Physical Records Of Impacts In The Early And Modern Solar System, Robert Ellis Beauford

Theses and Dissertations

The study of terrestrial meteorite impact craters and of impacted meteorites expands our understanding of cratered rocky surfaces throughout the solar system. Terrestrial craters uniquely expand upon data from remote imaging and planetary surface exploration by providing analogs for understanding the buried sub-surface portions of impact structures, while impacted meteorites provide examples of a much wider range of surface and subsurface impactite materials than we can directly sample thus far through solar system exploration.

This report examines three facets of the impact record preserved in terrestrial impact craters and in meteorites. First, it looks at the macroscopic structure of the ...


Stellar Spectroscopy: New Methods And Insights, Sanaz S. Golriz 2015 The University of Western Ontario

Stellar Spectroscopy: New Methods And Insights, Sanaz S. Golriz

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The study of the chemical evolution of stars is of crucial importance since they play a major role in the enrichment of the chemistry of the universe. Throughout their lifetime, stars undergo several processes that can alter their chemistry. Gradually, the nucleosynthesis products from the interior of the star are radiatively and convectively levitated and mixed with the upper layers of the atmosphere. In the later stages of their evolution, low to intermediate mass stars (0.8-8.0~M☉) eject a significant fraction of these nucleosynthesis products, resulting in a circumstellar envelope of gas and dust around the central star ...


Supernatural Cosmic Origins: Challenging The Reigning Paradigm, Rachel Blattner 2015 Liberty University

Supernatural Cosmic Origins: Challenging The Reigning Paradigm, Rachel Blattner

Senior Honors Theses

Contemporary scientific study primarily uses a paradigm based upon naturalism, materialism, and empiricism on which to base research. The widely accepted cosmological model the big bang theory adheres to this paradigm. Despite many weaknesses in this model and in the paradigm itself, researchers continue to favor the modification of the accepted model over the adoption of other more comprehensive models. The paradigm from which the models proposed by Russell Humphries, John Hartnett, and Jason Lisle come justifies the six-day creation young-earth biblical account and better fits observational evidence with fewer arbitrary assumptions than the paradigm from which the big bang ...


Methods And Results Toward Measuring Magnetic Fields In Star-Forming Regions, Scott C. Jones 2015 The University of Western Ontario

Unmatter Plasma, Relativistic Oblique-Length Contraction Factor, Neutrosophic Diagram And Neutrosophic Degree Of Paradoxicity: Articles And Notes, Florentin Smarandache 2015 University of New Mexico

Unmatter Plasma, Relativistic Oblique-Length Contraction Factor, Neutrosophic Diagram And Neutrosophic Degree Of Paradoxicity: Articles And Notes, Florentin Smarandache

Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications

This book has four parts. In the first part, we collected five recent papers, published before in Progress in Physics, but reviewed. In the first paper, we approach a novel form of plasma, Unmatter Plasma. The electron-positron beam plasma was generated in the laboratory in the beginning of 2015. This experimental fact shows that unmatter, a new form of matter that is formed by matter and antimatter bind together (mathematically predicted a decade ago) really exists. That is the electron-positron plasma experiment of 2015 is the experimentum crucis verifying the mathematically predicted unmatter. In the second paper, we generalize the ...


Scale-Up Methodology For Bench-Scale Slurry Photocatalytic Reactors Using Combined Irradiation And Kinetic Modelling, Patricio J. Valades Pelayo 2014 The University of Western Ontario

Scale-Up Methodology For Bench-Scale Slurry Photocatalytic Reactors Using Combined Irradiation And Kinetic Modelling, Patricio J. Valades Pelayo

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The present study focuses on developing a predictive methodology to scale-up a slurry annular photoreactor using a TiO2 Degussa P25 from the bench-scale to a pilot-plant scale. The bench-scale photoreactor is a Photo-CREC-Water II, a 2.65 L internally-irradiated slurry annular photocatalytic reactor. The pilot-plant scale photoreactor is a Photo-CREC Water Solar Simulator, a 9.8 L pilot-plant photoreactor, externally irradiated by eight lamps.

The adopted methodology allows the independent validation of radiative and kinetic models avoiding cross-correlation issues. The proposed approach involves two Monte Carlo methods, to model the Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE) inside each photoreactor. With this ...


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