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The Undeniable Attraction Of Lunar Swirls, Cierra Waller, Dhananjay Ravat 2018 University of Kentucky

The Undeniable Attraction Of Lunar Swirls, Cierra Waller, Dhananjay Ravat

Posters-at-the-Capitol

Lunar swirls are complex patterns on the Moon with distinct brightness signatures and magnetic characteristics. Current research has suggested that the formation of lunar swirls relies on local magnetic fields to shield impinging solar wind, based on a shift in electromagnetic wavelength peaks related to solar radiation and space weathering. Our research combined recent models and methods to characterize these anomalies at the surface of the Moon, exploring the effects of field strength and position. We have produced a high resolution map of a famous swirl named Reiner Gamma using magnetic dipole modeling. These maps and models are considered when ...


4 - A Flexible Model For Investigating The Properties Of Starspots: Comparison Of Model Predictions To Observed Data, Amanda Ash 2018 University of North Georgia

4 - A Flexible Model For Investigating The Properties Of Starspots: Comparison Of Model Predictions To Observed Data, Amanda Ash

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Accurate age estimates provide a wealth of information about the mechanisms of different astrophysical phenomenon. However, current methods of applying stellar evolution models to obtain these estimates has proven to be flawed, with models having little consistency. It has been speculated the source of this inconsistency may arise from deviations in stellar properties due to the presence of dark blemishes, starspots, present on young cool stars (Feiden, 2016). Using predictions of expected properties from the flexible starspot model to observed properties of various open clusters, we aim to define what starspot properties bring model predictions into agreement with observed data ...


5 - Irregularities In Young Stellar Models: Are Starspots To Blame?, Jessica Hamilton 2018 University of North Georgia

5 - Irregularities In Young Stellar Models: Are Starspots To Blame?, Jessica Hamilton

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Starspots are dark areas on a star’s surface formed by intense magnetic fields that actively suppress the flow of energy, causing the area to become cooler and darker than its surroundings. Starspots threaten a star’s equilibrium because they prevent energy from leaving the star, causing a buildup of pressure. The prevailing assumption is that increased pressure will cause the star to inflate, producing a cooler and larger star. For this reason, starspots have been proposed to explain why some stars appear cooler and larger than we expect. This requires energy blocked by a spot to be trapped deep ...


A Statistical Analysis Of Steve, Bea Gallardo‐Lacourt, Y. Nishimura, E. Donovan, G. W. Gillies, W. E. Archer, Omar A. Nava, E. L. Spanswick 2018 Air Force Institute of Technology

A Statistical Analysis Of Steve, Bea Gallardo‐Lacourt, Y. Nishimura, E. Donovan, G. W. Gillies, W. E. Archer, Omar A. Nava, E. L. Spanswick

Faculty Publications

There has been an exciting recent development in auroral research associated with the discovery of a new subauroral phenomenon called STEVE (Strong Thermal Emission Velocity Enhancement). Although STEVE has been documented by amateur night sky watchers for decades, it is as yet an unidentified upper atmosphere phenomenon. Observed first by amateur auroral photographers, STEVE appears as a narrow luminous structure across the night sky over thousands of kilometers in the east‐west direction. In this paper, we present the first statistical analysis of the properties of 28 STEVE events identified using Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms ...


A Derivation Of Fluidic Maxwell-Proca Equations For Electrodynamics Of Superconductors & Its Implication To Chiral Cosmology Model, Florentin Smarandache, Victor Christianto, Yunita Umniyati 2018 University of New Mexico

A Derivation Of Fluidic Maxwell-Proca Equations For Electrodynamics Of Superconductors & Its Implication To Chiral Cosmology Model, Florentin Smarandache, Victor Christianto, Yunita Umniyati

Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications

Mario Liu described a hydrodynamic Maxwell equations [3] and, also discussed potential implications of these new approaches to superconductors which were made after Tajmar’s paper [4]. In this paper, we present for the first time a derivation of fluidic Maxwell-Proca equations. The name of fluidic Maxwell-Proca is proposed because the equations were based on modifying Maxwell-Proca and Hirsch’s theory of electrodynamics of superconductor. It is hoped that this paper may stimulate further investigations and experiments in superconductor. It may be expected to have some impact to cosmology modeling too, for instance we consider a hypothetical argument that photon ...


The Periglacial Landscape Of Mars: Insight Into The 'Decameter-Scale Rimmed Depressions' In Utopia Planitia, Arya Bina 2018 The University of Western Ontario

The Periglacial Landscape Of Mars: Insight Into The 'Decameter-Scale Rimmed Depressions' In Utopia Planitia, Arya Bina

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Currently, Mars appears to be in a ‘frozen’ and ‘dry’ state, with the clear majority of the planet’s surface maintaining year-round sub-zero temperatures. However, the discovery of features consistent with landforms found in periglacial environments on Earth, suggests a climate history for Mars that may have involved freeze and thaw cycles. Such landforms include hummocky, polygonised, scalloped, and pitted terrains, as well as ice-rich deposits and gullies, along the mid- to high-latitude bands, typically with no lower than 20o N/S. The detection of near-surface and surface ice via the Phoenix lander, excavation of ice via recent impact cratering ...


Astromimetics: The Dawn Of A New Era For (Bio)Materials Science?, Vuk Uskoković, Victoria M. Wu 2018 Chapman University

Astromimetics: The Dawn Of A New Era For (Bio)Materials Science?, Vuk Uskoković, Victoria M. Wu

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Composite, multifunctional fine particles are likely to be at the frontier of materials science in the foreseeable future. Here we present a submicron composite particle that mimics the stratified structure of the Earth by having a zero-valent iron core, a silicate/silicide mantle, and a thin carbonaceous crust resembling the biosphere and its biotic deposits. Particles were formulated in a stable colloidal form and made to interact with various types of healthy and cancer cells in vitro. A selective anticancer activity was observed, promising from the point of view of the intended use of the particles for tumor targeting across ...


Strong Evidence For The Density-Wave Theory Of Spiral Structure From A Multi-Wavelength Study Of Disk Galaxies, Hamed Pour-Imani 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Strong Evidence For The Density-Wave Theory Of Spiral Structure From A Multi-Wavelength Study Of Disk Galaxies, Hamed Pour-Imani

Theses and Dissertations

The density-wave theory of spiral structure, though first proposed as long ago as the mid-1960s by C.C. Lin and F. Shu (Lin & Shu, 1964; Bertin & Lin, 1996; Shu, 2016), continues to be challenged by rival theories, such as the manifold theory. One test of these theories which has been proposed is that the pitch angle of spiral arms for galaxies should vary with the wavelength of the image in the density-wave theory, but not in the manifold theory. The reason is that stars are born in the density wave but move out of it as they age. In this dissertation, I combined large ...


On Some Metaphysical Problems Of Many Worlds Interpretation Of Quantum Mechanics, Florentin Smarandache, Victor Christianto, Yunita Umniyati 2018 University of New Mexico

On Some Metaphysical Problems Of Many Worlds Interpretation Of Quantum Mechanics, Florentin Smarandache, Victor Christianto, Yunita Umniyati

Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications

Despite its enormous practical success, many physicists and philosophers alike agree that the quantum theory is full of contradictions and paradoxes which are difficult to solve consistently. Even after 90 years, the experts themselves still do not all agree what to make of it. The area of disagreement centers primarily around the problem of describing observations. Formally, the socalled quantum measurement problem can be defined as follows: the result of a measurement is a superposition of vectors, each representing the quantity being observed as having one of its possible values. The question that has to be answered is : how this ...


Impact Melt Emplacement On Mercury, Jeffrey Daniels 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Impact Melt Emplacement On Mercury, Jeffrey Daniels

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Impact cratering is an abrupt, spectacular process that occurs on any world with a solid surface. On Earth, these craters are easily eroded or destroyed through endogenic processes. The Moon and Mercury, however, lack a significant atmosphere, meaning craters on these worlds remain intact longer, geologically. In this thesis, remote-sensing techniques were used to investigate impact melt emplacement about Mercury’s fresh, complex craters. For complex lunar craters, impact melt is preferentially ejected from the lowest rim elevation, implying topographic control. On Venus, impact melt is preferentially ejected downrange from the impact site, implying impactor-direction control. Mercury, despite its heavily-cratered ...


An Investigation Into The Suitability Of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria As Models For Martian Forward Contamination, Maxwell M. W. Silver 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

An Investigation Into The Suitability Of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria As Models For Martian Forward Contamination, Maxwell M. W. Silver

Theses and Dissertations

The NASA Planetary Protection policy requires interplanetary space missions do not compromise the target body for a current or future scientific investigation and do not pose an unacceptable risk to Earth, including biologic materials. Robotic missions to Mars pose a risk to planetary protection in the forms of forward and reverse contamination. To reduce these risks, a firm understanding of microbial response to Mars conditions is required. Sulfate-reducing bacteria are prime candidates for potential forward contamination on Mars. Understanding the potential for forward-contamination of sulfate-reducers on Mars calls for the characterization of sulfate-reducers under Mars atmosphere, temperature, and sulfate-brines. This ...


Remark On Vacuum Fluctuation As The Cause Of Universe Creation: Or How Neutrosophic Logic And Material Point Method May Resolve Dispute On The Origin Of The Universe Through Re-Reading Gen. 1:1-2, Florentin Smarandache, Victor Christianto 2018 University of New Mexico

Remark On Vacuum Fluctuation As The Cause Of Universe Creation: Or How Neutrosophic Logic And Material Point Method May Resolve Dispute On The Origin Of The Universe Through Re-Reading Gen. 1:1-2, Florentin Smarandache, Victor Christianto

Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications

Questions regarding the formation of the Universe and what was there before the existence of Early Universe have been great interest to mankind of all times. In recent decades, the Big Bang as described by the Lambda CDMStandard Model Cosmology has become widely accepted by majority of physics and cosmology communities. Among other things, we can cite A.A. Grib Pavlov who pointed out some problems of heavy particles creation out of vacuum and also other proposal of Creatio ex nihilo theory (CET). But the philosophical problems remain, as Vaas pointed out: Did the universe have a beginning or does ...


Thinking Out Loud On Primeval Atom, Big Bang & Biblical Account Of Creation, Florentin Smarandache, Victor Christianto 2018 University of New Mexico

Thinking Out Loud On Primeval Atom, Big Bang & Biblical Account Of Creation, Florentin Smarandache, Victor Christianto

Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications

In recent years, the Big Bang as described by the Lambda CDM-Standard Model Cosmology has become widely accepted by majority of physics and cosmology communities. Some people even have concluded that it has no serious alternative in horizon. Is that true? First, as we argued elsewhere, Big Bang relies on singularity, so, when we are able to describe the observed data without invoking singularity, then Big Bang model is no longer required. In this paper, we explore a few alternatives other than Big Bang which most cosmologists believe is the closest to biblical account of creation. We argue that re-reading ...


Temperature Variations In The Dayside Magnetosheath And Their Dependence On Ion-Scale Magnetic Structures: Themis Statistics And Measurements By Mms, A. P. Dimmock, A. Osmane, T. I. Pulkkinen, K. Nykyri, E. Kilpua 2018 Aalto University

Temperature Variations In The Dayside Magnetosheath And Their Dependence On Ion-Scale Magnetic Structures: Themis Statistics And Measurements By Mms, A. P. Dimmock, A. Osmane, T. I. Pulkkinen, K. Nykyri, E. Kilpua

Katariina Nykyri

The magnetosheath contains an array of waves, instabilities, and nonlinear magnetic structures which modify global plasma properties by means of various wave-particle interactions. The present work demonstrates that ion-scale magnetic field structures (∼0.2–0.5 Hz) observed in the dayside magnetosheath are statistically correlated to ion temperature changes on orders 10–20% of the background value. In addition, our statistical analysis implies that larger temperature changes are in equipartition to larger amplitude magnetic structures. This effect was more pronounced behind the quasi-parallel bow shock and during faster solar wind speeds. The study of two separate intervals suggests that this ...


The Dawn–Dusk Asymmetry Of Ion Density In The Dayside Magnetosheath And Its Annual Variability Measured By Themis, Andrew P. Dimmock, Tuija I. Pulkkinen, Adnane Osmane, Katariina Nykyri 2018 Aalto University

The Dawn–Dusk Asymmetry Of Ion Density In The Dayside Magnetosheath And Its Annual Variability Measured By Themis, Andrew P. Dimmock, Tuija I. Pulkkinen, Adnane Osmane, Katariina Nykyri

Katariina Nykyri

The local and global plasma properties in the magnetosheath play a fundamental role in regulating solar wind–magnetosphere coupling processes. However, the magnetosheath is a complex region to characterise as it has been shown theoretically, observationally and through simulations that plasma properties are inhomogeneous, non-isotropic and asymmetric about the Sun-Earth line. To complicate matters, dawn–dusk asymmetries are sensitive to various changes in the upstream conditions on an array of timescales. The present paper focuses exclusively on dawn–dusk asymmetries, in particularly that of ion density. We present a statistical study using THEMIS data of the dawn–dusk asymmetry of ...


Imf Dependence Of Energetic Oxygen And Hydrogen Ion Distributions In The Near-Earth Magnetosphere, H. Luo, E. A. Kronberg, K. Nykyri, K. J. Trattner, P. W. Daly, G. X. Chen, A. M. Du, Y. S. Ge 2018 Chinese Academy of Sciences

Imf Dependence Of Energetic Oxygen And Hydrogen Ion Distributions In The Near-Earth Magnetosphere, H. Luo, E. A. Kronberg, K. Nykyri, K. J. Trattner, P. W. Daly, G. X. Chen, A. M. Du, Y. S. Ge

Katariina Nykyri

Energetic ion distributions in the near-Earth plasma sheet can provide important information for understanding the entry of ions into the magnetosphere and their transportation, acceleration, and losses in the near-Earth region. In this study, 11 years of energetic proton and oxygen observations (> ~274 keV) from Cluster/Research with Adaptive Particle Imaging Detectors were used to statistically study the energetic ion distributions in the near-Earth region. The dawn-dusk asymmetries of the distributions in three different regions (dayside magnetosphere, near-Earth nightside plasma sheet, and tail plasma sheet) are examined in Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The results show that the energetic ion distributions ...


Climate Modeling, Outgoing Longwave Radiation, And Tropical Cyclone Forecasting, Thomas Rechtman 2018 University of Central Florida

Climate Modeling, Outgoing Longwave Radiation, And Tropical Cyclone Forecasting, Thomas Rechtman

Honors Undergraduate Theses

Climate modeling and tropical cyclone forecasting are two significant is- sues that are continuously being improved upon for more accurate weather forecasting and preparedness. In this thesis, we have studied three climate models and formulated a new model with a view to determine the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) budget at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) as ob- served by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) satellite based Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). In 2006, Karnauskas proposed the African meridional OLR as an Atlantic hur- ricane predictor, the relation was further proven in 2016 by Karnauskas and ...


Magnetic Field Design To Reduce Systematic Effects In Neutron Electric Dipole Moment Measurements, James Ryan Dadisman 2018 University of Kentucky

Magnetic Field Design To Reduce Systematic Effects In Neutron Electric Dipole Moment Measurements, James Ryan Dadisman

Theses and Dissertations--Physics and Astronomy

Charge-Conjugation (C) and Charge-Conjugation-Parity (CP) Violation is one of the three Sakharov conditions to explain via baryogenesis the observed baryon asymmetry of the universe (BAU). The Standard Model of particle physics (SM) contains sources of CP violation, but cannot explain the BAU. This motivates searches for new physics beyond the standard model (BSM) which address the Sakharov criteria, including high-precision searches for new sources of CPV in systems for which the SM contribution is small, but larger effects may be present in BSM theories. A promising example is the search for the electric dipole moment of the neutron (nEDM), which ...


Correlation Between Emission Lines And Radio Luminosities Of Active Galactic Nuclei, Jessica Short-Long 2018 University of Kentucky

Correlation Between Emission Lines And Radio Luminosities Of Active Galactic Nuclei, Jessica Short-Long

Theses and Dissertations--Physics and Astronomy

Radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN) are one class of objects associated with accretion activity onto supermassive black holes in centers of massive galaxies. They are believed to be in a radiatively-inefficient accretion mode with low accretion rate. To understand this accretion mode, it is important to measure its radiative output at high energies (> 13.6eV), which can be traced through optical emission lines. However, little is known about their true radiative output. This is because no correlation between optical emission-line and radio luminosity has been found for the majority of low-luminosity radio AGN, which are often classified as low-excitation radio ...


Differentiation In Impact Melt Sheets As A Mechanism To Produce Evolved Magmas On Mars, Ari Koeppel 2018 CUNY City College

Differentiation In Impact Melt Sheets As A Mechanism To Produce Evolved Magmas On Mars, Ari Koeppel

Dissertations and Theses

Asteroid bombardment contributed to extensive melting and resurfacing of ancient (> 3 Ga) Mars, thereby influencing the early evolution of the Martian crust. However, information about how impact melting has altered Mars’ crustal petrology is limited. Evidence from some of the largest impact structures on Earth, such as Sudbury and Manicouagan, suggests that some impact melt sheets experience chemical differentiation. If these processes occur on Mars, we expect to observe differentiated igneous materials in some exhumed rock samples. Some rocks observed in Gale crater are enriched in alkalis (up to 14 wt% Na2O + K2O) and silica (up ...


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