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Label‑Free Spectral Imaging To Study Drug Distribution And Metabolism In Single Living Cells, Qamar Alshammari, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Nir Katzir, Surya M. Nauli 2021 Chapman University

Label‑Free Spectral Imaging To Study Drug Distribution And Metabolism In Single Living Cells, Qamar Alshammari, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Nir Katzir, Surya M. Nauli

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

During drug development, evaluation of drug and its metabolite is an essential process to understand drug activity, stability, toxicity and distribution. Liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) has become the standard analytical tool for screening and identifying drug metabolites. Unlike LC/MS approach requiring liquifying the biological samples, we showed that spectral imaging (or spectral microscopy) could provide high-resolution images of doxorubicin (dox) and its metabolite doxorubicinol (dox’ol) in single living cells. Using this new method, we performed measurements without destroying the biological samples. We calculated the rate constant of dox translocating from extracellular moiety into the ...


The Mechanism Of Β-N-Methylamino-L-Alanine Inhibition Of Trna Aminoacylation And Its Impact On Misincorporation, Nien-Ching Han, Tammy J. Bullwinkle, Kaeli F. Loeb, Kym F. Faull, Kyle Mohler, Jesse Rinehart, Michael Ibba 2021 The Ohio State University

The Mechanism Of Β-N-Methylamino-L-Alanine Inhibition Of Trna Aminoacylation And Its Impact On Misincorporation, Nien-Ching Han, Tammy J. Bullwinkle, Kaeli F. Loeb, Kym F. Faull, Kyle Mohler, Jesse Rinehart, Michael Ibba

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) is a nonproteinogenic amino acid that has been associated with neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). BMAA has been found in human protein extracts; however, the mechanism by which it enters the proteome is still unclear. It has been suggested that BMAA is misincorporated at serine codons during protein synthesis, but direct evidence of its cotranslational incorporation is currently lacking. Here, using LC-MS–purified BMAA and several biochemical assays, we sought to determine whether any aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS) utilizes BMAA as a substrate for aminoacylation. Despite BMAA's previously predicted ...


Nad(H) Phosphates Mediate Tetramer Assembly Of Human C-Terminal Binding Protein (Ctbp), Jeffry C. Nichols, Celia A. Schiffer, William E. Royer 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Nad(H) Phosphates Mediate Tetramer Assembly Of Human C-Terminal Binding Protein (Ctbp), Jeffry C. Nichols, Celia A. Schiffer, William E. Royer

UMass Chan Medical School Faculty Publications

C-terminal binding proteins (CtBPs) are co-transcriptional factors that play key roles in cell fate. We have previously shown that NAD(H) promotes the assembly of similar tetramers from either human CtBP1 and CtBP2 and that CtBP2 tetramer destabilizing mutants are defective for oncogenic activity. To assist structure-based design efforts for compounds that disrupt CtBP tetramerization, it is essential to understand how NAD(H) triggers tetramer assembly. Here, we investigate the moieties within NAD(H) that are responsible for triggering tetramer formation. Using multi-angle light scattering (MALS) we show that ADP is able to promote tetramer formation of both CtBP1 and ...


Synergistic Interactions Of Ionic Liquids And Antimicrobials Improve Drug Efficacy., Daniel D Yang, Nicholas J Paterna, Alexandria S Senetra, Kaitlyn R Casey, Phillip D Trieu, Gregory A. Caputo, Timothy Vaden, Benjamin Carone 2021 Rowan University

Synergistic Interactions Of Ionic Liquids And Antimicrobials Improve Drug Efficacy., Daniel D Yang, Nicholas J Paterna, Alexandria S Senetra, Kaitlyn R Casey, Phillip D Trieu, Gregory A. Caputo, Timothy Vaden, Benjamin Carone

Faculty Scholarship for the College of Science & Mathematics

Combinations of ionic liquids (ILs) with antimicrobial compounds have been shown to produce synergistic activities in model liposomes. In this study, imidazolium chloride-based ILs with alkyl tail length variations are combined with commercially available, small-molecule antimicrobials to examine the potential for combinatorial and synergistic antimicrobial effects on P. aeruginosa, E. coli, S. aureus, and S. cerevisiae. The effects of these treatments in a human cell culture model indicate the cytotoxic limits of ILs paired with antimicrobials. The analysis of these ILs demonstrates that the length of the alkyl chain on the IL molecule is proportional to both antimicrobial activity and ...


[(Wr)8Wkβa]-Doxorubicin Conjugate: A Delivery System To Overcome Multi-Drug Resistance Against Doxorubicin, Khalid Zoghebi, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi, Rakesh Kumar Tiwari, Keykavous Parang 2021 Chapman University

[(Wr)8Wkβa]-Doxorubicin Conjugate: A Delivery System To Overcome Multi-Drug Resistance Against Doxorubicin, Khalid Zoghebi, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi, Rakesh Kumar Tiwari, Keykavous Parang

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Doxorubicin (Dox) is an anthracycline chemotherapeutic agent used to treat breast, leukemia, and lymphoma malignancies. However, cardiotoxicity and inherent acquired resistance are major drawbacks, limiting its clinical application. We have previously shown that cyclic peptide [WR]9 containing alternate tryptophan (W) and arginine (R) residues acts as an efficient molecular transporter. An amphiphilic cyclic peptide containing a lysine (K) residue and alternative W and R was conjugated through a free side chain amino group with Dox via a glutarate linker to afford [(WR)8WKβA]-Dox conjugate. Antiproliferative assays were performed in different cancer cell lines using the conjugate and ...


A Global Review On Short Peptides: Frontiers And Perspectives, Vasso Apostolopoulos, Joanna Bojarska, Tsun-Thai Chai, Sherif Elnagdy, Krzysztof Kaczmarek, John Matsoukas, Roger New, Keykavous Parang, Octavio Paredes Lopez, Hamideh Parhiz, Conrad O. Perera, Monica Pickholz, Milan Remko, Michele Saviano, Mariusz Skwarczynski, Yefeng Tang, Wojciech M. Wolf, Taku Yoshiya, Janusz Zabrocki, Piotr Zielenkiewicz, Maha AlKhazindar, Vanessa Barriga, Konstantinos Kelaidonis, Elham Mousavinezhad Sarasia, Istvan Toth 2021 Victoria University

A Global Review On Short Peptides: Frontiers And Perspectives, Vasso Apostolopoulos, Joanna Bojarska, Tsun-Thai Chai, Sherif Elnagdy, Krzysztof Kaczmarek, John Matsoukas, Roger New, Keykavous Parang, Octavio Paredes Lopez, Hamideh Parhiz, Conrad O. Perera, Monica Pickholz, Milan Remko, Michele Saviano, Mariusz Skwarczynski, Yefeng Tang, Wojciech M. Wolf, Taku Yoshiya, Janusz Zabrocki, Piotr Zielenkiewicz, Maha Alkhazindar, Vanessa Barriga, Konstantinos Kelaidonis, Elham Mousavinezhad Sarasia, Istvan Toth

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Peptides are fragments of proteins that carry out biological functions. They act as signaling entities via all domains of life and interfere with protein-protein interactions, which are indispensable in bio-processes. Short peptides include fundamental molecular information for a prelude to the symphony of life. They have aroused considerable interest due to their unique features and great promise in innovative bio-therapies. This work focusing on the current state-of-the-art short peptide-based therapeutical developments is the first global review written by researchers from all continents, as a celebration of 100 years of peptide therapeutics since the commencement of insulin therapy in the 1920s ...


Pharmacist-Led Programs To Increase Statin Prescribing: A Narrative Review Of The Literature, Mary Elkomos, Raha Jahromi, Michael S. Kelly 2021 Chapman University

Pharmacist-Led Programs To Increase Statin Prescribing: A Narrative Review Of The Literature, Mary Elkomos, Raha Jahromi, Michael S. Kelly

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Statins are lipid-lowing medications shown to reduce cardiovascular events and are recommended for specific patient populations at elevated risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Despite the demonstrated efficacy of statins for reducing ASCVD risk, and guidance on which populations should receive statin therapy, a substantial portion of eligible patients are not prescribed statin therapy. Pharmacists have attempted to increase the number of eligible patients receiving appropriate statin therapy through a variety of interventions and across several clinical settings. In this article, we highlight multiple studies evaluating the effectiveness of pharmacist-led interventions to improve statin use. A total of seven studies ...


Differential Modulation Of Sk Channel Subtypes By Phosphorylation, Young-Woo Nam, Dezhi Kong, Dong Wang, Razan Orfali, Rinzhin T. Sherpa, Jennifer Totonchy, Surya M. Nauli, Miao Zhang 2021 Chapman University

Differential Modulation Of Sk Channel Subtypes By Phosphorylation, Young-Woo Nam, Dezhi Kong, Dong Wang, Razan Orfali, Rinzhin T. Sherpa, Jennifer Totonchy, Surya M. Nauli, Miao Zhang

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SK) channels are voltage-independent and are activated by Ca2+ binding to the calmodulin constitutively associated with the channels. Both the pore-forming subunits and the associated calmodulin are subject to phosphorylation. Here, we investigated the modulation of different SK channel subtypes by phosphorylation, using the cultured endothelial cells as a tool. We report that casein kinase 2 (CK2) negatively modulates the apparent Ca2+ sensitivity of SK1 and IK channel subtypes by more than 5-fold, whereas the apparent Ca2+ sensitivity of the SK3 and SK2 subtypes is only reduced by ∼2-fold, when heterologously expressed ...


Site-Specific Incorporation Of Citrulline Into Proteins In Mammalian Cells, Santanu Mondal, Shu Wang, Yunan Zheng, Sudeshna Sen, Abhishek Chatterjee, Paul R. Thompson 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Site-Specific Incorporation Of Citrulline Into Proteins In Mammalian Cells, Santanu Mondal, Shu Wang, Yunan Zheng, Sudeshna Sen, Abhishek Chatterjee, Paul R. Thompson

UMass Chan Medical School Faculty Publications

Citrullination is a post-translational modification (PTM) of arginine that is crucial for several physiological processes, including gene regulation and neutrophil extracellular trap formation. Despite recent advances, studies of protein citrullination remain challenging due to the difficulty of accessing proteins homogeneously citrullinated at a specific site. Herein, we report a technology that enables the site-specific incorporation of citrulline (Cit) into proteins in mammalian cells. This approach exploits an engineered E. coli-derived leucyl tRNA synthetase-tRNA pair that incorporates a photocaged-citrulline (SM60) into proteins in response to a nonsense codon. Subsequently, SM60 is readily converted to Cit with light in vitro and in ...


Pharmacogenomics And Ssris Appropriateness In Older Community Dwelling African Americans, Wint War Phyo, Lana Sargent, Elvin T. Price 2021 Virginia Commonwealth University

Pharmacogenomics And Ssris Appropriateness In Older Community Dwelling African Americans, Wint War Phyo, Lana Sargent, Elvin T. Price

Graduate Research Posters

Background: Depressive and anxiety disorders are among the most common illnesses experienced by older adults (age > 60). The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are preferred class of antidepressants for these disorders due to their high efficacy and safety profiles among older adults. However, SSRIs are metabolized by highly polymorphic cytochrome P450 enzymes, specifically CYP2D6 and CYP2C19. This can lead to variable dose-response outcomes, especially among older African American population.

Objective: Analyze the frequency of CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 polymorphisms in African American older adults who are taking SSRIs and identify potential inappropriate use of SSRIs in these older adults using the ...


The Development Of A Cancer-Targeting Peptide-Drug Conjugate For The Treatment Of Melanoma, Cassandra Dill 2021 Chapman University

The Development Of A Cancer-Targeting Peptide-Drug Conjugate For The Treatment Of Melanoma, Cassandra Dill

Pharmaceutical Sciences (MS) Theses

Cancer is an ongoing global pandemic which has caused a dramatic shift in research priorities. One of the most aggressive and difficult to treat has invariably remained metastatic melanoma. Although encompassing only 4% of overall skin cancer diagnoses, chances for recovery were slim until recent revolutionary development of immunotherapy adding to its regimen spectrum. This is due to its resistance to many standard-of-care treatment methods, along with its relatively high-metastatic potential. Within the past decade, eight new targeted and immune checkpoint inhibitors have gained FDA approval. The median life survival has increased significantly from 9 months to over 2 years ...


Peptidomimetic And Non- Peptidomimetic Derivatives As Possible Sars-Cov-2 Main Protease (Mpro) Inhibitors, Mohammed A. Al Awadh, Mohini S. Ghatge Ph.D, Mona A. Al Khairi, Faik N. Musayev, Akua K. Donkor, Mohammed H. AL Mughram, Abdelsattar M. Omar Ph.D, Moustafa M. El-Araby Ph.D, Martin K. Safo Ph.D 2021 Virginia Commonwealth University

Peptidomimetic And Non- Peptidomimetic Derivatives As Possible Sars-Cov-2 Main Protease (Mpro) Inhibitors, Mohammed A. Al Awadh, Mohini S. Ghatge Ph.D, Mona A. Al Khairi, Faik N. Musayev, Akua K. Donkor, Mohammed H. Al Mughram, Abdelsattar M. Omar Ph.D, Moustafa M. El-Araby Ph.D, Martin K. Safo Ph.D

Graduate Research Posters

To design novel inhibitors of the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro), we investigated the binding mode of the recently reported α-ketoamide inhibitors of this enzyme. Following, we utilized in-silico screening to identify 168 peptidomimetic and non-peptidomimetic compounds that are high probability Mpro binding candidates. The compounds were synthesized in 5 to 10 mg for initial screening for their potential inhibition of Mpro using Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) assay. The study was conducted using the main protease, MBP-tagged (SARS-CoV-2) Assay Kit (BPS Bioscience, #79955-2), and the fluorescence due to enzymatic cleavage of substrate measured using BMG LABTECH CLARIOstar™, a fluorescent microplate ...


Science-Based Regulation Of Pharmacological Substances In Competition Horses, Jacob Machin 2021 University of Kentucky

Science-Based Regulation Of Pharmacological Substances In Competition Horses, Jacob Machin

Theses and Dissertations--Toxicology and Cancer Biology

Current testing methodologies within equine forensic toxicology focus on arbitrary thresholds and zero-tolerance policy. Modern analytical chemistry’s limits of detection are low enough that oftentimes femtogram-per-milliliter amounts of a substance can readily be identified in both blood and urine of a horse. For most pharmacologically relevant compounds, these concentrations have no relevance to pharmacological effect. It is therefore crucial that testing methodologies to determine appropriate thresholds and cut-offs be developed that are driven by biological activity rather than arbitrary limits of detection. This dissertation looks to address this by suggesting a system of calculated Effective Plasma Concentrations by which ...


Drug Delivery Systems: Exploring Rheological Properties And Therapeutic Effect Of 5-Fu Chitosan Gel For Topical Wound Healing, Samuel Tetteh-Quarshie 2021 Marshall University

Drug Delivery Systems: Exploring Rheological Properties And Therapeutic Effect Of 5-Fu Chitosan Gel For Topical Wound Healing, Samuel Tetteh-Quarshie

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Diabetic skin wound is a common complication of diabetes that occurs in about 15% of diabetic patients and often requires prolonged hospitalization for its management and treatment. Natural polymers are used for wound dressing due to their biological adhesiveness, non-toxicity, and biodegradable nature. 5-Fluorouracil (FU) has been shown to alter adipokine expression which is implicated in cutaneous wound repair. Thus, our overall objective was to investigate the utility of chitosan (CS) gel for topical delivery of 5-FU to treat diabetic wounds. We prepared chitosan gel (2% w/w) in serial dilutions of 5-FU (25μg/mL, 2.5μg/mL, 0.25μg ...


Investigating Cannabinoid Type-1 Receptor (Cb1r) Positive Allosteric Modulators (Pams) In Mouse Models Of Overt Cannabimimetic Activity, Subjective Drug Effects, And Neuropathic Pain, Jayden Elmer 2021 Virginia Commonwealth University

Investigating Cannabinoid Type-1 Receptor (Cb1r) Positive Allosteric Modulators (Pams) In Mouse Models Of Overt Cannabimimetic Activity, Subjective Drug Effects, And Neuropathic Pain, Jayden Elmer

Theses and Dissertations

Chronic pain affects between 20 and 30 percent of the adult population in western countries and represents a wide array of specific etiologies (Berge, 2011). Neuropathic pain secondary to traumatic nerve injury, chemotherapeutic toxicity, or diseases (e.g., diabetes mellitus) is often refractory to conventional analgesics, with patients receiving less than 50% pain relief compared to placebo (Finnerup et al. 2010). The endocannabinoid system has shown potential as a therapeutic target for neuropathic pain wherein CB1 agonism via administration of exogenous agonists or pharmacological blockade of endocannabinoid catabolic enzymes exhibits efficacy in reversing allodynia in the chronic constriction injury (CCI ...


Exploring The Dopamine Transporter Utilizing A Two-Pronged Approach With Novel Cathinone Analogs And Mutant Dopamine Transporters, Charles B. Jones III 2021 Virginia Commonwealth University

Exploring The Dopamine Transporter Utilizing A Two-Pronged Approach With Novel Cathinone Analogs And Mutant Dopamine Transporters, Charles B. Jones Iii

Theses and Dissertations

The dopamine transporter (DAT) is responsible for the removal of the neurotransmitter from the synaptic gap and a therapeutic target for a multitude of drugs. While the ortholog Drosophila melanogaster dopamine transporter (dDAT) and human serotonin transporter (hSERT) have resolved structures, the human dopamine transporter (hDAT) does not. A 3-D computational homology model of hDAT was constructed for the study of molecular interactions with agents within the central binding site (S1) of the transporter.

Synthetic cathiones are a class of abused stimulant drugs that primarily target DAT. Greater than 150 cathinones have been identified on the clandestine market but there ...


Bisphosohoglycertae Mutase: A Potential Target For Sickle Cell Disease, Anfal S. Aljahdali 2021 Virginia Commonwealth University

Bisphosohoglycertae Mutase: A Potential Target For Sickle Cell Disease, Anfal S. Aljahdali

Theses and Dissertations

Bisphosphoglycerate mutase (BPGM) is a part of the erythrocyte glycolysis system. Specifically, it is a central enzyme in the Rapoport-Leubering pathway, a side glycolytic pathway involved in the regulation of the concentration of the natural allosteric effector of hemoglobin (Hb), 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate (2,3-BPG). BPGM catalyses the synthesis and hydrolysis of 2,3-BPG through its synthase and phosphatase activities. The synthase activity is the main role of BPGM, while the phosphatase activity is low and is activated by the physiological effector, 2-phosphoglycolate (2-PG) with the latter mechanism poorly understood.

BPGM activity and 2,3-BPG levels in red blood cells (RBCs ...


Development Of Sam-Based Chemical Probes For Methyltransferases, Daniel V. Mongeluzi 2021 Virginia Commonwealth University

Development Of Sam-Based Chemical Probes For Methyltransferases, Daniel V. Mongeluzi

Theses and Dissertations

Fig.1. SAM analog for the profiling of MTase activity. A. Chemical structure of probe 1; B. General scheme of the labeling and capture strategy.

A

B

Methylation is a fundamental mechanism used in the biological system to modify the structure and function of biomolecules such as proteins, DNA, RNA, and metabolites.1 Methyl groups are installed by a large and diverse class of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM)-dependent methyltransferases (MTases), which transfer the sulfonium methyl group of SAM to either carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, or other heteroatoms on biomolecules.2 Dysregulated MTase activity contributes to numerous diseases, including cancer, metabolic disorders ...


Investigations On Novel Cyp26a1/B1 Inhibitor, Dx308: Using Atra Response As A Theraputic Target For Traumatic Brain Injury And Parkinson’S Disease, Jacob Morgan Leatherwood 2021 The University Of Montana

Investigations On Novel Cyp26a1/B1 Inhibitor, Dx308: Using Atra Response As A Theraputic Target For Traumatic Brain Injury And Parkinson’S Disease, Jacob Morgan Leatherwood

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) take a wide spectrum of pathologies and have a tendency to present themselves later in life. Neurodegenerative diseases affect 6 million Americans annually with ~1 million currently living with Parkinson’s disease (PD). One of the greatest contributors to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases is the occurrence of a traumatic brain injury (TBI) during life.

All-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) is the active metabolite of Vitamin A. The retinoic acid pathway is known to be activated following TBI and is reduced in PD patients. Previous studies found a decrease in inflammation and behavioral deficits following administration of ...


Bayesian-Derived Vancomycin Auc24h Threshold For Nephrotoxicity In Special Populations, Dan Ho 2021 University of the Pacific

Bayesian-Derived Vancomycin Auc24h Threshold For Nephrotoxicity In Special Populations, Dan Ho

University of the Pacific Theses and Dissertations

A Bayesian-derived 24-hour area under the concentration-time curve over minimum inhibitory concentration from broth microdilution (AUC24h/MICBMD) ratio of 400 to 600 is recommended as the new monitoring parameter for vancomycin to optimize efficacy and minimize nephrotoxicity. The AUC24h threshold of 600 mg*h/L for nephrotoxicity was extrapolated from studies that assessed the general population. It is unclear if this upper threshold is consistent or varies when used in special populations such as critically ill patients, obese patients, patients with preexisting renal disease, and patients on concomitant nephrotoxins.The purpose of this study is to investigate the generalizability of ...


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