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Structure-Based Rational Design Of Small Α-Helical Peptides With Broad-Spectrum Activity Against Multidrug-Resistant Pathogens, Sandeep Lohan, Anastasia G. Konshina, Roman G. Efremov, Innokentiy Maslennikov, Keykavous Parang 2022 Chapman University

Structure-Based Rational Design Of Small Α-Helical Peptides With Broad-Spectrum Activity Against Multidrug-Resistant Pathogens, Sandeep Lohan, Anastasia G. Konshina, Roman G. Efremov, Innokentiy Maslennikov, Keykavous Parang

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

A series of small (7–12 mer) amphipathic cationic peptides were designed and synthesized to create short helical peptides with broad-range bactericidal activity and selectivity toward the bacterial cells. The analysis identified a lead 12-mer peptide 8b with broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive (MIC = 3.1–6.2 μg/mL) and Gram-negative (MIC = 6.2–12.5 μg/mL) bacteria and selectivity toward prokaryotic versus eukaryotic cells (HC50 = 280 μg/mL, >75% cell viability at 150 μg/mL). The rapid membranolytic action of 8b was demonstrated by a calcein dye leakage assay and confirmed using scanning electron microscopy. According to circular dichroism and NMR spectroscopy, the peptides have an …


Designing And Synthesizing A Warhead-Fragment Inhibitory Ligand For Ivyp1 Through Fragment-Based Drug Discovery, Samuel Moore 2022 Kennesaw State University

Designing And Synthesizing A Warhead-Fragment Inhibitory Ligand For Ivyp1 Through Fragment-Based Drug Discovery, Samuel Moore

Symposium of Student Scholars

Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) is a powerful tool for developing anticancer and antimicrobial agents. Within this, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) provides a comprehensive qualitative and quantitative approach to screening and validating weak and robust binders with targeted proteins, making NMR among the most attractive strategies in FBDD. Inhibitor of vertebrate lysozyme (Ivyp1) of P. aeruginosa serves as an excellent target because of its active cellular location and implications in clinical prognosis for cystic fibrosis and immunocompromised patients. This study uses current NMR and biophysical techniques to develop a covalent, fragment-linked warhead inhibitor for Ivyp1 through synthetic methods, warhead linking, and …


Computer-Aided Drug Discovery For Helicobacter Pylori, Nicole Ann Vita 2022 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Computer-Aided Drug Discovery For Helicobacter Pylori, Nicole Ann Vita

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Helicobacter pylori is a high-priority drug-resistant pathogen and is currently the only bacteria considered to be a class I carcinogen and there is a critical need to identify novel chemical matter to treat H. pylori infections. Hp is responsible for greater than 60% of gastric cancer related deaths and 89% of all gastric cancer morbidities. In a previous study, our lab identified novel Hp thienopyrmidine inhibitors that target respiratory complex I, an essential enzyme in respiration. Respiratory complex I is a large asymmetric multidomain and membrane bound enzyme and due to these innate features, it is not practical for biophysical …


Membrane-Active Cyclic Amphiphilic Peptides: Broad-Spectrum Antibacterial Activity Alone And In Combination With Antibiotics, Eman H. M. Mohammed, Sandeep Lohan, Tarra Ghaffari, Shilpi Gupta, Rakesh K. Tiwari, Keykavous Parang 2022 Chapman University

Membrane-Active Cyclic Amphiphilic Peptides: Broad-Spectrum Antibacterial Activity Alone And In Combination With Antibiotics, Eman H. M. Mohammed, Sandeep Lohan, Tarra Ghaffari, Shilpi Gupta, Rakesh K. Tiwari, Keykavous Parang

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

We designed a library of 24 cyclic peptides containing arginine (R) and tryptophan (W) residues in a sequential manner [RnWn] (n = 2–7) to study the impact of the hydrophilic/hydrophobic ratio, charge, and ring size on the antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains. Among peptides, 5a and 6a demonstrated the highest antimicrobial activity. In combination with 11 commercially available antibiotics, 5a and 6a showed remarkable synergism against a large panel of resistant pathogens. Hemolysis (HC50 = 340 μg/mL) and cell viability against mammalian cells demonstrated the selective lethal action of 5a against bacteria over …


Protein Phosphatase 2a Regulates Xanthine Oxidase-Derived Ros Production In Macrophages And Influx Of Inflammatory Monocytes In A Murine Gout Model, Sandy Elsayed, Khaled A. Elsaid 2022 Chapman University

Protein Phosphatase 2a Regulates Xanthine Oxidase-Derived Ros Production In Macrophages And Influx Of Inflammatory Monocytes In A Murine Gout Model, Sandy Elsayed, Khaled A. Elsaid

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Background: Gout is a common arthritis, due to deposition of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals which results in IL-1β secretion by tissue-resident macrophages. Xanthine oxidase (XO) catalyzes uric acid (UA) production and in the process, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated which contributes to NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) may be involved in regulating inflammatory pathways in macrophages. The objective of this study was to investigate whether PP2A regulates gout inflammation, mediated by XO activity modulation. We studied UA and ROS generations in MSU stimulated murine bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) in response to fingolimod phosphate, a PP2A activator, …


Differential Expression And Activities Of Cytochrome P450 3a In The Rat Brain Microsomes And Mitochondria, Nouf Alshammari, Devaraj Venkatapura Chandrashekar, Mamunur Rashid, Reza Mehvar 2022 Chapman University

Differential Expression And Activities Of Cytochrome P450 3a In The Rat Brain Microsomes And Mitochondria, Nouf Alshammari, Devaraj Venkatapura Chandrashekar, Mamunur Rashid, Reza Mehvar

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Midazolam (MDZ), a benzodiazepine derivative, is metabolized to 1′- and 4-hydroxylated metabolites (1′-OH-MDZ and 4-OH-MDZ, respectively) by cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A). The purpose of this study was to investigate the CYP3A-mediated hydroxylation of MDZ in the rat brain mitochondria (MT). Brain microsomes (MC) and MT fractions were prepared from rats (n = 8) using differential and density gradient centrifugations, and the purity of the fractions was evaluated using VDAC1 and calreticulin as markers of MT and MC, respectively. The formation rates of 1′-OH-MDZ and 4-OH-MDZ in the rat brain MC and MT samples were determined using an LC–MS/MS method …


Prostate Imaging Reporting And Data System Score (Pi-Rads) And Glutathione S-Transferase P1 Methylation Status (Gst-P1) In The Diagnosis Of Prostate Cancer Patients With Borderline Psa Values, Marius Stan, Vladimir Botnarciuc, Andra Iulia Suceveanu, Andreea Cristina Costea, Adrian Paul Suceveanu, Laura Mazilu, Ciprian Iorga, Tony Hangan, Corneliu Tudor, Dragos Epistatu, Sergiu Chirila, Viorel Gherghina, Felix Voinea 2022 Valparaiso University

Prostate Imaging Reporting And Data System Score (Pi-Rads) And Glutathione S-Transferase P1 Methylation Status (Gst-P1) In The Diagnosis Of Prostate Cancer Patients With Borderline Psa Values, Marius Stan, Vladimir Botnarciuc, Andra Iulia Suceveanu, Andreea Cristina Costea, Adrian Paul Suceveanu, Laura Mazilu, Ciprian Iorga, Tony Hangan, Corneliu Tudor, Dragos Epistatu, Sergiu Chirila, Viorel Gherghina, Felix Voinea

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Objectives. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential use of Prostate Imaging – Reporting and Data System version 2 (PI-RADS) in combination with Glutathione S-transferase P1 (GST-P1) expression for an improved diagnosis of prostate cancer, in patients with inconclusive values of prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Materials and Methods. The study was conducted on 80 patients for whom PSA values were evaluated and were found to be inconclusive (4-10 ng/ml). These patients underwent imagistic evaluation (PI-RADS), followed by transurethral prostate biopsy, with the evaluation of GST-P1 expression and histopathological examination (for diagnosis confirmation). Results. By combining the results of …


Host-Level Susceptibility And Irf1 Expression Influence The Ability Of Ifn-Γ To Inhibit Kshv Infection In B Lymphocytes, Nedaa Alomari, Jennifer Totonchy 2022 Chapman University

Host-Level Susceptibility And Irf1 Expression Influence The Ability Of Ifn-Γ To Inhibit Kshv Infection In B Lymphocytes, Nedaa Alomari, Jennifer Totonchy

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is associated with vascular endothelial cell tumor, Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) and lymphoproliferative disorder, multicentric Castleman’s disease (MCD), primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and KSHV inflammatory cytokine syndrome (KICS). Dysregulation of proinflammatory cytokines is found in most KSHV associated diseases. However, little is known about the role of host microenvironment in the regulation of KSHV establishment in B cells. In the present study, we demonstrated that IFN-γ has a strong inhibitory effect on KSHV infection but only in a subset of tonsil-derived lymphocyte samples that are intrinsically more susceptible to infection, contain higher proportions of naïve B cells, …


Efficacy And Safety Of A Brain-Penetrant Biologic Tnf-Α Inhibitor In Aged App/Ps1 Mice, Weijun Ou, Yuu Ohno, Joshua Yang, Devaraj V. Chandrashekar, Tamara Abdullah, Jiahong Sun, Riley Murphy, Chuli Roules, Nataraj Jagadeesan, David H. Cribbs, Rachita K. Sumbria 2022 Chapman University

Efficacy And Safety Of A Brain-Penetrant Biologic Tnf-Α Inhibitor In Aged App/Ps1 Mice, Weijun Ou, Yuu Ohno, Joshua Yang, Devaraj V. Chandrashekar, Tamara Abdullah, Jiahong Sun, Riley Murphy, Chuli Roules, Nataraj Jagadeesan, David H. Cribbs, Rachita K. Sumbria

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) plays a vital role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology, and TNF-α inhibitors (TNFIs) modulate AD pathology. We fused the TNF-α receptor (TNFR), a biologic TNFI that sequesters TNF-α, to a transferrin receptor antibody (TfRMAb) to deliver the TNFI into the brain across the blood–brain barrier (BBB). TfRMAb-TNFR was protective in 6-month-old transgenic APP/PS1 mice in our previous work. However, the effects and safety following delayed chronic TfRMAb-TNFR treatment are unknown. Herein, we initiated the treatment when the male APP/PS1 mice were 10.7 months old (delayed treatment). Mice were injected intraperitoneally with saline, TfRMAb-TNFR, etanercept (non-BBB-penetrating …


Novel Drugs Approved In 2021-2022, Michael Do, Bona Shin, Elaina Lioudis, Emaleigh Munn 2022 Reading Hospital-Tower Health, West Reading, PA

Novel Drugs Approved In 2021-2022, Michael Do, Bona Shin, Elaina Lioudis, Emaleigh Munn

Transformative Medicine (T-Med)

This article provides an abbreviated overview of the newly Federal Drug Administration (FDA)approved novel drugs of 2021-2022 with their respective approved indication(s). The FDA serves as the governing body that regularly evaluates and approves medications that will eventually be introduced to the market for routine use. These medications include both drugs that are the same or related to previously approved products (e.g., Extended indications of priorly approved medications) and novel drugs. By definition, a novel drug is an innovative product which serves to improve quality care in patient populations with unmet or advanced medical needs to overall advance patient care …


Modulation Of Hepatic Amyloid Precursor Protein And Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein 1 By Chronic Alcohol Intake: Potential Link Between Liver Steatosis And Amyloid-Β, Jerome Garcia, Rudy Chang, Ross A. Steinberg, Aldo Arce, Joshua Yang, Peter Van Der Eb, Tamara Abdullah, Devaraj V. Chandrashekar, Syndey M. Eck, Pablo Meza, Zhang-Xu Liu, Enrique Cadenas, David H. Cribbs, Neil Kaplowitz, Rachita K. Sumbria, Derick Han 2022 University of La Verne

Modulation Of Hepatic Amyloid Precursor Protein And Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein 1 By Chronic Alcohol Intake: Potential Link Between Liver Steatosis And Amyloid-Β, Jerome Garcia, Rudy Chang, Ross A. Steinberg, Aldo Arce, Joshua Yang, Peter Van Der Eb, Tamara Abdullah, Devaraj V. Chandrashekar, Syndey M. Eck, Pablo Meza, Zhang-Xu Liu, Enrique Cadenas, David H. Cribbs, Neil Kaplowitz, Rachita K. Sumbria, Derick Han

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Heavy alcohol consumption is a known risk factor for various forms of dementia and the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In this work, we investigated how intragastric alcohol feeding may alter the liver-to-brain axis to induce and/or promote AD pathology. Four weeks of intragastric alcohol feeding to mice, which causes significant fatty liver (steatosis) and liver injury, caused no changes in AD pathology markers in the brain [amyloid precursor protein (APP), presenilin], except for a decrease in microglial cell number in the cortex of the brain. Interestingly, the decline in microglial numbers correlated with serum alanine transaminase (ALT) levels, suggesting …


Nanotherapeutics And Hiv: Four Decades Of Infection Canvass The Quest For Drug Development Using Nanomedical Technologies, Bhupender S. Chhikara, Nirpendra Singh, Poonam, Parveen Bazard, Rajender S. Varma, Keykavous Parang 2022 University of Delhi

Nanotherapeutics And Hiv: Four Decades Of Infection Canvass The Quest For Drug Development Using Nanomedical Technologies, Bhupender S. Chhikara, Nirpendra Singh, Poonam, Parveen Bazard, Rajender S. Varma, Keykavous Parang

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

We have seen four decades of human struggle to cure or eradicate HIV infection since the first clinical detection of HIV infection. Various developed drugs such as nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), protease inhibitors, integrase inhibitors, microbicides, and others have known restrictions, such as side effects and resistance development when used alone, and hidden reservoir of the virus, which have opened the gates for the involvement of nanomedicine associated systems, particularly for latent sites of HIV infection. The nanotechnological vehicles, such as liposomes, dendrimers, metal nanoparticles, polymeric nanocapsules/particles, surfactants, and targeted vehicles have become part …


Synthesis And Evaluation Of Anti-Hiv Activity Of Mono- And Di-Substituted Phosphonamidate Conjugates Of Tenofovir, Aaminat Qureshi, Louise A. Ouattara, Naglaa Salem El-Sayed, Amita Verma, Gustavo F. Doncel, Muhammad Iqbal Choudhary, Hina Siddiqui, Keykavous Parang 2022 University of Karachi

Synthesis And Evaluation Of Anti-Hiv Activity Of Mono- And Di-Substituted Phosphonamidate Conjugates Of Tenofovir, Aaminat Qureshi, Louise A. Ouattara, Naglaa Salem El-Sayed, Amita Verma, Gustavo F. Doncel, Muhammad Iqbal Choudhary, Hina Siddiqui, Keykavous Parang

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

The activity of nucleoside and nucleotide analogs as antiviral agents requires phosphorylation by endogenous enzymes. Phosphate-substituted analogs have low bioavailability due to the presence of ionizable negatively-charged groups. To circumvent these limitations, several prodrug approaches have been proposed. Herein, we hypothesized that the conjugation or combination of the lipophilic amide bond with nucleotide-based tenofovir (TFV) (1) could improve the anti-HIV activity. During the current study, the hydroxyl group of phosphonates in TFV was conjugated with the amino group of L-alanine, L-leucine, L-valine, and glycine amino acids and other long fatty ester hydrocarbon chains to synthesize 43 derivatives. Several …


Jatropha Tanjorensis A Flora Of Southeast Nigeria: Isolation And Characterization Of Naringenin And Validation Of Bio-Enhanced Synergistical Activity Of Α- Tocopherol Toward Clinical Isolates Of Resistant Bacterial, Ikechukwu Kingsley Ijoma, Vincent Ishmael Egbulefu Ajiwe 2022 Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State 420007, Nigeria

Jatropha Tanjorensis A Flora Of Southeast Nigeria: Isolation And Characterization Of Naringenin And Validation Of Bio-Enhanced Synergistical Activity Of Α- Tocopherol Toward Clinical Isolates Of Resistant Bacterial, Ikechukwu Kingsley Ijoma, Vincent Ishmael Egbulefu Ajiwe

Makara Journal of Science

Jatropha tanjorensis is among the rich floras of Southeast Nigeria and used by ethnic people to treat infections and manage health conditions. Ethnomedicine has long been employed in the treatment of ailments caused by bacterial pathogens. Studies showed that the incorporation of synthetic α-tocopherol to an antibacterial agent improves its activity. However, knowledge about the antibacterial-enhanced activity of plant-based α-tocopherols, especially those isolated from Jatropha tanjorensis, is limited because of the different bioactivities of synthetic and natural α-tocopherols. To determine the phytochemicals in J. tanjorensis, we carried out the structural elucidation of its leaf extracts. Naringenin and α-tocopherol …


Channelopathy Of Small- And Intermediate-Conductance Ca2+-Activated K+ Channels, Young-Woo Nam, Myles Downey, Mohammad Asikur Rahman, Meng Cui, Miao Zhang 2022 Chapman University

Channelopathy Of Small- And Intermediate-Conductance Ca2+-Activated K+ Channels, Young-Woo Nam, Myles Downey, Mohammad Asikur Rahman, Meng Cui, Miao Zhang

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Small- and intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (KCa2.x/KCa3.1 also called SK/IK) channels are gated exclusively by intracellular Ca2+. The Ca2+ binding protein calmodulin confers sub-micromolar Ca2+ sensitivity to the channel-calmodulin complex. The calmodulin C-lobe is constitutively associated with the proximal C-terminus of the channel. Interactions between calmodulin N-lobe and the channel S4-S5 linker are Ca2+-dependent, which subsequently trigger conformational changes in the channel pore and open the gate. KCNN genes encode four subtypes, including KCNN1 for KCa2.1 (SK1), KCNN2 for KCa2.2 (SK2), KCNN3 for K …


Channelopathy Of Small- And Intermediate-Conductance Ca2+-Activated K+ Channels, Young-Woo Nam, Miles Downey, Mohammad Asikur Rahman, Meng Cui, Miao Zhang 2022 Chapman University

Channelopathy Of Small- And Intermediate-Conductance Ca2+-Activated K+ Channels, Young-Woo Nam, Miles Downey, Mohammad Asikur Rahman, Meng Cui, Miao Zhang

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Small- and intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (KCa2.x/KCa3.1 also called SK/IK) channels are gated exclusively by intracellular Ca2+. The Ca2+ binding protein calmodulin confers sub-micromolar Ca2+ sensitivity to the channel-calmodulin complex. The calmodulin C-lobe is constitutively associated with the proximal C-terminus of the channel. Interactions between calmodulin N-lobe and the channel S4-S5 linker are Ca2+-dependent, which subsequently trigger conformational changes in the channel pore and open the gate. KCNN genes encode four subtypes, including KCNN1 for KCa2.1 (SK1), KCNN2 for KCa2.2 (SK2), KCNN3 for K …


Stereocontrolled Access To Δ-Lactone-Fused-Γ-Lactams Bearing Angular Benzylic Quaternary Stereocenters, Timothy K. Beng, Morgan J. Rodriguez, Claire Borg 2022 Central Washington University

Stereocontrolled Access To Δ-Lactone-Fused-Γ-Lactams Bearing Angular Benzylic Quaternary Stereocenters, Timothy K. Beng, Morgan J. Rodriguez, Claire Borg

All Faculty Scholarship for the College of the Sciences

C-fused γ-lactam-lactones are resident in several bioactive molecules, including anticancer agents such as omuralide. In this embodiment, we report mild conditions for the catalytic halolactonization of lactam-tethered 5-aryl-4(E)-pentenoic acids. The use of dichloromethane as the solvent and Ph3PS as the catalyst led to predominant 6-endo-trig cyclization and furnished the trans-fused-γ-lactam-δ-lactones. The transformation is modular, regioselective, chemoselective, and diastereoselective. The γ-lactam-δ-lactones bear angular quaternary benzylic stereocenters, which is noteworthy since the presence of a quaternary carbon in bioactive small molecules often promotes an element of conformational restriction that imparts potency, selectivity, and metabolic stability. The …


Full- Versus Sub-Regional Quantification Of Amyloid-Beta Load On Mouse Brain Sections, Yuu Ohno, Riley Murphy, Matthew Choi, Weijun Ou, Rachita K. Sumbria 2022 Keck Graduate Institute

Full- Versus Sub-Regional Quantification Of Amyloid-Beta Load On Mouse Brain Sections, Yuu Ohno, Riley Murphy, Matthew Choi, Weijun Ou, Rachita K. Sumbria

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Extracellular accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques is one of the major pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and is the target of the only FDA-approved disease-modifying treatment for AD. Accordingly, the use of transgenic mouse models that overexpress the amyloid precursor protein and thereby accumulate cerebral Aβ plaques are widely used to model human AD in mice. Therefore, immunoassays, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunostaining, commonly measure the Aβ load in brain tissues derived from AD transgenic mice. Though the methods for Aβ detection and quantification have been well established and documented, the impact of the size of the …


Cytotoxic Activity Of Non-Specific Lipid Transfer Protein (Nsltp1) From Ajwain (Trachyspermum Ammi) Seeds, Saud O. Alshammari, Taibah Aldakhil, Qamar A. Alshammari, David Salehi, Aftab Ahmed 2022 Chapman University

Cytotoxic Activity Of Non-Specific Lipid Transfer Protein (Nsltp1) From Ajwain (Trachyspermum Ammi) Seeds, Saud O. Alshammari, Taibah Aldakhil, Qamar A. Alshammari, David Salehi, Aftab Ahmed

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Background

Trachyspermum ammi, commonly known as Ajwain, is a member of the Apiaceae family. It is a therapeutic herbal spice with diverse pharmacological properties, used in traditional medicine for various ailments. However, all previous studies were conducted using small molecule extracts, leaving the protein’s bioactivity undiscovered.

Aim

The current study aimed to demonstrate the cytotoxic activity of Ajwain non-specific lipid transfer protein (nsLTP1) in normal breast (MCF10A), breast cancer (MCF-7), and pancreatic cancer (AsPC-1) cell lines. Also, to evaluate its structural stability in human serum as well as at high temperature conditions.

Methods

The cytotoxic activity of Ajwain nsLTP1 was …


Multimodal Approach To Chronic Pain Management And Prevention Of Opioid Use Disorder, Hannah Elston 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Multimodal Approach To Chronic Pain Management And Prevention Of Opioid Use Disorder, Hannah Elston

The Eleanor Mann School of Nursing Undergraduate Honors Theses

Background. Chronic pain (CP) is a major public health problem that affects one-third of the population and can interfere with the activities of daily life and cause decreased quality of life. Patients with CP have been increasingly prescribed opioids, contributing to the rise in the opioid epidemic. Due to the long-term nature of CP, the use of opioids as the sole treatment for CP can cause tolerance and increased dosages overtime which can lead to addiction and potentially overdose. Therefore, CP treatment should include multimodal approaches to treatment to prevent opioid misuse, opioid use disorder (OUD), and overdose. Multimodal treatments …


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