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Genome-Wide Mutagenesis To Investigate The N-Terminal Methylome: The Protective Effects Of Hsp31 And Other Methylated Proteins In Yeast, James Rooney, Jacob Lindsey 2024 Purdue University

Genome-Wide Mutagenesis To Investigate The N-Terminal Methylome: The Protective Effects Of Hsp31 And Other Methylated Proteins In Yeast, James Rooney, Jacob Lindsey

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

The purpose of this study was to understand the role of methylation in regulating the cellular stress response of Hsp31 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells. Hsp31 is known to be methylated by the N-terminal methyltransferase Tae1. Changing the methylation site can affect the methylation status of Hsp31, which may play a role in the protective activity of Hsp31 against cellular stress. GLO1 is a gene in yeast involved in catalyzing the detoxification of methylglyoxal (MGO), which is a by-product of glycolysis. We established that S. cerevisiae in the glo1Δ and background is sensitive to cellular stress by MGO. Mutant strains …


Oxidative Stress And Ion Channels In Neurodegenerative Diseases, Razan Orfali, Adnan Z. Alwatban, Rawan S. Orfali, Liz Lau, Noble Chea, Abdullah M. Alotaibi, Young-Woo Nam, Miao Zhang 2024 King Fahad Medical City

Oxidative Stress And Ion Channels In Neurodegenerative Diseases, Razan Orfali, Adnan Z. Alwatban, Rawan S. Orfali, Liz Lau, Noble Chea, Abdullah M. Alotaibi, Young-Woo Nam, Miao Zhang

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Numerous neurodegenerative diseases result from altered ion channel function and mutations. The intracellular redox status can significantly alter the gating characteristics of ion channels. Abundant neurodegenerative diseases associated with oxidative stress have been documented, including Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, spinocerebellar ataxia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Huntington’s disease. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species compounds trigger posttranslational alterations that target specific sites within the subunits responsible for channel assembly. These alterations include the adjustment of cysteine residues through redox reactions induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitration, and S-nitrosylation assisted by nitric oxide of tyrosine residues through peroxynitrite. Several ion channels have been directly …


De Novo Drug Design Using Transformer-Based Machine Translation And Reinforcement Learning Of An Adaptive Monte Carlo Tree Search, Dony Ang, Cyril Rakovski, Hagop S. Atamian 2024 Chapman University

De Novo Drug Design Using Transformer-Based Machine Translation And Reinforcement Learning Of An Adaptive Monte Carlo Tree Search, Dony Ang, Cyril Rakovski, Hagop S. Atamian

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

The discovery of novel therapeutic compounds through de novo drug design represents a critical challenge in the field of pharmaceutical research. Traditional drug discovery approaches are often resource intensive and time consuming, leading researchers to explore innovative methods that harness the power of deep learning and reinforcement learning techniques. Here, we introduce a novel drug design approach called drugAI that leverages the Encoder–Decoder Transformer architecture in tandem with Reinforcement Learning via a Monte Carlo Tree Search (RL-MCTS) to expedite the process of drug discovery while ensuring the production of valid small molecules with drug-like characteristics and strong binding affinities towards …


Behavioral Effects Of Novel Treatments For Pain Using Different Pathways, Danya M I Aldaghma 2024 Rowan University

Behavioral Effects Of Novel Treatments For Pain Using Different Pathways, Danya M I Aldaghma

Theses and Dissertations

Pain is defined as an unpleasant sensation that is mostly caused by a stimulus from our surroundings. This sensation has the potential to become a significant concern, disrupting daily activities, and diminishing overall quality of life. However, it could also hold significant importance as it serves as a protective mechanism. Pain acts as an alarm system for the human body, alerting it to potentially harmful situations where tissues may be at risk of damage1. Despite the considerable advancements in pain treatment and the extensive knowledge scientists possess regarding the pathophysiology and pathways of pain, numerous medications aimed at alleviating pain …


Molecular Docking Analysis Of Acanthus Ilicifolius Compounds Toward Cul4b-Ddb1-Ahr-Erα Complex Protein For Antiosteoporosis Discovery, Binar Asrining Dhiani, Sarmoko Sarmoko, Retno Wahyuningrum, Akbar Yulianto 2023 Faculty of Pharmacy, University Muhammadiyah Purwokerto, Central Java, Indonesia

Molecular Docking Analysis Of Acanthus Ilicifolius Compounds Toward Cul4b-Ddb1-Ahr-Erα Complex Protein For Antiosteoporosis Discovery, Binar Asrining Dhiani, Sarmoko Sarmoko, Retno Wahyuningrum, Akbar Yulianto

Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research

Osteoporosis represents a significant global public health issue, particularly among the aging population. Its incidence reaches 18.3% of the total population, with the highest prevalence observed in elderly postmenopausal women. A key factor in osteoporosis is the decreased expression level of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), attributed to its degradation by the ubiquitin ligase protein complex Cullin4B (CUL4B), DNA damage binding 1 (DDB1), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), collectively known as CUL4BAhR. Acanthus ilicifolius L contains compounds exhibiting antiosteoporosis activity, primarily by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis via RANKL. However, no reports exist of antiosteoporosis agents that act by inhibiting ERα degradation via CUL4BAhR. …


The Concise Guide To Pharmacology 2023/24: Enzymes, Stephen P. H. Alexander, Doriano Fabbro, Eamonn Kelly, Alistair Mathie, John A. Peters, Emma L. Veale, Jane F. Armstrong, Elena Faccenda, Simon D. Harding, James A. Davies, Stephanie Annett, Detlan Boison, Kathryn Elisa Burns, Carmen Dessauer, Jürg Gertsch, Nuala Ann Helsby, Angela A. Izzo, Rennolds Ostrom, Andreas Papapetropoulos, Nigel J. Pyne, Susan Pyne, Tracy Robson, Roland Seifert, Johannes-Peter Stasch, Csaba Szabo, Mario van der Stelt, Albert van der Vliet, Val Watts, Szu Shen Wong 2023 University of Nottingham

The Concise Guide To Pharmacology 2023/24: Enzymes, Stephen P. H. Alexander, Doriano Fabbro, Eamonn Kelly, Alistair Mathie, John A. Peters, Emma L. Veale, Jane F. Armstrong, Elena Faccenda, Simon D. Harding, James A. Davies, Stephanie Annett, Detlan Boison, Kathryn Elisa Burns, Carmen Dessauer, Jürg Gertsch, Nuala Ann Helsby, Angela A. Izzo, Rennolds Ostrom, Andreas Papapetropoulos, Nigel J. Pyne, Susan Pyne, Tracy Robson, Roland Seifert, Johannes-Peter Stasch, Csaba Szabo, Mario Van Der Stelt, Albert Van Der Vliet, Val Watts, Szu Shen Wong

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2023/24 is the sixth in this series of biennial publications. The Concise Guide provides concise overviews, mostly in tabular format, of the key properties of approximately 1800 drug targets, and about 6000 interactions with about 3900 ligands. There is an emphasis on selective pharmacology (where available), plus links to the open access knowledgebase source of drug targets and their ligands (www.guidetopharmacology.org), which provides more detailed views of target and ligand properties. Although the Concise Guide constitutes almost 500 pages, the material presented is substantially reduced compared to information and links presented on the …


Structural Analysis And Activity Correlation Of Amphiphilic Cyclic Antimicrobial Peptides Derived From The [W4R4] Scaffold, Shaima Ahmed El-Mowafi, Anastasia G. Konshina, Eman H. M. Mohammed, Nikolay A. Krylov, Roman G. Efremov, Keykavous Parang 2023 Chapman University

Structural Analysis And Activity Correlation Of Amphiphilic Cyclic Antimicrobial Peptides Derived From The [W4R4] Scaffold, Shaima Ahmed El-Mowafi, Anastasia G. Konshina, Eman H. M. Mohammed, Nikolay A. Krylov, Roman G. Efremov, Keykavous Parang

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

In our ongoing quest to design effective antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), this study aimed to elucidate the mechanisms governing cyclic amphiphilic AMPs and their interactions with membranes. The objective was to discern the nature of these interactions and understand how peptide sequence and structure influence antimicrobial activity. We introduced modifications into the established cyclic AMP peptide, [W4R4], incorporating an extra aromatic hydrophobic residue (W), a positively charged residue (R), or the unique 2,5-diketopiperazine (DKP). This study systematically explored the structure–activity relationships (SARs) of a series of cyclic peptides derived from the [W4R4] scaffold, …


Analyzing Functional Interactions Of Designed Peptides By Nmr Spectroscopy, Wonsuk Choi 2023 Chapman University

Analyzing Functional Interactions Of Designed Peptides By Nmr Spectroscopy, Wonsuk Choi

Pharmaceutical Sciences (MS) Theses

The development of small peptide-based therapeutics can be accelerated by the knowledge of relationships between the peptide structure and its functional interactions. Here, we report the analysis of two groups of synthetic peptides designed for two applications – broad bactericidal action and inhibition of protein-protein interactions in human cells. Novel amphiphilic peptides designed for antibacterial application incorporated arginine as cationic amino acids and non-natural amino acids that have aromatic side chains with similar hydrophobic properties as tryptophan. The interaction of lead cyclic peptides and their linear analogs with a phospholipid bilayer mimicking a bacterial membrane was studied using nuclear magnetic …


Ozgene: To Advance Humanity – Inspire Curiosity, Maarit Patrick, Mike Dixon 2023 Utah State University

Ozgene: To Advance Humanity – Inspire Curiosity, Maarit Patrick, Mike Dixon

Huntsman School of Business Teaching Scholarship Series

The case introduces the students to Ozgene, an Australian firm that experienced a dramatic reduction in lead time of their products because of implementation of Lean principles. The case can be used in undergraduate or graduate courses in operations management or supply chain management as an introduction to Lean principles. The case also encourages students to consider the challenges that make-to-order differ from those of make-to-stock and explore production design principles.


Tolfenamic Acid Derivatives: A New Class Of Transcriptional Modulators With Potential Therapeutic Applications For Alzheimer’S Disease And Related Disorders, Juanetta Hill, Karim E. Shalaby, Syed W. Bihaqi, Bothaina H. Alansi, Benjamin Barlock, Keykavous Parang, Richard Thompson, Khalid Ourarhni, Nasser H. Zawia 2023 University of Rhode Island

Tolfenamic Acid Derivatives: A New Class Of Transcriptional Modulators With Potential Therapeutic Applications For Alzheimer’S Disease And Related Disorders, Juanetta Hill, Karim E. Shalaby, Syed W. Bihaqi, Bothaina H. Alansi, Benjamin Barlock, Keykavous Parang, Richard Thompson, Khalid Ourarhni, Nasser H. Zawia

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

The field of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has witnessed recent breakthroughs in the development of disease-modifying biologics and diagnostic markers. While immunotherapeutic interventions have provided much-awaited solutions, nucleic acid-based tools represent other avenues of intervention; however, these approaches are costly and invasive, and they have serious side effects. Previously, we have shown in AD animal models that tolfenamic acid (TA) can lower the expression of AD-related genes and their products and subsequently reduce pathological burden and improve cognition. Using TA as a scaffold and the zinc finger domain of SP1 as a pharmacophore, we developed safer and more potent brain-penetrating analogs …


Piperine Encourages Apoptosis In Human Cervical Adenocarcinoma Cells Through Ros Generation, Dna Fragmentation, Caspase-3 Activation And Cell Cycle Arrest, Asif Jafri, Juhi Rais, Sudhir Kumar, Md Arshad 2023 University of Lucknow

Piperine Encourages Apoptosis In Human Cervical Adenocarcinoma Cells Through Ros Generation, Dna Fragmentation, Caspase-3 Activation And Cell Cycle Arrest, Asif Jafri, Juhi Rais, Sudhir Kumar, Md Arshad

Research Symposium

Background: Cancer is one of the most common destructive diseases and the second leading cause of death in humans. Among cancer, cervical cancer is the second most common malignancy among women globally. Thus, there is a continuous need to search for chemotherapeutic chemicals or naturally occurring drugs to resolve this global health problem. Piperine (1-piperoylpeperdine) is present in the fruits of black pepper (Piper nigrum Linn.) and long pepper (Piper longum Linn.). It possesses several pharmacological properties and in the present study we have evaluated its anti-cancer potential on human cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa) cells.

Methods: The anti-proliferative effect …


Oral Dosages Of The Nsaid Aspirin Decreased The Growth Rate Of Species Found In The Human Gut Microbiome Including Akkermansia Muciniphila, Bacteroides Fragilis, Clostridium Sordellii, And Clostridium Difficile, Wyatt H. Greenbaum, Garrett J. Greenbaum, Anna Spiezio 2023 University of North Florida

Oral Dosages Of The Nsaid Aspirin Decreased The Growth Rate Of Species Found In The Human Gut Microbiome Including Akkermansia Muciniphila, Bacteroides Fragilis, Clostridium Sordellii, And Clostridium Difficile, Wyatt H. Greenbaum, Garrett J. Greenbaum, Anna Spiezio

PANDION: The Osprey Journal of Research and Ideas

Over past few decades, new insight has been revealed in the scientific community about the importance of the human gut microbiome relating to general health. It is known that imbalances in the species that reside in the human gut can cause organism-wide problems in humans. When prescribing or injecting oral medications, the thought of the downstream effects on the gut microbiome are not always considered. By exposing known healthy members of the gut; Akkermansia muciniphila, Bacteroides fragilis, Clostridium sordellii, and Clostridium difficile to the Aspirin, this study attempted to provide insight into the effects of the drug on bacterial growth. …


Anti-Inflammatory And Antioxidant Effects Of Sea Urchin Spine Extract, Dina Magdy El Gamal 2023 The American University in Cairo

Anti-Inflammatory And Antioxidant Effects Of Sea Urchin Spine Extract, Dina Magdy El Gamal

The Undergraduate Research Journal

Diadema savignyi spine extract in an experimental setup using L929 cell line in vitro. The cell metabolic activity of L929 cells is tested through an MTT assay. The sea urchin spine extract is applied to the cells in two concentrations: 100 μg/ml (136% viability) and 200 μg/ml (95% viability). The bioactive components of the sea urchin spine are identified via GC-MS, and the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities are evaluated using catalase assay (CAT), glutathione (GSH), and nitric oxide (NO) tests. Results show that the GC-MS identified bioactive components including the anti-inflammatory and anti-irritant bisabolol oxide and the pro-inflammatory oleic acid. …


Isatin-Pyrimidine Hybrid Derivatives As Enoyl Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase (Inha) Inhibitors Against Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, Amira Khalil, Samy Mohamady, Amgad Albohy, Marwa M. Abdel-Aziz, Abdalrahman Khalifa 2023 Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry- Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, The British University in Egypt, El-Sherouk City, Cairo 11837, Egypt

Isatin-Pyrimidine Hybrid Derivatives As Enoyl Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase (Inha) Inhibitors Against Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, Amira Khalil, Samy Mohamady, Amgad Albohy, Marwa M. Abdel-Aziz, Abdalrahman Khalifa

Pharmacy

Tuberculosis is a worldwide problem that impose a burden on the economy due to continuous development of resistant strains. The development of new antitubercular drugs is a need and can be achieved through inhibition of druggable targets. Mycobacterium tuberculosis enoyl acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase (InhA) is an important enzyme for Mycobacterium tuberculosis survival. In this study, we report the synthesis of isatin derivatives that could treat TB through inhibition of this enzyme. Compound 4l showed IC50 value (0.6 ± 0.94 µM) similar to isoniazid but is also effective against MDR and XDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains (MIC of 0.48 and …


Targeting Breast Cancer: The Familiar, The Emerging, And The Uncharted Territories, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi, Arthur Manda, Riya Sidgal, Co Chung 2023 Chapman University

Targeting Breast Cancer: The Familiar, The Emerging, And The Uncharted Territories, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi, Arthur Manda, Riya Sidgal, Co Chung

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Breast cancer became the most diagnosed cancer in the world in 2020. Chemotherapy is still the leading clinical strategy in breast cancer treatment, followed by hormone therapy (mostly used in hormone receptor-positive types). However, with our ever-expanding knowledge of signaling pathways in cancer biology, new molecular targets are identified for potential novel molecularly targeted drugs in breast cancer treatment. While this has resulted in the approval of a few molecularly targeted drugs by the FDA (including drugs targeting immune checkpoints), a wide array of signaling pathways seem to be still underexplored. Also, while combinatorial treatments have become common practice in …


Encephalopathy Tango: When Beta-Lactam Antibiotics Waltz With Gaba Receptor, Ali Mohamed, Nagesh Jadhav, Mohamed Elbathani, Abubaker Farah 2023 Rochester General Hospital

Encephalopathy Tango: When Beta-Lactam Antibiotics Waltz With Gaba Receptor, Ali Mohamed, Nagesh Jadhav, Mohamed Elbathani, Abubaker Farah

Advances in Clinical Medical Research and Healthcare Delivery

Beta-lactam antibiotics are a class of drugs that are widely used to treat a variety of infections. They are generally well-tolerated, but they can cause a variety of side effects, including allergic reactions, acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) and neurotoxicity.

We present a patient who developed neurotoxicity after being treated with cephalosporin and carbapenem antibiotics. A 76-year-old female was admitted to the hospital with osteomyelitis of the right foot. She was initially treated with cefepime and daptomycin. She was discharged and then began to experience delirium with visual hallucinations and acute kidney injury. After common causes of confusion were excluded, the …


Design And Synthesis Of Small Molecule Drugs For Cns Disorders, Kirsten T. Tolentino 2023 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Design And Synthesis Of Small Molecule Drugs For Cns Disorders, Kirsten T. Tolentino

Theses & Dissertations

Dopamine (DA) is an important neurotransmitter for the regulation and long-term function of the central nervous system (CNS). DA binds to Dopamine Receptors (DR) to stimulate or inhibit adenyl cyclase production to further elicit a pharmacological response. DRs were cloned, and it was determined that there are two families separated by their function and five total subtypes distinguished by their amino acid structure. The Dopamine 4 receptor (D4R) is the second least studied subtype but has high expression in the frontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus, globus pallidus, substantia nigra pars reticula, and thalamus. Dopamine signaling and transmission, especially in the …


Α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Interaction With G Proteins In Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation, Motility, And Calcium Signaling, Murat Oz, Justin R. King, Keun-Hang Susan Yang, Sarah Khushaish, Yulia Tchugunova, Maitham A. Khajah, Yunus A. Luqmani, Nadine Kabbani 2023 Kuwait University

Α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Interaction With G Proteins In Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation, Motility, And Calcium Signaling, Murat Oz, Justin R. King, Keun-Hang Susan Yang, Sarah Khushaish, Yulia Tchugunova, Maitham A. Khajah, Yunus A. Luqmani, Nadine Kabbani

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Chronic smoking is a primary risk factor for breast cancer due to the presence of various toxins and carcinogens within tobacco products. Nicotine is the primary addictive component of tobacco products and has been shown to promote breast cancer cell proliferation and metastases. Nicotine activates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) that are expressed in cancer cell lines. Here, we examine the role of the α7 nAChR in coupling to heterotrimeric G proteins within breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Pharmacological activation of the α7 nAChR using choline or nicotine was found to increase proliferation, motility, and calcium signaling in MCF-7 cells. This effect …


Proteoglycan 4 (Prg4)/Lubricin And The Extracellular Matrix In Gout, Khaled A. Elsaid, Gregory D. Jay, Ru Liu-Bryan, Robert Terkeltaub 2023 Chapman University

Proteoglycan 4 (Prg4)/Lubricin And The Extracellular Matrix In Gout, Khaled A. Elsaid, Gregory D. Jay, Ru Liu-Bryan, Robert Terkeltaub

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Proteoglycan 4 (PRG4) is a mucinous glycoprotein secreted by synovial fibroblasts and superficial zone chondrocytes, released into synovial fluid, and adsorbed on cartilage and synovial surfaces. PRG4′s roles include cartilage boundary lubrication, synovial homeostasis, immunomodulation, and suppression of inflammation. Gouty arthritis is mediated by monosodium urate (MSU) crystal phagocytosis by synovial macrophages, with NLRP3 inflammasome activation and IL-1β release. The phagocytic receptor CD44 mediates MSU crystal uptake by macrophages. By binding CD44, PRG4 limits MSU crystal uptake and downstream inflammation. PRG4/CD44 signaling is transduced by protein phosphatase 2A, which inhibits NF-κB, decreases xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR), urate production, and ROS-mediated IL-1β …


KCa2 And KCa3.1 Channels In The Airways: A New Therapeutic Target, Razan Orfali, Ali AlFaiz, Mohammad Asikur Rahman, Liz Lau, Young-Woo Nam, Miao Zhang 2023 Chapman University

KCa2 And KCa3.1 Channels In The Airways: A New Therapeutic Target, Razan Orfali, Ali Alfaiz, Mohammad Asikur Rahman, Liz Lau, Young-Woo Nam, Miao Zhang

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

K+ channels are involved in many critical functions in lung physiology. Recently, the family of Ca2+-activated K+ channels (KCa) has received more attention, and a massive amount of effort has been devoted to developing selective medications targeting these channels. Within the family of KCa channels, three small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (KCa2) channel subtypes, together with the intermediate-conductance KCa3.1 channel, are voltage-independent K+ channels, and they mediate Ca2+-induced membrane hyperpolarization. Many KCa2 channel members are involved in crucial roles in physiological and pathological …


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