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Approvals And Prices Of Systemic Antibiotics In Saudi Arabia And The United States, Saad Alharthi 2022 Chapman University

Approvals And Prices Of Systemic Antibiotics In Saudi Arabia And The United States, Saad Alharthi

Pharmaceutical Sciences (MS) Theses

Introduction

Antibiotics is one of the therapeutic classes with the highest level of consumption in the world. Despite the global diffusion of antibiotics, their availability and prices vary by country. This study assessed differences in the availability and prices of systemic antibiotics marketed in the United States (US) and Saudi Arabia and evaluated the factors associated with the differences in prices of systemic antibiotics marketed in both countries.

Material and Methods

We collected regulatory data from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA), the National Average Drug Acquisition Cost (NADAC) and the ...


Interrogating Race And Place-Based Inequities In Hiv And Covid-19, Rohan Khazanchi 2022 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Interrogating Race And Place-Based Inequities In Hiv And Covid-19, Rohan Khazanchi

MD Honors Theses

Over the last four years, I have developed a research focus examining the intersections of race, place, and health. My M.D. Honors Thesis reflects a snapshot of these efforts. In this collection of brief research reports, I leverage area-based measures to investigate structural inequities in three contexts: the HIV epidemic in our hyperlocal community, the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic, and clinical trials for novel COVID-19 therapeutics. I apply novel social epidemiologic tools to measure and explore disparate outcomes. And, in reflecting upon my findings, I discuss concrete implications for clinicians, researchers, and policymakers alike.

Chapter 1: Neighborhood-Level ...


Sources Of Patient Information For Type 2 Diabetes Self-Care In Northern Mississippi, Minh-Sang La 2022 University of Mississippi

Sources Of Patient Information For Type 2 Diabetes Self-Care In Northern Mississippi, Minh-Sang La

Honors Theses

Given the prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in the United States and the continuous rise of cases, especially within Mississippi, there is an increasing need to identify if, and how, patients with Type 2 Diabetes receive information about self-care. While there is data available on the topic of where patients receive their information and the influence it has on their health in other countries of the world, the research on the source of Type 2 Diabetes education in the United States is scarce. Therefore, this study aims to bridge the gap of understanding where patients with Type 2 Diabetes ...


Content Analysis Of Vitiligo Portrayal On Social Media, Mary Miller 2022 University of Mississippi

Content Analysis Of Vitiligo Portrayal On Social Media, Mary Miller

Honors Theses

Given that vitiligo affects a small percentage of the world population, and its affects are not widely known, there is an increasing need to learn of its effects on those with vitiligo, both physical and psychological. Social media has become an influential platform to spread awareness and build confidence in those with vitiligo. This study aims to find how vitiligo is portrayed through social media using content analysis procedures. This is a cross-sectional content analysis that utilized a codebook to analyze Instagram posts. The results were analyzed by interrater reliability and frequency for each coder. The findings of this content ...


Unveiling The Opioid Crisis: The Impact Of Opioids On Body Systems And Alternative Treatment Options To Reduce The Nationwide Opioid Epidemic, Krishna S. Patel, Elizabeth A. Manheim Ph.D. 2022 Kean University

Unveiling The Opioid Crisis: The Impact Of Opioids On Body Systems And Alternative Treatment Options To Reduce The Nationwide Opioid Epidemic, Krishna S. Patel, Elizabeth A. Manheim Ph.D.

Kean Quest

No abstract provided.


Financial Hardship From Purchasing Prescription Drugs Among Older Adults In The United States Before, During, And After The Medicare Part D “Donut Hole”: Findings From 1998, 2001, 2015, And 2021, Anthony W. Olson, Jon C. Schommer, David A. Mott, Olajide Adekunle, Lawrence M. Brown 2022 Essentia Institute of Rural Health

Financial Hardship From Purchasing Prescription Drugs Among Older Adults In The United States Before, During, And After The Medicare Part D “Donut Hole”: Findings From 1998, 2001, 2015, And 2021, Anthony W. Olson, Jon C. Schommer, David A. Mott, Olajide Adekunle, Lawrence M. Brown

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

BACKGROUND: Cost-related nonadherence compromises successful and effective management of chronic disease. The Medicare Modernization Act of 2003 (MMA) and Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA) aimed to increase the affordability of outpatient prescription drugs for older adults (older than age 64 years). The Medicare Part D prescription drug insurance coverage gap (“donut hole”) created by the MMA was fully closed in 2020 by the ACA.

OBJECTIVES: To (1) describe prescription drug coverage and financial hardship from purchasing prescription drugs among older American adults for 2021, (2) compare these results with findings from data collected before the MMA ...


The Impact Of The Covid-19 Pandemic On Antimicrobial Stewardship Practices And Their Effect On Veterinary Medicine, Erin N. Bradstreet 2022 University of Maine - Main

The Impact Of The Covid-19 Pandemic On Antimicrobial Stewardship Practices And Their Effect On Veterinary Medicine, Erin N. Bradstreet

Honors College

Antimicrobials are essential in the treatment of diseases in both humans and animals, but antimicrobial resistance threatens their efficacy. As more microorganisms become resistant to an ever-growing list of antimicrobials, diseases that used to be simple to treat are becoming increasingly difficult to manage. The major factors contributing to antimicrobial resistance are overuse and misuse of antimicrobials. In order to combat the problem of resistance, antimicrobial stewardship programs that aim to improve antimicrobial prescribing and use practices are becoming increasingly widespread. These programs are quite common in human medicine, but the COVID-19 pandemic disrupted many aspects of life, including antimicrobial ...


Identification Of Community Knowledge On Lead Contamination And Analysis Of Lead Level In Fish, Sita Nurwulan, Sophi Damayanti, Lia Amalia 2022 School of Pharmacy, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung, West Java, Indonesia

Identification Of Community Knowledge On Lead Contamination And Analysis Of Lead Level In Fish, Sita Nurwulan, Sophi Damayanti, Lia Amalia

Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research

Poisoning is an event of human exposure to poisonous substances that are harmful to the body at certain doses. Lead is a heavy metal that can cause toxicity, including neurotoxic effects, hypertension, digestive system disorders, bone and tooth growth disorders, immune system disorders, infertility, and fetal disorders. Fish is a source of nutrients that are often consumed by people, however can also accumulate lead. This study aimed to analyze the lead level in fish and identify the community knowledge level regarding lead contamination in fish. Identification of community knowledge levels regarding lead. Identification of community knowledge levels regarding lead contamination ...


Pharmacists Provision Of Non-Dispensing Services In Health Professional Shortage Areas, Haley L. Kessinger, Emily R. Landis 2022 Ohio Northern University

Pharmacists Provision Of Non-Dispensing Services In Health Professional Shortage Areas, Haley L. Kessinger, Emily R. Landis

ONU Student Research Colloquium

Background: Individuals living in primary care health professional shortage areas (PCHPSAs) experience health inequities. Community pharmacists are healthcare professionals with an opportunity to provide care to underserved populations. The objective of this study was to compare non-dispensing services provided by Ohio community pharmacists in PCHPSAs and non-PCHSPAs.

Methods: An electronic, IRB-approved 19-item survey was sent to all community pharmacists practicing in full PCHPSA counties and a random sample practicing in non-PCHPSA counties in Ohio (n=324). Questions assessed current provision of non-dispensing services as well as interest and barriers regarding such services.

Results: Seventy-three usable responses were received (23% response ...


Student Self-Developed Wellness Goals Before And During Covid, Han Pham, Dalen Foster 2022 Ohio Northern University

Student Self-Developed Wellness Goals Before And During Covid, Han Pham, Dalen Foster

ONU Student Research Colloquium

Background: This study aims to investigate the change over time in student developed well-being related goals based on the definition of “The 8 dimensions of wellness”. It is expected that the changes experienced by students during the COVID 19 pandemic will impact the type of wellness goals students develop for themselves.

Method: All pharmacy students at ONU are required to complete an annual goal setting assignment as part of their co-curricular requirement each academic year. Personal goals were extracted from submissions from 2019 to 2021. The goals were classified into 8 categories (emotional, financial, intellectual, occupational, physical, social, spiritual, and ...


Incorporation Of National Safety Standards For Oral Chemotherapy Patient Education At An Ambulatory Cancer Center: A Quality Improvement Project, Danielle Giles 2022 East Tennessee State University

Incorporation Of National Safety Standards For Oral Chemotherapy Patient Education At An Ambulatory Cancer Center: A Quality Improvement Project, Danielle Giles

Epsilon Sigma at-Large Research Conference

Abstract

Purpose: An evaluation of the oral chemotherapy patient education process at one ambulatory cancer center identified a deficit in documentation in the electronic medical record (EMR) of many recommendations from the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) and Oncology Nursing Society (ONS) chemotherapy administration and safety standards. Aims: The aim of this quality improvement project is to evaluate the effectiveness of the implementation of two newly developed templates into the EMR at one ambulatory cancer center. Process: The project will evaluate effectiveness by comparing the frequency in documentation of 16 key elements pre and post implementation of the two ...


Interrogating Race And Place-Based Inequities In Hiv And Covid-19, Rohan Khazanchi 2022 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Interrogating Race And Place-Based Inequities In Hiv And Covid-19, Rohan Khazanchi

EMET Projects

Over the last four years, I have developed a research focus examining the intersections of race, place, and health. My M.D. Honors Thesis reflects a snapshot of these efforts. In this collection of brief research reports, I leverage area-based measures to investigate structural inequities in three contexts: the HIV epidemic in our hyperlocal community, the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic, and clinical trials for novel COVID-19 therapeutics. I apply novel social epidemiologic tools to measure and explore disparate outcomes. And, in reflecting upon my findings, I discuss concrete implications for clinicians, researchers, and policymakers alike.

Chapter 1: Neighborhood-Level ...


Protocol: A Scoping Review Of Graduate Student Education, Curriculum Impact, And Interest In Interdisciplinary Research Training, David D. Allen III 2022 University of Mississippi

Protocol: A Scoping Review Of Graduate Student Education, Curriculum Impact, And Interest In Interdisciplinary Research Training, David D. Allen Iii

Faculty and Student Publications

Title: PROTOCOL: A Scoping Review of Graduate Student Education, Curriculum Impact, and Interest in Interdisciplinary Research Training

Background: Alongside traditional graduate education practices, implementing curriculum focused on providing interdisciplinary research training to graduate students may help support their academic development. This additional educational focus can bolster graduate student understanding of methodological practices, develop alternative routes of thinking or approaching a problem/ issue/ topic, may assist in developing student professional socialization skills, and may positively impact student internal motivations, beliefs, and perceptions.

Methods: Our scoping review protocol was developed a priori utilizing the Joanna Briggs Institute guidance, by Peters et al ...


Analysis Of Step Therapy Reform On Floridians With Autoimmune Conditions, John M. Kirkley III, Eren Tatari 2022 Rollins College

Analysis Of Step Therapy Reform On Floridians With Autoimmune Conditions, John M. Kirkley Iii, Eren Tatari

Florida Public Health Review

Background: Step therapy is a cost-saving measure employed by insurance companies to reduce rising drug costs; however, studies have indicated this policy has neutral or – in some cases – negative effects on patients. Specifically for indivdiuals with autoimmune diseases, the delay of proper treatment, increased risk of negative, irreversible side effects, and an underdeveloped preferred drug lists harm autoimmune patients because of the disconnect between the heterogeneity of autoimmune disease and the one-size-fits-all approach of step therapy. Objective: To determine the most effective policy for dealing with the harms of step therapy as they currently affect Floridians. Methods: Five policy options ...


Analysis Of Potential Facilitators To Use Of Hiv Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (Prep) In A Young Transgender Population, Noah Dixon 2022 University of Kentucky

Analysis Of Potential Facilitators To Use Of Hiv Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (Prep) In A Young Transgender Population, Noah Dixon

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacy

Pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention (PrEP) is heavily under-utilized in transgender youth, a population which experiences high risk factors for contracting HIV and exhibits unique barriers to care. This retrospective study used a secondary data analysis of survey results from transgender youth between 16-and 24-years-old to analyze various exposures for association with PrEP use. It was hypothesized that medical gender affirming therapy, mental health care treatment, and HIV programming would be independently associated with increased use of PrEP in transgender youth. It was found that only HIV prevention services and programming related to HIV or gender identity were associated with ...


Evaluating The 0–10 Point Pain Scale On Adolescent Opioid Use In Us Emergency Departments, Michael T. Phan, Daniel M. Tomaszewski, Cody Arbuckle, Sun Yang, Brooke Jenkins, Michelle A. Fortier, Theodore Heyming, Erik Linstead, Candice Donaldson, Zeev N. Kain 2021 Chapman University

Evaluating The 0–10 Point Pain Scale On Adolescent Opioid Use In Us Emergency Departments, Michael T. Phan, Daniel M. Tomaszewski, Cody Arbuckle, Sun Yang, Brooke Jenkins, Michelle A. Fortier, Theodore Heyming, Erik Linstead, Candice Donaldson, Zeev N. Kain

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Objective: To evaluate trends in national emergency department (ED) adolescent opioid use in relation to reported pain scores. Methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional analysis on National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS) data was conducted on ED visits involving patients aged 11–21 from 2008–2017. Crude observational counts were extrapolated to weighted estimates matching total population counts. Multivariate models were used to evaluate the role of a pain score in the reported use of opioids. Anchors for pain scores were 0 (no pain) and 10 (worst pain imaginable). Results: 31,355 observations were captured, which were extrapolated by the NHAMCS ...


“Holistic Risk-Based Site Surveillance – A Data-Based Approach To Site Quality Risk Identification And Assessment In The Pharmaceutical Industry”, Matteo Bernasconi, Thomas Friedli, Nuala Calnan (editor) 2021 Institute of Technology Management, University of St. Gallen, Switzerland

“Holistic Risk-Based Site Surveillance – A Data-Based Approach To Site Quality Risk Identification And Assessment In The Pharmaceutical Industry”, Matteo Bernasconi, Thomas Friedli, Nuala Calnan (Editor)

Level 3

Effective quality risk management is fundamental in guaranteeing the development and manufacture of high-quality drugs, reducing drug shortages, and avoiding harm to patients’ health. The ability to accurately assess the actual risk environment, predict potential product quality or supply disruption issues and act to eliminate, prevent, reduce or mitigate them is key to improvements in quality management maturity. This paper illustrates a just-launched research project aimed at developing a comprehensive framework for how to assess and predict risks by leveraging a range of diverse factors.


Characteristics Contributing To A Pharmacy Services Excellence Model In A Large Health System, L. Hayley Burgess, Sara Fletcher, Mandelin K. Cooper, Elizabeth Wiggins, Susan S. Horton, Joan S. Kramer 2021 Clinical Operations Group, HCA Healthcare

Characteristics Contributing To A Pharmacy Services Excellence Model In A Large Health System, L. Hayley Burgess, Sara Fletcher, Mandelin K. Cooper, Elizabeth Wiggins, Susan S. Horton, Joan S. Kramer

HCA Healthcare Journal of Medicine

Objective

To identify characteristics that contribute to and promote a pharmacy services center of excellence model in a large health system.

Methods

In 2019, a survey was conducted of 161 acute care pharmacy departments of health system-affiliated hospitals. Information captured included pharmacy practice models, pharmacist resource allocation, training of pharmacy residents, postgraduate training and pharmacist certifications. Results were combined with clinical pharmacy metric performance and centralized electronic data to identify features of top performing pharmacy departments.

Results

Survey results were received from 141 of 161 affiliated hospitals (88%). Hospitals with 100 to 299 beds comprised 54% (n = 16 of 30 ...


Decreasing Unintentional Pregnancies For Tennesseans, Paula M. Todd 2021 Abilene Christian University

Decreasing Unintentional Pregnancies For Tennesseans, Paula M. Todd

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In 2018, 49% of all pregnancies in the United States were unintended, with women with a lower- income status being five times more likely to experience an unplanned pregnancy. Tennessee has a high rate of unintended pregnancies, particularly among the uninsured, low-income, and rural teen populations; some 22% of these unintended pregnancies end in abortion. Oral or transdermal contraceptives that are affordable and accessible for women of childbearing age can reduce unintentional pregnancies. The addressed gap in clinical practice was that contraceptives are not currently available over the counter in Tennessee pharmacies without a prescription, which necessitates a costly medical ...


Listening To Current Practice: Patient Involvement In The Pharmaceutical Packaging Design Process, Giana Carli Lorenzini, Annika Olsson, Andreas Larsson 2021 Packaging Logistics, Department of Design Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden

Listening To Current Practice: Patient Involvement In The Pharmaceutical Packaging Design Process, Giana Carli Lorenzini, Annika Olsson, Andreas Larsson

Journal of Applied Packaging Research

Multiple functional challenges in the use of pharmaceutical packaging reveal a great need of packaging to be designed inclusively. This study investigates patient involvement in the pharmaceutical packaging design process by analysing interview data from representatives of the pharmaceutical and packaging industry. Four main themes related to patient involvement were uncovered: patient expertise levels, patient involvement modes, factors encouraging patient involvement, and factors discouraging patient involvement. Passive patient involvement modes were found to be dominant due to regulations and a traditional perspective regarding physical testing. However, active patient involvement modes were identified, motivated by empathy and understanding of the lives ...


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