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Approvals And Prices Of Systemic Antibiotics In Saudi Arabia And The United States, Saad Alharthi 2022 Chapman University

Approvals And Prices Of Systemic Antibiotics In Saudi Arabia And The United States, Saad Alharthi

Pharmaceutical Sciences (MS) Theses

Introduction

Antibiotics is one of the therapeutic classes with the highest level of consumption in the world. Despite the global diffusion of antibiotics, their availability and prices vary by country. This study assessed differences in the availability and prices of systemic antibiotics marketed in the United States (US) and Saudi Arabia and evaluated the factors associated with the differences in prices of systemic antibiotics marketed in both countries.

Material and Methods

We collected regulatory data from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA), the National Average Drug Acquisition Cost (NADAC) and the ...


Financial Hardship From Purchasing Prescription Drugs Among Older Adults In The United States Before, During, And After The Medicare Part D “Donut Hole”: Findings From 1998, 2001, 2015, And 2021, Anthony W. Olson, Jon C. Schommer, David A. Mott, Olajide Adekunle, Lawrence M. Brown 2022 Essentia Institute of Rural Health

Financial Hardship From Purchasing Prescription Drugs Among Older Adults In The United States Before, During, And After The Medicare Part D “Donut Hole”: Findings From 1998, 2001, 2015, And 2021, Anthony W. Olson, Jon C. Schommer, David A. Mott, Olajide Adekunle, Lawrence M. Brown

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

BACKGROUND: Cost-related nonadherence compromises successful and effective management of chronic disease. The Medicare Modernization Act of 2003 (MMA) and Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA) aimed to increase the affordability of outpatient prescription drugs for older adults (older than age 64 years). The Medicare Part D prescription drug insurance coverage gap (“donut hole”) created by the MMA was fully closed in 2020 by the ACA.

OBJECTIVES: To (1) describe prescription drug coverage and financial hardship from purchasing prescription drugs among older American adults for 2021, (2) compare these results with findings from data collected before the MMA ...


The Economic Value Of Pharmacist-Physician Collaborative Care Models In Hypertension Management, Jessica S. Jay 2022 Virginia Commonwealth University

The Economic Value Of Pharmacist-Physician Collaborative Care Models In Hypertension Management, Jessica S. Jay

Theses and Dissertations

Background: Hypertension is highly prevalent in the United States, affecting nearly half of all adults (43%). Studies have shown that pharmacy-physician collaborative care models (PPCCM) for hypertension management significantly improve blood pressure (BP) control rates and provide consistent control of BP. Time in target range (TTR) for systolic BP is a novel measure of BP control consistency that is independently associated with decreased cardiovascular (CV) risk. There is no evidence observed improvement in TTR for systolic BP with PPCCM is cost effective.

Objective: This study aimed to compare the cost-effectiveness of PPCCM with usual care for the management of hypertension ...


Budget Impact Analysis Of Upadacitinib For The Management Of Moderate-To-Severe Atopic Dermatitis In Patients Treated With Systemic Therapies In The United States, Haya O. Alobaid 2022 Virginia Commonwealth University

Budget Impact Analysis Of Upadacitinib For The Management Of Moderate-To-Severe Atopic Dermatitis In Patients Treated With Systemic Therapies In The United States, Haya O. Alobaid

Theses and Dissertations

Objective: This study evaluated the budget impact of introducing upadacitinib for patients with uncontrolled moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis (AD) from a United States (U.S.) private payer perspective.

Methods: The model estimated costs before and after the adoption of upadacitinib for a hypothetical one million covered lives over 3 years. The model included immunosuppressant agents and dupilumab. Market uptake was assumed to be 2% per year. Treatments incur a cost for drug acquisition, and the costs associated with drug administration, laboratory testing, and clinic visits. The model calculated the impact on the budget in 2022 U.S. dollars. Various assumptions on ...


Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Of Tisagenlecleucel, Blinatumomab, And Clofarabine For Treatment Of B-Cell Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Kamron Lotfi 2021 Chapman University

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Of Tisagenlecleucel, Blinatumomab, And Clofarabine For Treatment Of B-Cell Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Kamron Lotfi

Pharmaceutical Sciences (MS) Theses

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a common type of adolescent and young adult leukemia in the United States (U.S.). Patients who are refractory or relapsed after receiving two or more lines of systemic therapy have the option of taking tisagenlecleucel. Due to the high cost of this treatment, a cost-effectiveness analysis was performed to assess the treatments for tisagenlecleucel, clofarabine combination, and blinatumomab. Objectives

The objective of this study is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of tisagenlecleucel; clofarabine, etoposide, cyclophosphamide; and blinatumomab for the treatment of relapse- refractory ALL for adolescents and young adults from the U.S. health care ...


Monetary Incentives For Producing Counterfeit, Adulterated, And Misbranded Medicine: Case Studies And Examples, Heather R. Campbell, Robert A. Lodder 2021 University of Kentucky

Monetary Incentives For Producing Counterfeit, Adulterated, And Misbranded Medicine: Case Studies And Examples, Heather R. Campbell, Robert A. Lodder

Pharmaceutical Sciences Faculty Publications

Background: Pharmaceutical fraud can be very profitable. Those working in pharmaceuticals are in a tempting position as the nature of the product and supply is complex, making detection of fraud difficult and expensive. However, a reliable pharmaceutical supply can often be a life-or-death situation for patients. Thus, when detection of fraud occurs, a Regulator's Dilemma often emerges (recall a drug for which a supplier is the sole source, or allow a substandard product to be sold)—generally resulting in pharmaceutical companies receiving minimal penalties even for the worst acts. Despite pharmaceutical companies' unique leverage over regulators and profitability, studies ...


Clinical Pharmacy Services And Medication Utilization In Hospice Care, Aishwarya Kulkarni 2021 Duquesne University

Clinical Pharmacy Services And Medication Utilization In Hospice Care, Aishwarya Kulkarni

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Background: As discussed within the guidelines from the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP), pharmacists are an integral part of the hospice multidisciplinary team involved in optimizing the treatments. Methadone, a long-active opioid, is particularly useful in this population but may be clinically underutilized. Additionally, the cost share of medication utilization in hospice and palliative care is shifting towards hospice providers. The assessment of medication utilization and methadone use in this setting can help develop overall cost/clinical optimization strategies. Thus, there is a need to understand the use and expenditure of various medications and pharmacists' role in providing methadone ...


Comparing Long-Term Value Creation After Biotech And Non-Biotech Ipos, 1997–2016, Ekaterina Galkina Cleary, Laura M. McNamee, Skyler de Boer, Jeremy Holden, Liam Fitzgerald, Fred D. Ledley 2021 Bentley University

Comparing Long-Term Value Creation After Biotech And Non-Biotech Ipos, 1997–2016, Ekaterina Galkina Cleary, Laura M. Mcnamee, Skyler De Boer, Jeremy Holden, Liam Fitzgerald, Fred D. Ledley

Natural & Applied Sciences Faculty Publications

We compared the financial performance of 319 BIOTECH companies focused on developing therapeutics with IPOs from 1997–2016, to that of paired, non-biotech CONTROL companies with concurrent IPO dates. BIOTECH companies had a distinctly different financial structure with high R&D expense, little revenue, and negative profits (losses), but a similar duration of listing on public markets and frequency of acquisitions. Through 2016, BIOTECH and CONTROL companies had equivalent growth in market cap and shareholder value (> $100 billion), but BIOTECH companies had lower net value creation ($93 billion vs $411 billion). Both cohorts exhibited a high-risk/high reward pattern of ...


Association Of Electronic Prescription In Controlled Substances Used, Archana Suwal, Jemima Akinyi Okonjo 2021 Marshall University

Association Of Electronic Prescription In Controlled Substances Used, Archana Suwal, Jemima Akinyi Okonjo

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Introduction: Controlled substances have been described as pharmaceuticals or illegal medicines that act primarily on the central nervous system and could cause physical and mental dependence, eventually leading to addiction. Prescription opioids were a significant contributor to the opioid epidemic, accounting for more than 70,000 opioid-related overdose deaths, including illicit and prescription opioids, between 2018 and 2019. The Electronic Prescriptions for Controlled Substances (EPCS) initiative recently aimed to reduce rates of prescription opioid addiction, abuse, diversion, and death. The system for controlled substances had become more widely used as providers and governments trying to combat the opioid problem. Because ...


Late-Stage Product Development And Approvals By Biotechnology Companies After Initial Public Offering, 1997-2016, Laura M. M. McNamee, Ekaterina Galkina Cleary, Sunyi Zhang, Usama Salim, Fred D. Ledley 2021 Bentley University

Late-Stage Product Development And Approvals By Biotechnology Companies After Initial Public Offering, 1997-2016, Laura M. M. Mcnamee, Ekaterina Galkina Cleary, Sunyi Zhang, Usama Salim, Fred D. Ledley

Natural & Applied Sciences Faculty Publications

Purpose: This work describes the late-stage product portfolios of the biotechnology companies that completed initial public offerings (IPOs) from 1997 to 2016. We asked whether these emerging companies continue to develop innovative, biologic products and produce the innovation promised by the early biotechnology industry.

Methods: We identified therapeutic products that reached Phase III development from 1997 to 2016, the characteristics of the products, the dates of the initiation of Phase III and product approval, proxy indicators of the innovativeness of each product, and the contribution of each biotechnology company. Companies were characterized by IPO window and clinical status of the ...


Association Of Incident Cancer To Low-Value Care And Healthcare Cost Burden Among Elderly Medicare Beneficiaries, Chibuzo Iloabuchi 2021 West Virginia University

Association Of Incident Cancer To Low-Value Care And Healthcare Cost Burden Among Elderly Medicare Beneficiaries, Chibuzo Iloabuchi

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

In the United States (US), 25% of healthcare spending is considered wasteful because it is spent reimbursing low-value care. Low-value care is the utilization of healthcare services, medical tests, and procedures that have unclear or no clinical benefit to patients but still exposes them to risk. World-wide, low-value care imposes a significant economic burden on patients, payers, governments, and society. Cancer care among older adults > 65 years is one of the biggest drivers of healthcare expenditure in the US and accounts for nearly 40% of all spending, and low-value care among cancer patients is prevalent and contributes to the financial ...


Why Some People Consume Counterfeit Drugs In Benin, Maxime A. Ahouansou 2020 Syracuse University

Why Some People Consume Counterfeit Drugs In Benin, Maxime A. Ahouansou

English Language Institute

Despite the threat counterfeit drugs represent to health and the government’s endeavor to discourage their consumption, some people in Benin still prefer buying medicine in the underground economy. This research purported to understand the causes of the phenomenon. The research method used a survey of a sample of sixty-eight people randomly selected at Cotonou, a city with a population representative of Benin general population status regarding socio-economic conditions. The data about people's habits regarding drug consumption, monthly income, insurance coverage, and reasons why people chose to buy counterfeit medicines were collected and analyzed using Excel Spreadsheet. The analysis ...


Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Modulator Therapies In Cystic Fibrosis: A Retrospective Evaluation Of A Nationwide Specialty Pharmacy Database, Zumi Mehta 2020 Duquesne University

Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Modulator Therapies In Cystic Fibrosis: A Retrospective Evaluation Of A Nationwide Specialty Pharmacy Database, Zumi Mehta

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Background: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a progressive, genetic disorder caused by a mutation in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. Patients with CF experience excessive mucus build up and infections leading to complications in the pancreas, lungs, and other organs. There has been a paradigm shift in the treatment of CF with the introduction of CFTR modulator therapies and given their high acquisition cost, assessing their economic burden along with the adherence rate of patients is imperative. Objective: (i) To assess the utilization of CFTR modulator therapies in a specialty pharmacy CF patient population and (ii) to calculate ...


Demographics Of Opioid Prescriptions, Isaac Linton, Simon Condliffe 2020 West Chester University of Pennsylvania

Demographics Of Opioid Prescriptions, Isaac Linton, Simon Condliffe

Economics & Finance Student Work

The author ran Linear Probability Model and Logistic Model regressions on data from the 2017 Medical Expenditures Panel Survey to determine demographics of opioid prescriptions. The dependent variable was opioid prescription received (Y/N) and independent variables included age, education level, relative income, race, insurance status, etc. Results of the regressions showed that people with public or private insurance are more likely to be prescribed an opioid, that the problem mainly affects white people, and that as educational attainment increases, likelihood of opioid prescription decreases.


Hypertension And Diabetes Treatment Affordability And Government Expenditures Following Changes In Patient Cost Sharing In The "Farmacia Popular" Program In Brazil: An Interrupted Time Series Study, Isabel Cristina Martins Emmerick, Monica Rodrigues Campos, Rondineli Mendes. da Silva, Luisa Arueira Chaves, Andrea Damaso Bertoldi, Dennis Ross-Degnan, Vera Lucia Luiza 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Hypertension And Diabetes Treatment Affordability And Government Expenditures Following Changes In Patient Cost Sharing In The "Farmacia Popular" Program In Brazil: An Interrupted Time Series Study, Isabel Cristina Martins Emmerick, Monica Rodrigues Campos, Rondineli Mendes. Da Silva, Luisa Arueira Chaves, Andrea Damaso Bertoldi, Dennis Ross-Degnan, Vera Lucia Luiza

Surgery Publications

BACKGROUND: Increasing medicines availability and affordability is a key goal of Brazilian health policies. "Farmacia Popular" (FP) Program is one of the government's key strategies to achieve this goal. Under FP, antihypertension (HTN) and antiglycemic (DM) medicines have been provided at subsidized prices in private retail settings since 2006, and free of charge since 2011. We aim to assess the impact of sequential changes in FP benefits on patient affordability and government expenditures for HTN and DM treatment under the FP, and examine their implications for public financing mechanisms and program sustainability.

METHODS: Longitudinal, retrospective study using interrupted time ...


340b Program Utilization In Rural Us Clinics, William Finley, Heather M. Kruel 2020 Marshall University

340b Program Utilization In Rural Us Clinics, William Finley, Heather M. Kruel

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Introduction: The 340B program was an effective strategy in reaching more potential patients, providing more comprehensive services, and limiting the gap between affordability and healthcare. The uninsured and underprivileged often are unable to receive medications at the high market price due to the financial situation they face and inflation. The 340B program seeked to mend this issue to help the public and healthcare organizations. The main purpose of this research was to search and evaluate if the 340B program lived up to its purpose of decreasing the cost of medications in rural based clinics.

Methodology: The research strategy developed for ...


The Impact Of Bone Marrow Transplantion On Patients With Psychiatric Diagnoses: Medication Adherence Assessment, Brittany Galop 2020 University of Kentucky

The Impact Of Bone Marrow Transplantion On Patients With Psychiatric Diagnoses: Medication Adherence Assessment, Brittany Galop

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacy

Objectives: We investigated whether there is a measurable difference in medication utilization for psychiatric conditions before and after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Previous studies have identified a potential association between psychiatric conditions and immune function. We hypothesized that medication utilization for psychiatric diagnoses would be impacted by BMT.

Methods: This study was a retrospective, quasi-experimental cohort design. De-identified data was compiled from the Truven database for patients ranging from January 2009 through December 2016. Two measurements of medication utilization, proportion of days covered (PDC) and medication possession ratio (MPR) were calculated for each included Medispan-defined class of medications before analyzing ...


Development And Validation Of Predictive Risk And Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis Models To Evaluate Cardiovascular Outcomes Among Cancer Patients, Purva N. Parab 2020 Virginia Commonwealth University

Development And Validation Of Predictive Risk And Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis Models To Evaluate Cardiovascular Outcomes Among Cancer Patients, Purva N. Parab

Theses and Dissertations

Objective: The objectives of our study were to characterize the study population with cancer and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) both as compared to those without and to build a predictive model using machine learning (ML) algorithms that can predict the risk of CVD in cancer patients. In addition, our objective was also to evaluate characteristics associated with cardiotoxic adverse events of breast cancer therapies and develop a multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) model to conduct benefit-risk assessment of breast cancer therapy regimens. Methods: We used Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) and FDA Adverse Events Reporting System (FAERS) 2005-2015 files along with ...


Multimorbidity, Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Use, And Healthcare Expenditures Among Older Patients With Late-Stage Melanoma, Pragya Rai 2020 West Virginia University

Multimorbidity, Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Use, And Healthcare Expenditures Among Older Patients With Late-Stage Melanoma, Pragya Rai

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

With decades of unchanged cancer care with no added survival benefit, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) changed the treatment landscape of late-stage melanoma in 2011. A key factor in determining the use of ICIs is the presence of pre-existing chronic conditions, which can influence the outcome. However, the prevalence of multimorbidity (defined as presence of two or more chronic conditions) among older patients with late-stage melanoma remains unknown. It also remains unknown if the presence of multimorbidity factors into the use of ICIs. Hospital-related factors associated with ICI use have been studied. Yet, patient-level factors, such as age, sex, marital status ...


Implementation Of A Pharmacist-Driven Prescription Delivery And Home Visitation Service In A Rural Community, Clayton L. Miller, Katie Westgerdes, Michael Rush, Karen L. Kier, Megan Stephan 2019 Ohio Northern University

Implementation Of A Pharmacist-Driven Prescription Delivery And Home Visitation Service In A Rural Community, Clayton L. Miller, Katie Westgerdes, Michael Rush, Karen L. Kier, Megan Stephan

Pharmacy Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


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