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The Presence Of Tetracycline-Resistant Bacteria In A Kean University Campus Soil Sample, Esther Blankson, Jessica Kobilas, Gianna Medeiros 2023 Kean University

The Presence Of Tetracycline-Resistant Bacteria In A Kean University Campus Soil Sample, Esther Blankson, Jessica Kobilas, Gianna Medeiros

Kean Quest

The spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in the environment is a worldwide problem that threatens human health. Bacteria are becoming increasingly resistant to antibiotics as the consumption of antibiotics grows. In particular, soil can be contaminated with bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics. As of today, there is no surveillance system that tracks the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, however, Tufts University aims to change this by implementing the Prevalence of Antibiotic Resistance in the Environment (PARE) project. The course-based PARE project consists of research students sampling soil in diverse locations and reporting the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The purpose of …


Independent Effects Of Hiv And Antiretroviral Therapy On The Oral Microbiome Identified By Multivariate Analyses, Clifford J. Beall, Elizabeth A. Lilly, Carolina Granada, Kelly Treas, Kenneth R. Dubois, Shahr B. Hashmi, Jose A. Vazquez, Michael E. Hagensee, Ann L. Griffen, Eugene J. Leys, Paul L. Fidel 2023 The Ohio State University

Independent Effects Of Hiv And Antiretroviral Therapy On The Oral Microbiome Identified By Multivariate Analyses, Clifford J. Beall, Elizabeth A. Lilly, Carolina Granada, Kelly Treas, Kenneth R. Dubois, Shahr B. Hashmi, Jose A. Vazquez, Michael E. Hagensee, Ann L. Griffen, Eugene J. Leys, Paul L. Fidel

School of Dentistry Faculty Publications

The oral microbiome is an important predictor of health and disease. We recently reported significant yet modest effects of HIV under highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the oral microbiome (bacterial and fungal) in a large cohort of HIV-positive (HIV+) and matched HIV-negative (HIV-) individuals. As it was unclear whether ART added to or masked further effects of HIV on the oral microbiome, the present study aimed to analyze the effects of HIV and ART independently, which also included HIV- subjects on preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) therapy. Cross-sectional analyses of the effect of HIV devoid of ART (HIV+ ART- versus matched …


Exploring The Possible Phenomenon Of Viral Interference Between The Novel Coronavirus And Common Respiratory Viruses, Spencer Deleveaux, Alexandria Clarke-Kregor, Xavier Fonseca-Fuentes, Essam Mekhaiel 2023 Advocate Christ Medical Center, Advocate Health Care

Exploring The Possible Phenomenon Of Viral Interference Between The Novel Coronavirus And Common Respiratory Viruses, Spencer Deleveaux, Alexandria Clarke-Kregor, Xavier Fonseca-Fuentes, Essam Mekhaiel

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

At the peak of the 2021 wave of the SARS-CoV-2 alpha variant in North America, there was concern for a superimposed wave of viral respiratory infections. There was, however, an apparent shift in the usual epidemiology of these pathogens, especially during the traditional influenza season from approximately October 2020 to March 2021. This article seeks to briefly describe the epidemiology of notable respiratory pathogens during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic and to focus on one possible factor for the trends observed. There are many contributory elements to the observed viral trends, but in particular, we present a synopsis …


Benthic Beasts: The Ecological Significance Of Lake Sturgeon And Blue Catfish In Eastern Appalachian Waterways, Stewart Thacker 2023 Lincoln Memorial University

Benthic Beasts: The Ecological Significance Of Lake Sturgeon And Blue Catfish In Eastern Appalachian Waterways, Stewart Thacker

Research Day

East Tennessee freshwater ecosystems comprise an abundance of an extremely diverse selection of species. This presentation examines Acipenser fulvescens and Ictalurus furcatus, two of the largest freshwater fish in the Appalachian area, which play significant ecological roles within the benthic dimension of our freshwater environments. Commonly known as “bottom-feeders,” Benthivorous species enjoy a broad range of food sources including other fish, detritus, crustaceans, and more. The extensive variety of food consumed by A. fulvescens and I. furcatus permits population control of other, denser, aquatic populations inhabiting other regions of the water column, as well as other organisms included …


Facile Green Synthesis Of Cinnamomum Tamala Extract Capped Silver Nanoparticles And Its Biological Applications, Sajina Narath, S. Sharath Shankar, Saranya Kothaplamoottil Sivan, Bini George, T. Dennis Thomas, Sankarannair Sabarinath, Sajithkumar K. Jayaprakash, Stanisław Wacławek, Vinod V.T. Padil 2023 Thomas Jefferson University

Facile Green Synthesis Of Cinnamomum Tamala Extract Capped Silver Nanoparticles And Its Biological Applications, Sajina Narath, S. Sharath Shankar, Saranya Kothaplamoottil Sivan, Bini George, T. Dennis Thomas, Sankarannair Sabarinath, Sajithkumar K. Jayaprakash, Stanisław Wacławek, Vinod V.T. Padil

Department of Medicine Faculty Papers

The plant mediated biogenic synthesis of nanoparticles is of magnificent concern due to its eco-benign and single pot nature. Here, Cinnamomum tamala (C. tamala) aqueous leaf extract was utilised for the silver nanoparticles’ (Ag NPs) synthesis. The phytoconstituents in the leaf extract were analysed by standard methods. These metabolites, especially carbohydrate polymers reduce Ag ions to Ag NPs accompanied by a reddish-brown coloration of the reaction mixture. The visual observation of intense brown colour is the first indication of the formation of Ag NPs. Various spectro-analytical techniques further characterise the Ag NPs. The green synthesised spherical Ag NPs were crystalline …


Moerv14 Mediates The Intracellular Transport Of Cell Membrane Receptors To Govern The Appressorial Formation And Pathogenicity Of Magnaporthe Oryzae, Bin Qian, Xiaotong Su, Ziyuan Ye, Xinyu Liu, Muxing Liu, Haifeng Zhang, Ping Wang, Zhengguang Zhang 2023 Nanjing Agricultural University

Moerv14 Mediates The Intracellular Transport Of Cell Membrane Receptors To Govern The Appressorial Formation And Pathogenicity Of Magnaporthe Oryzae, Bin Qian, Xiaotong Su, Ziyuan Ye, Xinyu Liu, Muxing Liu, Haifeng Zhang, Ping Wang, Zhengguang Zhang

School of Graduate Studies Faculty Publications

Magnaporthe oryzae causes rice blasts posing serious threats to food security worldwide. During infection, M. oryzae utilizes several transmembrane receptor proteins that sense cell surface cues to induce highly specialized infectious structures called appressoria. However, little is known about the mechanisms of intracellular receptor tracking and their function. Here, we described that disrupting the coat protein complex II (COPII) cargo protein MoErv14 severely affects appressorium formation and pathogenicity as the ΔMoerv14 mutant is defective not only in cAMP production but also in the phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) MoPmk1. Studies also showed that either externally supplementing cAMP or …


Prevalence Of Sars-Cov-2 Antibodies In Liberty University Student Population, Emily Bonus 2023 Liberty University

Prevalence Of Sars-Cov-2 Antibodies In Liberty University Student Population, Emily Bonus

Senior Honors Theses

In 2020, the virus SARS-CoV-2 gained attention as it spread around the world. Its antibodies are poorly understood, and little research focuses on those with few COVID-19 complications yet large numbers of close contacts: university students. This longitudinal study recorded SARS-CoV-2 antibody presence in 107 undergraduate Liberty University students twice during early 2021. After extensive data cleaning and the application of various statistical tests and ANOVAs, the data seems to show that in the case of COVID-19 infections, SARS-CoV-2 IgM antibodies are immediately produced, and then IgG antibodies follow later. However, the COVID-19 vaccine causes the production of both IgM …


Modeling The Tripartite Role Of Cyclin C In Cellular Stress Response Coordination, Steven J. Doyle 2023 Rowan University

Modeling The Tripartite Role Of Cyclin C In Cellular Stress Response Coordination, Steven J. Doyle

Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Theses and Dissertations

For normal cellular function, exogenous signals must be interpreted and careful coordination must take place to ensure desired fates are achieved. Mitochondria are key regulatory nodes of cellular fate, undergoing fission/fusion cycles depending on the needs of the cell, and help mediate cell death fates. The CKM or Cdk8 kinase module, is composed of cyclin C (CC), Cdk8, Med12/12L, and Med13/13L. The CKM controls RNA polymerase II, acting as a regulator of stress-response and growth-control genes. Following stress, CC translocates to the mitochondria and interacts with both fission and iRCD apoptotic mediators. We hypothesize that CC represents a key mediator, …


Investigating The Antibacterial And Immunomodulatory Properties Of Lactobacillus Acidophilus Postbiotics, Rachael M. Wilson 2023 Rowan University

Investigating The Antibacterial And Immunomodulatory Properties Of Lactobacillus Acidophilus Postbiotics, Rachael M. Wilson

Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Theses and Dissertations

Probiotics are nonpathogenic microorganisms that have been extensively studied for their ability to prevent various infectious, gastrointestinal, and autoimmune diseases. The mechanisms underlying these probiotic effects have not been elucidated. However, we and other researchers have evidence suggesting that probiotic bacteria secrete metabolites that are antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory. As such, we developed a methodology to collect the secreted metabolites from a probiotic bacterium, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and tested this cell free filtrate (CFF) both in vitro and in vivo. Using this CFF, we have demonstrated that L. acidophilus secretes a molecule(s) that has specific bactericidal activity against the opportunistic pathogen, Pseudomonas …


Decoupling Body Shape And Mass Distribution In Birds And Their Dinosaurian Ancestors, Sophie Macaulay, Tatjana Hoehfurtner, Samuel R.R. Cross, Ryan D. Marek, John R. Hutchinson, Emma R. Schachner, Alice E. Maher, Karl T. Bates 2023 University of Liverpool

Decoupling Body Shape And Mass Distribution In Birds And Their Dinosaurian Ancestors, Sophie Macaulay, Tatjana Hoehfurtner, Samuel R.R. Cross, Ryan D. Marek, John R. Hutchinson, Emma R. Schachner, Alice E. Maher, Karl T. Bates

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

It is accepted that non-avian theropod dinosaurs, with their long muscular tails and small forelimbs, had a centre-of-mass close to the hip, while extant birds, with their reduced tails and enlarged wings have their mass centred more cranially. Transition between these states is considered crucial to two key innovations in the avian locomotor system: crouched bipedalism and powered flight. Here we use image-based models to challenge this dichotomy. Rather than a phylogenetic distinction between ‘dinosaurian’ and ‘avian’ conditions, we find terrestrial versus volant taxa occupy distinct regions of centre-of-mass morphospace consistent with the disparate demands of terrestrial bipedalism and flight. …


Topical Anesthetic Gel Interferes With Antibacterial Efficacy Of Povidone-Iodine Both In Vitro And In Vivo, Cecilly Kelleher BS, Jacob Im MD, Linda Kang BS, Aleksey Mishulin MD, Sukhvinder Singh PhD, Ashok Kumar PhD 2023 Wayne State University School of Medicine

Topical Anesthetic Gel Interferes With Antibacterial Efficacy Of Povidone-Iodine Both In Vitro And In Vivo, Cecilly Kelleher Bs, Jacob Im Md, Linda Kang Bs, Aleksey Mishulin Md, Sukhvinder Singh Phd, Ashok Kumar Phd

Medical Student Research Symposium

Purpose: To evaluate the effects of viscous lidocaine gel on the antimicrobial efficacy of povidone-iodine (PI) and their order of application in both in vitro and in vivo models.

Methods: In vitro antibacterial effects were tested against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) with disc diffusion methods for application of lidocaine alone, PI alone, PI before lidocaine, and lidocaine before PI. Zones of inhibition were measured after incubation at 37°C overnight. Mouse eyes were colonized with S. aureus for in vivo study to which PI and/or lidocaine were applied in various combinations. Eyes were then rinsed with saline, and …


Longitudinal Ultrasound Imaging And Network Modeling In Rats Reveal Sex-Dependent Suppression Of Liver Regeneration After Resection In Alcoholic Liver Disease, Benjamin K. Barnhart, Toshiki Kan, Ankita Srivastava, Corinne E. Wessner, John Waters, Manju Ambelil, John R. Eisenbrey, Jan B. Hoek, Rajanikanth Vadigepalli 2023 Thomas Jefferson University

Longitudinal Ultrasound Imaging And Network Modeling In Rats Reveal Sex-Dependent Suppression Of Liver Regeneration After Resection In Alcoholic Liver Disease, Benjamin K. Barnhart, Toshiki Kan, Ankita Srivastava, Corinne E. Wessner, John Waters, Manju Ambelil, John R. Eisenbrey, Jan B. Hoek, Rajanikanth Vadigepalli

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

Liver resection is an important surgical technique in the treatment of cancers and transplantation. We used ultrasound imaging to study the dynamics of liver regeneration following two-thirds partial hepatectomy (PHx) in male and female rats fed via Lieber-deCarli liquid diet protocol of ethanol or isocaloric control or chow for 5–7 weeks. Ethanol-fed male rats did not recover liver volume to the pre-surgery levels over the course of 2 weeks after surgery. By contrast, ethanol-fed female rats as well as controls of both sexes showed normal volume recovery. Contrary to expectations, transient increases in both portal and hepatic artery blood flow …


Dpc29 Promotes Post-Initiation Mitochondrial Translation In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Kyle A. Hubble, Michael F. Henry 2023 Rowan University

Dpc29 Promotes Post-Initiation Mitochondrial Translation In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Kyle A. Hubble, Michael F. Henry

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

Mitochondrial ribosomes synthesize essential components of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system in a tightly regulated process. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mitochondrial mRNAs require specific translational activators, which orchestrate protein synthesis by recognition of their target gene's 5'-untranslated region (UTR). Most of these yeast genes lack orthologues in mammals, and only one such gene-specific translational activator has been proposed in humans-TACO1. The mechanism by which TACO1 acts is unclear because mammalian mitochondrial mRNAs do not have significant 5'-UTRs, and therefore must promote translation by alternative mechanisms. In this study, we examined the role of the TACO1 orthologue in yeast. We …


Performance Of A Sars-Cov-2 Rt-Pcr Assay With Non-Traditional Specimen Types, Subathra Marimuthu, Holly Aliesky, Heather Ness, Daniya Sheikh, Sathya Rashmit, Dawn Balcom, Leslie A. Wolf 2023 University of Louisville

Performance Of A Sars-Cov-2 Rt-Pcr Assay With Non-Traditional Specimen Types, Subathra Marimuthu, Holly Aliesky, Heather Ness, Daniya Sheikh, Sathya Rashmit, Dawn Balcom, Leslie A. Wolf

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

During the first two years of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, nasopharyngeal (NP) specimens were the gold standard for clinical diagnostic testing. As information about the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causing the pandemic continued to be shared, it was clear that the virus could be detected in other specimen types during an active infection. The University of Louisville Infectious Diseases Laboratory accepted non-traditional specimen types, most without a paired, positive NP result, for research purposes only to support local epidemiology efforts. A real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay originally validated for NP specimens was used …


What? Now A Respiratory Syncytial Virus Epidemic, Aya Allam, Steven B Lippmann 2023 University of Louisville

What? Now A Respiratory Syncytial Virus Epidemic, Aya Allam, Steven B Lippmann

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


Endogenous Mirna-Based Innate-Immunity Against Sars-Cov-2 Invasion Of The Brain, Walter J. Lukiw, Aileen I. Pogue 2023 LSU Health Sciences Center - New Orleans

Endogenous Mirna-Based Innate-Immunity Against Sars-Cov-2 Invasion Of The Brain, Walter J. Lukiw, Aileen I. Pogue

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

The severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19, possesses an unusually large positive-sense, single-stranded viral RNA (ssvRNA) genome of about ~29,903 nucleotides (nt). In many respects, this ssvRNA resembles a very large, polycistronic messenger RNA (mRNA) possessing a 5′-methyl cap (m7GpppN), a 3′- and 5′-untranslated region (3′-UTR, 5′-UTR), and a poly-adenylated (poly-A+) tail. As such, the SARS-CoV-2 ssvRNA is susceptible to targeting by small non-coding RNA (sncRNA) and/or microRNA (miRNA), as well as neutralization and/or inhibition of its infectivity via the human body’s natural complement of about ~2650 miRNA species. Depending on host cell and tissue …


Implementation Of Mrsa Nasal Swabs As An Antimicrobial Stewardship Intervention To Decrease Anti-Mrsa Therapy In Covid-19 Infection, Alaina DeKerlegand, Emily Johnston, Britney Mellor, Melanie Rae Schrack, Catherine O’Neal 2023 Methodist University Hospital Memphis

Implementation Of Mrsa Nasal Swabs As An Antimicrobial Stewardship Intervention To Decrease Anti-Mrsa Therapy In Covid-19 Infection, Alaina Dekerlegand, Emily Johnston, Britney Mellor, Melanie Rae Schrack, Catherine O’Neal

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

In the early stages of treating patients with SARS-CoV-2, limited information was available to guide antimicrobial stewardship interventions. The COVID-19 Task Force and Antimicrobial Stewardship Committee, at a 988-bed academic medical center, implemented the use of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nasal swab polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing to assist with the de-escalation of anti-MRSA therapy in patients with suspected superimposed bacterial pneumonia in COVID-19. A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the impact of MRSA nasal swab PCR testing on the rate of anti-MRSA therapy between 13 April 2020 and 26 July 2020. A total of 122 patients were included …


Investigating Stigma During The Early Stages Of A Pandemic Through The Lens Of Covid-19, Zach Thornton, Bethany Hodge, Sheridan Langford 2023 University of Louisville

Investigating Stigma During The Early Stages Of A Pandemic Through The Lens Of Covid-19, Zach Thornton, Bethany Hodge, Sheridan Langford

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Background: Individuals face stigma associated with numerous health conditions. Stigma can arise rapidly during the early spread of a new disease, adding to the burden felt by those affected. COVID-19 can be used as an example to study stigma during the early phases of a pandemic. This narrative review is a descriptive analysis that tracks the ways in which COVID-19 stigma was discussed in the scholarly literature during the first year of the pandemic to understand how stigma was viewed in the context of a rapidly spreading pandemic.

Methods: PubMed was used as a non-exhaustive sample of the literature. Searches …


Population Genomics Of Australian Indigenous Mesorhizobium Reveals Diverse Nonsymbiotic Genospecies Capable Of Nitrogen-Fixing Symbioses Following Horizontal Gene Transfer, Elena Colombi, Yvette Hill, Rose Lines, John T. Sullivan, Maclean G. Kohlmeier, Claus T. Christophersen, Clive W. Ronson, Jason J. Terpolilli, Joshua P. Ramsay 2023 Edith Cowan University

Population Genomics Of Australian Indigenous Mesorhizobium Reveals Diverse Nonsymbiotic Genospecies Capable Of Nitrogen-Fixing Symbioses Following Horizontal Gene Transfer, Elena Colombi, Yvette Hill, Rose Lines, John T. Sullivan, Maclean G. Kohlmeier, Claus T. Christophersen, Clive W. Ronson, Jason J. Terpolilli, Joshua P. Ramsay

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Mesorhizobia are soil bacteria that establish nitrogen-fixing symbioses with various legumes. Novel symbiotic mesorhizobia frequently evolve following horizontal transfer of symbiosis-gene-carrying integrative and conjugative elements (ICESyms) to indigenous mesorhizobia in soils. Evolved symbionts exhibit a wide range in symbiotic effectiveness, with some fixing nitrogen poorly or not at all. Little is known about the genetic diversity and symbiotic potential of indigenous soil mesorhizobia prior to ICESym acquisition. Here we sequenced genomes of 144 Mesorhizobium spp. strains cultured directly from cultivated and uncultivated Australian soils. Of these, 126 lacked symbiosis genes. The only isolated symbiotic strains were either exotic strains used …


Covid-19 Vaccine Effectiveness In Preventing Severe Infections And Mortality Among Patients In Kerala, India., Surag MK, Sarin S. M, Sarosh Kumar K K, Udaya A 2023 Government Medical College, Kannur

Covid-19 Vaccine Effectiveness In Preventing Severe Infections And Mortality Among Patients In Kerala, India., Surag Mk, Sarin S. M, Sarosh Kumar K K, Udaya A

Digital Journal of Clinical Medicine

ABSTRACT

Background:

India has a top status among world countries, related to the COVID-19 mortality that had crossed the 3-lakh level. The second wave of COVID19 had ravaged the world countries, created havoc of the highest order, leaving many hapless, thanks to the low availability of oxygen, ICU facilities, vaccines and counselling prospects.

There is a lack of information about how COVID-19 vaccines have affected mortality in specific geographic areas.

Method:

A Retrospective record-based design. Patients were matched for age, sex, ethnicity, co-morbidities and grouped into fully immunized, partially immunized and non-immunized.

The primary outcome was in-hospital deaths and secondary …


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